Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2010 volume:7 issue:3

Article
Effect of vibrio cholerae enterotoxin on phagocytosis in vitro
دراسة تأثير الذيفان المعوي (Enterotoxin) المنتج من بكتريا Vibrio cholerae على عملية البلعمة خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

Enterotoxin of Vibrio cholerae was extracted by cooling centrifuge at 6.000 rpm for 30 minntes. and filtrated by using milipore filter (0.22 μm). The effect of crude enterotoxin on phagocytosis was studied by measuring the phagocytic index for 20 blood sample which were collected from healthy people and treated with enterotoxin in addition to control samples. From the results we found that phagocytic index of blood sample which were treated with enterotoxin was 42.9% while the phagocytic index of control blood samples was 64%. This means that there is a negative effect for the enterotoxin resulted from vibrio choleaa on the activity of phagocytic index.


Article
Effect of Some predisposing factors on Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
تأثير بعض العوامل المهيأة للإصابة بداء المبيضات المهبلي

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Abstract

The predisposing factors and their effect on the increasing of vulvovaginal Candidiasis have been studied in this research. The result indicated that the highest of infection with vaginal Candidias was in the age of women with age of (21-30years) with vaginal itching and discharge, also the results revealed that the pregnancy was the main predisposing factor. The percentage of the infected pregnant Ladies was 33.7% followed by the women who used the IUCD and OCP 22.1%, those who used steroids 5.2% comparing with control women (without predisposing factors).The results also indicated that the most cases of infection were during the third trimester of pregnancy (where the rate of infedion) was 53.9%. -OCP- Oral Contraceptive Pills -IUCD- Intrra Uterine Contraceptive Device


Article
Effect of Time Factor, Molybdenum and Potassium on Rhizobium Growth in the Soil
تأثير عامل الزمن والمولبدنم والبوتاسيوم في نمو البكتريا العقدية في تربة الجادرية المعقمة

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An experiment was carried out to study the effects of Time Factor, potassium and Molybdenum on Rhizobium growth. The objective of the experiment, which conducted under laboratory conditions, was to investigate the interaction effects of using three levels of Molybdenum (0, 0.25, 2.50 mg Mo . Kg-1 sterile soil) and four levels of potassium (0, 25, 50, 100 mg K . Kg-1 sterile soil) on the viable counts of Rhizobium growth in the sterile soil after 3, 9, 15 and 21 days of incubation at 28°C. The results indicated that Molybdenum level 2.50 mg Mo . Kg-1 sterile soil and potassium level 50 mg K . Kg-1 sterile soil recorded the biggest significant increase in the viable counts of Rhizobium growth in the sterile soil especially after 15 days of incubation at 28°C which got 49.2 × 108 cell.gm-1 dry soil.


Article
Mating Competitiveness and Flight Ability of Sterile Males of Cucurbits Fruit Fly Dacus ciliatus ((Loew)(Diptera:Tefritidae)
التنافس ألتزاوجي وقابلية الطيران للذكور العقيمة لذبابة ثمار القرعيات Dacus ciliatus ((Loew) (Diptera:Tefritidae)

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Adult males of cucurbits fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Loew) emerged from 7 days old pupae that were irradiated with 100 Gray , showed good competitiveness value when released with unirradiated males and females in ratios of 3 : 1: 1 and 5 :1 :1 (irradiated males: unirradiated males : unirradiated females) and high competitiveness value at ratios of 7 :1 :1 and 9 :1 :1 . While males emerged from 120 Gray irradiated pupae showed good competitiveness value at ratios of 7 :1 :1 and 9 :1 :1. The results of measuring the flight ability index of flies emerged from 7 days old irradiated pupae showed that irradiation with 80, 100 and 120 Gray by different doses of Gamma rays was significantly decreased at 200 Gray.


Article
Extraction and Characterization of rapeseed oil (Brassca campestris ) and it's Effected on Microorganisms
استخلاص و توصيف زيت بذور نبات الشلغم Brassca campestris وتأثيره في بعض الاحياء الجهرية

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Oil from Brassca campestris (local variety) was extracted with hexane using Soxhlet. The extracted oil was characterized and its antimicrobial activity was determined as well. The content of extracted oil was 40% with 0.5% of volatile oil .Oil was immiscible with polar solvent such as ethanol, acetone and water, while it was easily miscible with chloroform due to its hydrophobicity. The result of organoleptic tests revealed that the oil is clear yellow in color and odorless with acceptable taste. The oil was stable at 4 -25 C˚ for a month. Refractive index (RI) of oil was 1.4723 with density of 0.914, [both at 4-25 C˚]. Boiling point 386 C˚. Infra red spectroscopy (IR) indicated the presence of different chemical groups (C=C , C=O ، C-H) with different characters .Oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteripa in addition to its activity against Candida albicans .


Article
Influence of Indole acetic acid and Tryptophan on production of Vinblastine and Vincristine of Catharanthus roseous callus cells in the accumulation media of In Vitro tissue culture
تأثير الأندول أسيتك أسد و التربتوفان في أنتاج مركبي الفانكرستين والفانبلاستين من خلايا كالس نبات عين البزون Catharanthus roseous في الوسط التراكمي لزراعة الأنسجة خارج الجسم الحي In Vitro .

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Abstract

This study on the plant of Ain –AL Bason Catharanthus roseous showed the ability of callus cells that is produced by In Vitro culture technique and transformed to the accumulated media (MS 40gm/L sucrose ,2gm/L IAA Indole acetic acid , 0.5gm/L Tryptophan) to produce Vinblastine and Vincristine compounds. Extraction, purification and quantitive determination of Vinblastine and Vincristine compounds using High performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC)were carried out. The results showed that the highest concentration of Vinblastine and Vincristine compounds were ( 4.653,12.5 (ppm /0.5 dry Wight respectively from transformed callus cells from MS 40 gm /L sucrose , 2 gm / L NAA Naphthaline acetic acid .


Article
Design and Testing a Neutrons and Gamma-Rays Multilayer Shield Using Different Groups of Cross – Sections
تصميم واختبار درع واقي لكل من النيوترونات واشعة كاما متعدد الطبقات باستخدام مجموعات مختلفة من المقاطع العرضية

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A preventing shield for neutrons and gamma rays was designed using alternate layers of water and iron with pre-fixed dimensions in order to study the possibility of attenuating both neutrons and gamma-rays. ANISN CODE was prepared and adapted for the shield calculation using radiation doses calculation: Two groups of cross-section were used for each of neutrons and gamma-rays that rely on the one – dimensional transport equation using discrete ordinate's method, and through transforming cross-section values to values that are independent on the number of groups. The memory size required for the applied code was reduced and the results obtained were in agreement with those of standard acceptable document samples of cross –section, this assists the possibility of using this program for calculation of shields and adopting the shield design shield in this research for shielding from neutron and gamma-rays because the calculation of this designed proved the possibility of efficient attenuation of both of these kinds of radiations through from this theoritical study.


Article
Design of six electrode Enzial electrostatic lens low aberrations for electron gun
تصميم عدسة كهروستاتيكية احادية الجهد سداسية الاقطابذات زيوغ قليلة لقاذف الكتروني

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A computerized investigation has been carried out on the design of six electrodes electrostatic lenses used in electron gun application. The Finite-Element Method (FEM) was used in the solution of Laplace equation for determine the axial potential distribution. The electron trajectory under zero magnification condition. The optical properties, spherical and chromatic aberrations, the object and image focal length and object and image position are calculated. A very good futures for the electron gun with these lenses have been computed where are a beam current of 8.7*10-7A can be supplied using cathode tip of radius 10nm.


Article
Effect of Partial Coherence illuminated bar on evaluation technique of diffraction image
تاثير اضاءة التشاكه الجزئي لشق في تقييم تقنية صورة الحيود

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In this work, we are obviously interested in a general solution for the calculation of the image of a single bar in partially coherent illumination. The solution is based on the theory of Hopkins for the formation of images in optical instruments in which it was shown that for all practical cases, the illumination of the object may be considered as due to a self – luminous source placed at the exit pupil of the condenser , and the diffraction integral describing the intensity distribution in the image of a single bar – as an object with half – width (U0 = 8 ) and circular aperture geometry is viewed , which by suitable choice of the coherence parameters (S=0.25,1.0.4.0) can be fitted to the observed distribution in various types of microscope , the aberration were restricted to defocusing and coma upto third – order , the method of integration was Gauss quadrature: The necessary set of integration depends , of course , on the amount of present aberrations and had to be chosen (20) points of Gauss which decrease the computation time to few seconds: The aberration free systems corresponding to the paraxial receiving plane (W20= 0.0) is especially interesting as it predicts diffraction pattern shape. The influence of defocusing is very pronounced and relatively distorts the object , the influence of the off – axis aberration (third – order coma ), in which it was shown that for the high peaks in the images are most noticeable in the region of almost perfect coherence (S=0.25). As (S) is increased from (0.25) to (1.0) there is a pronounced redistribution of intensity, with peaks moving from one side of the image to the other. Calculations were also performed for systems having spherical aberration, but the results are qualitatively similar to an aberration – free defocused system and are omitted, so we will not present any numerical results. A computer program was written in FORTRAN 77 which solved the modified intensity distribution of Hopkins for(U´) dimensionless distance. The advantage of that additional work on this class of problems to investigate the development of more efficient numerical methods, also the reduction in computation time to few seconds for data runs for individual curves of intensity.


Article
Studying the effect of annealing on some electrical and optical properties for thin CdS , CdS:In films
دراسة تأثير التلدين في بعض الخصائص التركيبية والبصرية لاغشية CdS , CdS:In

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In the present work we prepared heterojunction not homogenous CdS/:In/Cu2S) by spray and displacement methods on glass substrate , CdS:In films prepared by different impurities constration. Cu2S prepared by chemical displacement method to improve the junction properties , structural and optical properties of the deposited films was achieved . The study shows that the film polycrystalline by XRD result for all film and the energy gap was direct to 2.38 eV with no effect on this value by impurities at this constration .


Article
Calculation the number buildup factor of cylindrical samples for Brass, Copper & lead
حساب عامل التراكم العددي لعينات اسطوانية من البراص ,النحاس والرصاص

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The buildup factor of cylindrical samples (shields) for Brass, Copper & lead (Brass, Cu, Pb (was studied, where buildup factor were calculated with thickness between (0-12) m.f.p. for Co60 and Cs137sources with activities (30) & (41) MBq respectively , using scintillation detector NaI(Tℓ) with (3"×3")volume .The results shows increases of buildup factor for low atomic number(Z) samples where the energy of radiation source was constant, also shows increases of buildup factor with decreases the energy of radiation source. An empirical equation was obtained using Matlab7 program this equation have agreements with most obtained data for 96%.


Article
Effect of some species of bacteria on viability of human hydatid cysts
تأثير بعض الأنواع البكتيرية في حيوية الأكياس العدرية في الإنسان

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A total of 50 fertile human hydatid cases {33(66%) females and (34%) males}, obtained from Al-Ramadi public Hospital during the period from December 2003 to July 2004 were examined to study any bacterial infections. The specimens were obtained from hydatid fluid and then cultured on appropriate culture media to distinguish some species of bacteria which resulted in obtaining: Staphylococcus aureus (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(12%), Escherichia coli(6%) and Streptococcus pneumonia (4%). These bacteria were confirmed by isolation from interacyst fluid and blood culture technique. The possible routs of infection may be through blood, biliary ducts and bronchioles .The selectivity permeable of the cyst wall may be absent and that may allow some species of bacteria to enter inside the cyst. Further, the percent viability decreased among cyst which yielded S. aureus , P. aeruginosa and other bacteria isolated after culturing compared with those of negative culture .Besides, the two types of protoscoleces motilities (flame cell activity and constriction –relaxation movement )increased in cases of negative culture .This association holds true at three different temperature (25ºC,37ºC and 40ºC).


Article
Antibacterial activity of ginger extracts and its essential oil on some of pathogenic bacteria
الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لمستخلصات الزنجبيل وزيته العطري في بعض البكتريا الممرضة

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The antimicrobial activity of ginger extracts ( cold-water, hot-water, ethanolic and essential oil ) against some of pathogenic bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella sp , Klebsiella sp , Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus sp) was investigated using Disc diffusion method , and the results were compared with the antimicrobial activity of 12 antibiotics on the same bacteria . The results showed that the ginger extracts were more effective on gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative . V. cholerae and S. marcescens,were the most resistant bacteria to the extracts used , while highest inhibition was noticed against Streptococcus sp (28 mm) . The ethanolic extract showed the broadest antibacterial activity ( 11 to 28 mm ) , in comparison with moderate activity of essential oil , it was observed that the cold-water extract was more effective on the bacteria than hot-water extract . Ginger ethanolic extract presented higher diameter of inhibition zone for Streptococcus sp than in Ciprofloxacin , Cefotaxime , Cefalotin , Cephalexin and Cephaloridine , also it was found a similarity between the higher inhibition zones of ethanolic extract of ginger and some antibiotics for S. aureus , E. coli , Salmonella sp and Klebsiella sp . V. cholerae and S. marcescens,also highly resistant to antibiotics . Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of ginger revealed the present of glycosides, terpenoids, flavonids and phenolic compounds


Article
Chemotherapy Effects on the Activities of Some Purine Metabolic Enzymes in Sera of Ovarian Cancer Patients
تأثير العلاج الكيميائي في فعاليات بعض إنزيمات أيض البيورين في مصول المصابات بسرطان المبيض

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Adenosine deaminase (ADA; Ec: 3.5.4.4), 5´- Nucleotidase (5´– NT; Ec: 3.1.3.5), and AMP – amino hydrolase (AMP – deaminase AMPDA; Ec: 3.5.4.6) activities were measured in sera of ovarian cancer patients before surgery, and after chemotherapy. The results indicated that ADA specific activity increased significantly (P<0.05), while 5´-NT and AMPDA specific activity decreased significantly (P<0.05) in ovarian cancer patients before surgery in comparison with those of their corresponding control women and benign tumors groups. When the activities of these enzymes were measured after chemotherapy, a significant decrease (P<0.05) in ADA activity, and a significant increase (P<0.05) in 5´- NT and AMPDA activities were found in comparison with those before surgery.


Article
The susceptibility test of vaginal yeasts and their relationship with the age in Iraqi women
اختبار الحساسية للخمائر المهبلية وعلاقتها بالعمر في النساء العراقيات

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This study aims to isolate the pathogenic yeasts from genital tract and investigate their relationship with the age .The results clarified that the most pathogenic yeast isolated from genital tract was Candida albicans , also the results of C.albicanas isolates susceptibility test, to different antifungal revealed that they were sensitive to Miconazole, Ketoconazole and Clotrimazol and were resistant to Nystatin and Grisofulvin. The study of relationship of vaginal infection with the age showed that the incidence of infection with Candida was high among females age group (19-39 years).


Article
Detection of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in serum from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion
التحري عن الحركيات الخلوية (8،6) في مصول النساء ذوات الاجهاضات العفوية المتكرره

Authors: Rana S . Aboud رنا سعدي عبود
Pages: 1181-1186
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To investigate the role of IL-6 and IL-8 in the immune-regulatory mechanisms involved in the recurrent spontaneous abortion of the first trimester of pregnancy. Serum level of IL-6 and IL-8 were determined in 25 women of age (20-35) years who had a spontaneous abortion of unknown aetiology during the first trimester of pregnancy .They were compared with the corresponding levels of 20 pregnant and non-pregnant women as control groups .cytokine levels were measured by (ELISA) technique .The women with spontaneous abortion had highly significant (P < 0.01) increased serum level of IL-8 and highly significant (P < 0.01 ) decreased level of IL-6 compared to those with normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. The results of this study may be related to the underlying aetiopathogenetic mechanisms , however , There is sufficient evidence for their use as predictive markers of pregnancy outcome.


Article
Porosity Measurements of Positive of Lead-Acid Battery Plates by Mercury PSorosimetry
قياسات المسامية لألواح نضيدة الرصاص الموجبة بطريقة مقياس المسامية الزئبقية

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A mercury porosimeter has been used to measure the intrusion volume of the three types mercury positive lead acid-battery plates. The intrusion volumes were used to calculate the pore diameter, pore volume, pore area, and pore size distribution. The variation of the pore area in positive lead acid-battery plates as well as of the pore volume has the following sequence. Paste positive > Uncured positive > Cured positive


Article
Removal of Zinc ions from industrial wastewater with wool fibers
ازالة ايونات الخارصين من مياه المجاري الصناعية بواسطة الياف الصوف

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In this research, the efficiency of low-cost unmodified wool fibers were used to remove zinc ion from industrial wastewater. Removal of zinc ion was achieved at 99.52% by using simple wool column. The experiment was carried out under varying conditions of (2h) contact time, metal ion concentration (50mg/l), wool fibers quantity to treated water (70g/l), pH(7) & acid concentration (0.05M). The aim of this method is to use a high sensitive, available & cheep natural material which applied successfully for industrial wastewater& synthetic water, where zinc ion concentration was reduced from (14.6mg/l) to (0.07mg/l) & consequently the hazardous effect of contamination was minimized.


Article
Synthesis,Structural and Biological studies of 4-[(1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-3-pyrozoline-5-one)azo]-N,N-dimethyl anline with some transition metal ions
تحضير ودراسة كلاً من تراكيب و الفعالية البايولوجية لـ4-](1-فنيل-2و3-ثنائي المثيل-3- بايروزولين-5-أون)أزو[-N,N-ثنائي مثيل- أنيلين مع بعض أيونات العناصر الانتقالية

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The present work includes the preparation and characterization of{Co(II) , Ni(II), Pd(II), Fe(III) , Ru(III),Rh(III), Os(III) , Ir(III) , Pt(IV) and VO(IV)}complexes of a new ligand 4-[(1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-3-pyrozoline-5-one)azo]-N,N-dimethylanline (PAD). The product (PAD) was isolated,studies and characterized by phsical measurements,i.e., (FT-IR), (UV) Spectroscopy and elemental analysis(C.H.N). The prepared complexes were identified and their structural geometric were suggested in solid state by using flame atomic absorption, elemental analysis(C.H.N), (FT-IR) and (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy, as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements . The study of the nature of the complexes formed in( ethanolic solution) following the mole ratio method,gave results which were compared successfully with those obtained from solid state studies. The apparent stability constant of the complexes have been studied with the time and their color were stable for more than ( 6 ) hours , as well as the molar absorptivities have been calculated.The antibacterial activity for the ligand (PAD) and their metal complexes were studied against two selected micro - organisms [(Klesbiella pneumonia) as gram negative] and[( Streptococcus faecalis) as gram positive]. Further more the antifungl activity against two micro-organism (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) were studied for the ligand (PAD) and their metal complexes .


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Metal Complexes of α-Aminonitriles Derived from P- Toluidine and Aromatic Aldehydes
تحضير وتشخيص معقدات فلزية جديدة لألفا – امينو نتريل مشتقةمن باراتولودين مع الالديهايدات الأروماتية

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New metal complexes of some transition metal ions Co(II), Cu(II) , Cd(II) and Zn(II) were prepared by their reaction with previously prepared ligands HLI= (P-methyl anilino) phenyl acetonitrile and HLII = (P-methyl anilino) –P– chloro phenyl acetonitrile . The two ligands were prepared by Strecker’s procedure which includ the reaction of p- toluidine with benzaldehyde and P- chlorobenzaldehyde respectively. Structures were proposed depending on atomic absorption , i.r. and u.v.visible spectra in addition to magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity measurements.


Article
Design and Implementation for optical fiber communication system using frequency shift coding
تصميم وبناء منظومة ترميز في انظمة اتصالات الالياف البصرية باستخدام تقنية ازاحة التردد

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In this research, optical communication coding systems are designed and constructed by utilizing Frequency Shift Code (FSC) technique. Calculations of the system quality represented by signal to noise ratio (S/N), Bit Error Rate (BER),and Power budget are done. In FSC system, the data of Nonreturn- to–zero (NRZ ) with bit rate at 190 kb/s was entered into FSC encoder circuit in transmitter unit. This data modulates the laser source HFCT-5205 with wavelength at 1310 nm by Intensity Modulation (IM) method, then this data is transferred through Single Mode (SM) optical fiber. The recovery of the NRZ is achieved using decoder circuit in receiver unit. The calculations of BER and S/N for FSC system at maximum fiber length at 61.2 km equal to 2.30551×10-12, 47.88526 dB respectively. The power budget for FSC system was calculated to be 29 dB. Results show that the BER increases when the received optical power decreases the due to increase of the optical fiber length61.2 km. while S/N decreases. The optical power budget increases as the transmitted optical power increases.


Article
The Effects of  – Rays on The Optical Constants of ZnS Thin Films
تأثير أشعة كاما على الثوابت البصرية لأغشية كبريتيد الخارصين الرقيقة

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ZnS thin films were grown onto glass substrates by flash evaporation technique, the effects of  – rays on the optical constants of ZnS these films were studied. It was found that  – rays affected all the parameters under investigation.


Article
Effect of Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Corrosion Behavior for Biotype 316L SS Used in Orthopaedic Applications
تاثير الطلاء بمركب الاحيا- سيراميك على سلوك التاكل لسبيكة الفولاذ المستخدمة في حقل جراحة ا لعظام

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Electrochemical corrosion of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coated performance depends on various parameters like applied potential, time, thickness and sintering temperature. Thus, the optimum parameters required for the development of stable HAP coatings was found by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. This study discusses the results obtained from open circuit potential-time measurements (OCP-time), potentiodynamic polarisation and immersion tests for all alloy samples done under varying experimental conditions, so that the optimum coating parameters can be established. The ageing studies of the coated samples were carried out by immersing them in Ringer’s solution for a period of 30 days indicates the importance of stable HAP coatings to prevent corrosion on the substrate material, so that enhancement to the biocompatibility will be increased.


Article
Measuring the effect of cell mismatch on PSPICE module model output
قياس تـأثير عدم تماثل الخلية الشمسية في مخارج PSPICE موديل للوح الشمسي

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This research presents a theoretical method to calculate the mismatch factor for the PV module. Within this study the effect of mismatch on I-V and P-V of the module is observed. In practice, the PV panel module consists of 36 cells connected in series part that is built into PSPICE (from previous work) is used for this study. The PV modules are wired in a long series string in most of PV applications; the performance will be disproportionately limited by any one module that is not producing as much power. Fortunately, by changing the system configuration it is possible to isolate losses so that entire arrays are not affected by poor performance in one module. So, in this work the mismatch effect has been tested for series and parallel wiring of the modules, the parallel configuration produced significantly the same power as mismatch arises on the array.

Keywords

PV --- mismatch --- PSPICE


Article
The effect of solar cells distribution on the Performance of solar panel
تاثير توزيع الخلايا الشمسيه على اداء اللوح الشمسي

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Three different distribution modules of silicon solar cells in a panel are used in this study . Each module consists of five identical circular silicon solar cells of radius (5cm) and then the total panel areas are identical. The five solar cells are arranged in the panel in different shapes: circular, triangular and rectangular .The efficiency for these three panel distribution are measured indoor and outdoor. The results show that the efficiency is a function of the cells distribution.


Article
Statistical Model for Polarization Mode Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers
نموذج إحصائي لتشتت نمط الاستقطاب في الأليــاف منــفردة النمط

Authors: Hassan Abid Yasser حسن عبد ياسر
Pages: 1254-1265
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Abstract

As the bit rate of fiber optic transmission systems is increased to more than , the system will suffer from an important random phenomena, which is called polarization mode dispersion. This phenomenon contributes effectively to: increasing pulse width, power decreasing, time jittering, and shape distortion. The time jittering means that the pulse center will shift to left or right. So that, time jittering leads to interference between neighboring pulses. On the other hand, increasing bit period will prevent the possibility of sending high rates. In this paper, an accurate mathematical analysis to increase the rates of transmission, which contain all physical random variables that contribute to determine the transmission rates, is presented. Thereafter, new mathematical expressions for: pulse power, peak power, time jittering, pulse width, and power penalty are derived. On the basis of these formulas, one can choose a certain operating values to reduce or prevent the effects of polarization mode dispersion.

Keywords

PMD --- statistics --- SOP --- PSP --- Jones & Stokes spaces --- transmission.


Article
Composition operator induced by φ(z) = sz + t for which |s|≤1, |t|<1 and |s|+|t|≤1
المؤثر التركيبي المتولد بالدالة φ(z) = sz + t لكل |s|≤1, |t|<1 و |s|+|t|≤1

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We study in this paper the composition operator that is induced by φ(z) = sz + t. We give a characterization of the adjoint of composiotion operators generated by self-maps of the unit ball of form φ(z) = sz + t for which |s|≤1, |t|<1 and |s|+|t|≤1. In fact we prove that the adjoint is a product of toeplitz operators and composition operator. Also, we have studied the compactness of Cφ and give some other partial results.


Article
Volterra Runge- Kutta Methods for Solving Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equations
طرق فولتيرا رانجا-كوتا لحل معادلات فولتيرا التكاملية اللاخطية

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In this paper Volterra Runge-Kutta methods which include: method of order two and four will be applied to general nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Moreover we study the convergent of the algorithms of Volterra Runge-Kutta methods. Finally, programs for each method are written in MATLAB language and a comparison between the two types has been made depending on the least square errors.


Article
The Composition operator on hardy space H2 Induced by φ(z)=sz+t where , and
المؤثر التركيبي على فضاء هاردي المحتث من الدالة و , عندما φ(z)=sz+t

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Abstract

We study in this paper the composition operator of induced by the function φ(z)=sz+t where , and We characterize the normal composition operator Cφ on Hardy space H2 and other related classes of operators. In addition to that we study the essential normality of Cφ and give some other partial results which are new to the best of our knowledge.


Article
Quasi-posinormal operators
المؤثرات الشبه السوية الموجبة

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Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a class of operators on a Hilbert space namely quasi-posinormal operators that contain properly the classes of normal operator, hyponormal operators, M–hyponormal operators, dominant operators and posinormal operators . We study some basic properties of these operators .Also we are looking at the relationship between invertibility operator and quasi-posinormal operator .

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