Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:2

Article
The Effect of Spatial Organization on the Sustainability of the Neighborhood Unit in the Residential Environment
اثرالاستدامة والتنظيم الفضائي لوحدة الجيرة في البيئةالسكنية

Authors: ساجدة كاظم الكندي
Pages: 19-38
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Abstract

Contemporary residential neighborhoods suffer from weak sustainability of urban residential environments as a result of the adoption of inefficient spatial organization at the neighborhood unit level. This resulted negative characteristics which affected the achievement of sustainable development plans for the residential environment that constitute the majority of the urban fabric of cities. The physical affordances ,within the vocabulary of recent times,overcame the spiritual ones and affected the residential environment. Accordingly,the concept of space changed in contemporary residential areas through the dominance of the physical aspect (mass) on the symbolic aspect (space).The modern technology occupied an important level being one of the basic features of the era. Therefore, achieving sustainability at the urban level of the residential environment requires an efficient spatial organization which ensures the linking of urban space with the surroundings, and the new services together with the basic ones that need maintenance and rehabilitation. The weak sustainability of the built residential environment constitutes the main research problem. This problem results from the inefficiency of space organization at the neighborhood unit level. The research aims to establish spatial organized mechanisms at the neighborhood unit level that would achieve sustainability through the investment of sustainable factors of traditional residential environment in the planning and design of modern neighborhood,as well as the adoption of human design strategies to raise the efficiency of spatial organization.The research stems for a hypothesis that states (the efficient spatial organization at the neighborhood unit level produces a sustainable urban environment at the level of larger residential neighborhood)

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Article
Initial Collection Efficiency for Glass Filter Media

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Abstract

This study investigated the ability of using crushed glass solid wastes in water filtration by using a pilot plant, constructed in Al-Wathba water treatment plant in Baghdad. Different depths and different grain sizes of crushed glass were used as mono and dual media with sand and porcelaniate in the filtration process. The mathematical model by Tufenkji and Elimelech was used to evaluate the initial collection efficiency η of these filters. The results indicated that the collection efficiency varied inversely with the filtration rate. For the mono media filters the theoretical ηth values were more than the practical values ηprac calculated from the experimental work. In the glass filter ηprac was obtained by multiplying ηth by a factor 0.945 where this factor was 0.714 for the sand filter. All the dual filters showed that ηth was less than ηprac. Whereas the dual filter 35cm porcelanite and 35cm glass showed the highest collection efficiency. To obtain ηprac in the dual filter glass and sand, ηth is multiplied by 1.374, as for the dual filters porcelanite and glass the factor was 1.168 and 1.204.


Article
Adaptive Coded Modulation for OFDM System

Authors: Zainab Mageed Abid --- Serkout N. Abdullah
Pages: 148-162
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Abstract

This paper studies the adaptive coded modulation for coded OFDM system using punctured convolutional code, channel estimation, equalization and SNR estimation. The channel estimation based on block type pilot arrangement is performed by sending pilots at every sub carrier and using this estimation for a specific number of following symbols. Signal to noise ratio is estimated at receiver and then transmitted to the transmitter through feedback channel ,the transmitter according to the estimated SNR select appropriate modulation scheme and coding rate which maintain constant bit error rate lower than the requested BER. Simulation results show that better performance is confirmed for target bit error rate (BER) of (10^-3) as compared to conventional modulation schemes, the convolutional coded modulation offers a SNR gains of 5 dB compared to uncoded state at BER of 10^-3. The proposed adaptive OFDM scheme maintains fixed BER under changing channel conditions.


Article
Flutter Speed Limits of Subsonic Wings

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Abstract

Flutter is a phenomenon resulting from the interaction between aerodynamic and structural dynamic forces and may lead to a destructive instability. The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil combination of two independent degrees of freedom have been determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which have been identified as Theodorsen functions. The theory, being based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing-section theory relating to the steady case. The mechanism of aerodynamic instability has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been analyzed in detail. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter K. The use of finite element modeling technique and unsteady aerodynamic modeling with the V-G method for flutter speed prediction was used on a fixed rectangular and tapered wing to determine the flutter speed boundaries. To build the wing the Ansys 5.4 program was used and the extract values were substituted in the Matlab program which is designed to determine the flutter speed and then predicted the various effects on flutter speed. The program gave us approximately identical results to the results of the referred researches. The following wing design parameters were investigated skin shell thickness, material properties, cross section area for beams, and changing altitude. Results of these calculations indicate that structural mode shape variation plays a significant role in the determination of wing flutter boundary.

Keywords

Flutter --- V-g Method --- Wings


Article
Axial Fan Bearing System Vibration Analysis

Authors: wafa Abd Soud --- Muawafak A Tawfik --- Assim H Yousif
Pages: 184-202
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Abstract

Rotating fan shaft system was investigated experimentally and theoretically to study its dynamic performance. The type of oil used for the bearing was taken in consideration during the experimental program .Three types of oil were used, SAE 40, SAE 50 and degraded oil. During the experiments, the fan blades stagger angle was changed through angles (20˚, 30˚, 40˚, and 50˚). The shaft rotational speed also changed in the range of (0-3000 rpm). All these parameters have investigated for two cases (balanced and unbalanced fan). The performance parameters of the fan were found experimentally by measuring the fan, volume flow rate, Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, efficiency and pressure head. Analytical part was also represented to prepare the prediction of fan system dynamic performance. The aerodynamic forces and moments of each blade were also predicted to obtain the rotor dynamic future. Experimentally and theoretically the critical fan speed was obtained in the x and y direction for different lubricant oil viscosities and shaft rotational velocities for balanced and unbalanced fan. Analysis of the vibrational response gave important information about the dynamic performance of fan rotating system. Acceptable agreement was found between analytical and experimental results.

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Article
Experimental Investigation of Individual Evacuated Tube Heat Pipe Solar Water Heating Systems

Authors: Hassan N. S. Al-Joboory --- Khalid A. Joudi
Pages: 203-222
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Abstract

The work involves outdoor experimental testing of ten individual evacuated tube heat pipe solar water heating systems with heat pipes of three diameter groups of 16, 22 and 28.5 mm. The first and third groups had evaporator lengths of 1150, 1300 and 1550 mm. The second group had an additional length of 1800 mm. all heat pipes were of fixed condenser length of 200 mm. Ethanol at 50% fill charge ratio of the evaporator volume was used as the heat pipes working fluid. Each heat pipe condenser section was inserted in a storage tank and the evaporator section inserted into an evacuated glass tube of the Owens- Illinois type. The combined heat pipe and evacuated glass tube form an active solar collector of a unique design. The resulting ten solar water heating systems were tested outdoors under the meteorological conditions of Baghdad, Iraq. Experiments were carried out with no load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Some tests, at no load, were carried out with and without reflectors. The overall system efficiency was found to improve with load conditions by a maximum of 55%. The system employing an 1800 mm evaporator length and 22 mm heat pipe (HP7) showed the best performance by higher water temperatures, overall useful energy gain and efficiency at various load conditions. System performance was predicted theoretically using electrical analogy derived from an energy balance. An agreement of within 14% was obtained between theoretical and experimental values.


Article
Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Plane Wall to Thermally Stratified Environment

Authors: Naseem K. Ali --- Ihsan Y. Hussain
Pages: 223-238
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Abstract

The effect of linear thermal stratification in stable stationary ambient fluid on free convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a plane wall is numerically investigated in the present work. The governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy are solved numerically using finite difference method with Alternating Direct implicit Scheme. The velocity, temperature distributions and the Nusselt number are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and presented through graphs. ANSYS program also used to solve the problem. The results show that the effect of stratification parameter is marginalized with the increase in Prandtl number, and the increase in Grashof number does not practically vary the effect of stratification parameter.


Article
System Identification Algorithm for Systems with Interval Coefficients

Authors: Mustaffa Mohammed Basil
Pages: 239-246
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Abstract

In this research a new system identification algorithm is presented for obtaining an optimal set of mathematical models for system with perturbed coefficients, then this algorithm is applied practically by an “On Line System Identification Circuit”, based on real time speed response data of a permanent magnet DC motor. Such set of mathematical models represents the physical plant against all variation which may exist in its parameters, and forms a strong mathematical foundation for stability and performance analysis in control theory problems.


Article
Experimental Study for a Laminar Natural Convection Heat Transfer From an Isothermal Heated Square Plate With and Without Circular Hole

Authors: Wassan N. Matti --- Ikhlase M. Fayed
Pages: 247-266
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Abstract

An experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal, vertical and inclined heated square flat plates with and without circular hole, were carried out in two cases, perforated plates without an impermeable adiabatic hole "open core" and perforated plates with an impermeable adiabatic hole "closed core" by adiabatic plug. The experiments covered the laminar region with a range of Rayleih number of (1.11x10^6≤RaLo≤4.39x10^6), at Prandtle number (Pr=0.7). Practical experiments have been done with variable inclination angles from horizon (Ф=0°,45°,90°,135° and 180°), facing upward (0°≤Ф<90°), and downward (90°≤Ф<180°). The results showed that the temperature gradient increases while the thermal boundary layer thickness decreases when Grashof number and perforation ratio (m) increase . The temperature gradient for inclined position facing upward is less than facing downward, while the thermal boundary layer thickness is greater. The temperature gradient decreases while the thermal boundary layer thickness increases for perforated plates with an adiabatic core as compared with perforated plates without an adiabatic core. The value of average Nusselt number increases with increasing perforation ratio, and Grashof number for all specimens with and without an adiabatic core, also increases by increase in inclination of plates approaching the higher value at vertical position (Ф=90°), then decreases with increasing inclination of plates till horizontal position (Ф=180°). The average Nusselt number values for perforated plates with an adiabatic core are lower than for perforated plates without an adiabatic core for all perforation ratios. Maximum heat transfer rate occurs at perforated plate with perforation ratio of (m=0.1) without adiabatic core for vertical position (Ф=90°), at a range of Grashof number (1.576x10^6≤GrLo≤6.292x10^6), while the rate of heat transfer decreases with increasing perforation ratio for plates with and without adiabatic core for decrease in heat transfer rate area. The rate of heat transfer for perforated plates with circular hole is more than for perforated plates with square hole at the same perforation ratios (m=0.1,0.16,0.24 and 0.36). It found that the lack of core flow decreases the overall heat transfer rate by (6.477%) . There was a good agreement for the experimental present work results compared with other pervious results


Article
Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Laminated Plates Using HOST 12

Authors: Salam Ahmed Abed --- Adnan N. Jameel
Pages: 267-279
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Abstract

This paper presents an application of a Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory (HOST 12) to problem of free vibration of simply supported symmetric and antisymmetric angle-ply composite laminated plates. The theoretical model HOST12 presented incorporates laminate deformations which account for the effects of transverse shear deformation, transverse normal strain/stress and a nonlinear variation of in-plane displacements with respect to the thickness coordinate – thus modeling the warping of transverse cross-sections more accurately and eliminating the need for shear correction coefficients. Solutions are obtained in closed-form using Navier’s technique by solving the eigenvalue equation. Plates with varying number of layers, degrees of anisotropy and slenderness ratios are considered for analysis. The results compared with those from exact analysis and various theories from references

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