Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2010 volume:7 issue:عدد خاص بمؤتمر العلمي النسوي 1

Article
Determination of Uranium Concentration in child teeth by track detector CR-39 for middle and south of Iraq
قياس تركيز اليورانيوم في نماذج أسنان الاطفال(الاناث) بأستخدام كاشف الاثر العضوي CR-39 لبعض المناطق الوسطى والجنوبية من العراق

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Abstract

The study of determing concentration uranium in samples of female teeth. Concentrations of uranium has measured in this study for (10) samples of female teeth distributed on the some of middle and south governorate of Iraq (Muthana – Dekar – Basrah – Najaf – Karbalah – Waset – Babel – Baghdad) . The uranium concentration in teeth samples measured by using fission tracks registration in (CR-39) track detector that caused by the bombardment of (U) with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source that has flux of (5x103n.cm-2s-1). The concentrations values were calculated by a compartion with standard samples. The results that the uranium concentrations in female teeth are(0.022) ,(0.038) ,(0.056) , (0.089),(0.15),(0.15),(0.169),(0.17) Pmm respectively. As a conclusion from the study of uranium concentration in Muthana governorate is higher than Dekar and Basrah , Najaf , Karbalah, Waset , Babel and last Baghdad .).


Article
Calculate the one – expectation to electronic charge of atomic system contiun two electron
حساب القيمة المتوقعة لشحنة الالكترون للانظمة الذرية ذات الالكترونين في فضاء المكان

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to calculate the one- electron expectation value of the electronic charge of atomic system Z=2,3….7 and we compare with He atom . the electronic density function D(r1) of He atom and like ions are evaluated . using Hartree –Fock wave.


Article
Optical properties of CdO thin films
دراسة الخواص البصرية لاغشية CdO

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Abstract

Cadmium Oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique at different temperatures (300,350,400, 500)oC. The optical properties of the films were studied in this work. The optical band-gap was determined from absorption spectra, it was found that the optical band-gap was within the range of (2.5-2.56)eV also width of localized states and another optical properties.

Keywords


Article
Determination the concentration for uranium in phosphrous fertilizers by using nuclear track detector CR-39
حساب تراكيز اليورانيوم في الأسمدة الفوسفاتية باستعمال كاشف الاثر النووي CR-39

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the concentrations of Uranium in the phosphorus fertilizers using Nuclear track detector (CR-39). Our present investigation is based on the study of 10 types samples for different kinds of phosphorus fertilizers which were available in the local market Some of them were Iraqi made and the others from different countries like, (Iran, Italy, Holland, Lebanon and Jordan) .. The result obtained shows that the Uranium concentration in phosphorus fertilizers samples varies from (3.59ppm) to(2.59ppm). Based on the radioactive concentration of Uranium in the samples all the results obtained between(3.59ppm) in the Iraqi super phosphate to (2.59ppm) in the mixture Iraqi phosphate fertilizer are within the international levels as given by IAEA (International atomic Energy Agency) date if compares that equal by 12ppm .


Article
Study the Optical Properties of Transparent Epoxy Resin (Epoprimer) Plates
دراسة الخصائص البصرية لالواح راتنج الايبوكسي(Epoprimer) الشفاف

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Abstract

Epoxy plates have been made in the laboratory by mixing epoxy resin (A) with, hardener (B) in ratio (A: B) = (2:1), so they made (6) plates of different thickness about (0.95-5.8)mm . The optical properties have been studied like (absorption, transmittance, reflectance, energy gap and fluorescent) also the optical constant were found including (absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refraction index) for all plates. The results have shown that by increasing the thickness of plates the absorption intensity increase; at plates thickness (0.95-5.8)mm the absorption intensity were ، (0.20,0.69) respectively , and since absorption peak for epoxy occur in ultraviolet region and exactly at wavelength (330 nm) and energy gap (Eg=3.59(eV)) ; so the plates have transmittance about (60-92)% in visible region . The refraction index for Epoprimer epoxy is (n=1.3) and its reflectance is (R=20 %) at wavelength (330 nm) . While the fluorescence spectrums that result form shifting absorption spectrum (stoke shift) for epoxy plates it differ according to the used plate’s thickness. Where the shift increases toward longer wavelengths the (red shift) with the increase in plates thickness as the results show; so at plate thickness of (0.95, 3 ,5.8)mm the fluorescence spectrum shift was (100,131,140)nm respectively .


Article
Measurement of Alpha Emitters Concentration in Tomato Fruits Using CR – 39 Plastic Track Detector
قيـــاس تركيز باعثـــات الفـــا في ثــمرة الطـماطم باستـــعمال كاشــف الاثـــرالبلاسـتيـكي CR – 39

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Abstract

Our country suffered from pollution translation as a result to the wars events, so, it is necessary to measure the amount of radiation in the fields that are of indirect contact with human life and health. The main aim of the present work is to measure the concentration of alpha emitters in tomato fruits collected from different farms in Al – Basra governorate in the south of Iraq. Nuclear track detectors of type CR – 39 are used as a detection device and Can technique as a detection technique. Results show that the maximum concentration recorded is sample no.7 of site Al – Rafidhya which was equal to (6.9621 ± 0.111) ppm and sample no.1 of site Lothan with concentration equals to (4.9236 ± 0.117) ppm. The minimum concentrations were in sample 6 of site Al – Lehaiss (1.5360 ± 0.084) ppm followed by sample 9 of site Malhan which recorded (1.6840 ± 0.111) ppm (20.208 ± 1.332 Bq/m3).


Article
Study of the Singlet and the Triplet States of Two ElectronSystems in the First Excited State
دراسة الحالات المفردة والثلاثية للانظمة ذات الالكترونين في الحالة المتهيجة الاولى

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Abstract

A study of the singlet and triplet states of two electron systems in the first excited state was performed using a simple quantum mechanical model, which assigns the 1s,and 2s orbital with two different variational parameters. Our results agree with a high level calculation used by Snow and Bills.


Article
Implementation of Optical Coherent Communication System between Two Computers
بناء نظام أتصال متشاكه ضوئيا بين حاسبتين

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Abstract

This work represents implementation and investigation of optical coherent communication system between two computers. A single mode optical fiber is selected as transmission medium. The data are sent via the RS-232 standard interface with a bit rate of 9.6 kbps from personal computer (PC1) by line receive to convert the data from electrical levels (-12/+12 V) into TTL level (0/5 V). The modulation of this data was accomplished by internal modulation using laser diode type (HFCT-5208M) 1310 nm wavelength. The optical D-coupler was used to combine the optical signal that come from laser source with optical signal of laser local oscillator (OTS-304XI) at 1310/1550 nm wavelength to obtain coherent (homodyne and heterodyne) detection respectively. A PIN photodetector (HFCT-5208M) is used. Calculations of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) for coherent detection were measured at different length of the optical fiber. Result show that high SNR and low BER for heterodyne detection than for homodyne detection.


Article
The Effect of Fluorine and Hydrogen Concentrations on the Chain Reaction of HF Chemical Laser
تأتير تراكيز الفلورين والهايدروجين على التفاعل المتسلسل في ليزر فلوريد الهيدروجين

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Abstract

A numerical investigation has been performed to examine the effect of fluorine concentration on the chain reaction mechanisms and parameters of hydrogen fluoride (HF) chemical laser. The practical difficulties associated with this type of lasers impose that an alternative route might be quite useful. Thus, particular attention was paid to develop a computer program to investigate various processes. The results of this computer simulation program proved their credibility when compared with the little published data. This computer program is called Reaction Rate Simulation Model (RRSM). An entirely new approach to emulate the reaction mechanisms has been followed. The effectiveness of reaction rates in the processes of HF laser production has been investigated. This simulation program dealt with the percentages of the forward and reverse reactions, when a large number of reactions have been considered. In addition a large number of species have been taken into account in these reactions. From the computer program (RRSM), some valuable results could be predicted with regard to the hydrogen fluoride chemical laser.


Article
Structural and Optical Properties of SnS2:Cu Thin films prepared by chemical Spbay Pyrolysis
الرقيقة المحضرة بطريقة التحلل الكيميائي الحراري SnS2:Cu الخواص التركيبية والبصرية لأغشية

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Abstract

Thin filis have been prepared from the tin disulphide (SnS2 ), the pure and the doped with copper (SnS2:Cu) with a percentages (1,2,3,4)% by using ahemical spray pyrolysis techniqee on substrate of glass heated up to(603K)and sith thicknesses (0.7±0.02)μm ,after that the films were treated thermally with a low pressure (10-3mb) and at a temperature of (473K) for one hour. The influence of both doping with copper and the thermal treatment on some of the physical characteristics of the prepared films(structural and optical) was studied. The X-ray analysis showed that the prepared films were polycrystalline Hexagonal type. The optical study that included the absorptance and transmitance spectra in the weavelength range (300-900)nm demonstrated that the value of absorption coefficient (α) was greater than (104 cm-1) for the pure and doped films and that the electronic transitions at the fundamental absorption edge were of the indirect kind whether allowed or forbidden and the value of the optical energy gap in the case of the indirect transition, the allowed decreased from (2 eV) to (1.8,1.7,1.5,1.2)eV at the doping percentages (1,2,3,4)% respectively, also it was found that the value of energy gap for the pure and doped films increased after annealing. Tthe absorption and transmission spectra were used to find the optical constant including refractive index(n), extinction coefficient (k), imaginary and real part of dielectric constant (ε1 &ε2) , and it was found that all the optical constant was affected by changing the doping percentages; in addition to being affected after treating the films thermally


Article
Structural and Optical Properties of Cobalt-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis Technique
الخواص التركيبية والبصرية لأغشية اوكسيد الخارصين المشوبة بالكوبلت(CZO) المحضرة بتقنية التحلل الكيميائي الحراري

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Abstract

Undoped and Co-doped zinc oxide (CZO) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using solution of zinc acetate and cobalt chloride. The effect of Co dopants on structural and optical properties has been investigated. The films were found to exhibit maximum transmittance (~90%) and low absorbance. The structural properties of the deposited films were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). These films, deposited on glass substrates at (400ْ C), have a polycrystalline texture with a wurtzite hexagonal structure, and the grain size was decreased with increasing Co concentration, and no change was observed in lattice constants while the optical band gap decreased from (3.18-3.02) eV for direct allowed transition. Other parameters such as Texture Coefficient (Tc), dislocation density (δ) and number of crystals (M) were also calculated .


Article
Study of the properties of Ru-isotopes using the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2)
دراسة الخواص النووية لنظائر Ru استخدام IBM

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Abstract

The proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2) has been used to make a schematic study of the Ruthenium ( ) isotopes of mass region around with and . For each isotope of the values of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian parameters, which yield an acceptable results for excitation energies in comparison with those of experimental data, have been determined. Fixed values of the effective charges ( ) and of the proton and neutron g factors ( and ) have been chosen for all isotopes under study. The calculated electric quadrupole moments of state, transitions, the magnetic dipole moments transitions and mixing ratios are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.


Article
Darwinian Philosophy as Optimization Method for Design High Reflection Mirror Include New Merit Function
فلسفة دارون كطريقة مثلى لتصميم مرايا الانعكاسية العالية مع أستخدام دالة مميزة جديدة

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Abstract

In this paper we proposes the philosophy of the Darwinian selection as synthesis method called Genetic algorithm ( GA ), and include new merit function with simple form then its uses in other works for designing one of the kinds of multilayer optical filters called high reflection mirror. Here we intend to investigate solutions for many practical problems. This work appears designed high reflection mirror that have good performance with reduction the number of layers, which can enable one to controlling the errors effect of the thickness layers on the final product, where in this work we can yield such a solution in a very shorter time by controlling the length of the chromosome and optimal genetic operators . Result shows that the construction of multilayer high reflection mirror using in this approach can be considered as a master stone for design another type of filters with most complicated performance, and it is difficult designing in other approach The experiment results demonstrate that our approach is a powerful technique. It is enable to locate the global optimum optimal automatically with high confidence without need for a good starting design.


Article
Study the Characteristic of the Coupling Parameter ( Г ) in Dusty Plasma by Computer modeling
دراسة خصائص عامل الترابط ( Г ) في البلازما المغبرة باستخدام نمذجه حاسوبيه

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Abstract

Computer modeling has been used to investing the Coulomb coupling parameter Г. The effects of the structure parameter K, grain charge Z, plasma density N, temperature dust grain Td, on the Coulomb coupling parameter had been studied. It was seen that the Γ was increasing with increasing Z and N, and decrease with increasing K and T. Also the critical value of Γ that the phase transfer of the plasma state from liquid to solid was studied.


Article
The Electro-Excitation Form Factors for Low-Lying States of 7Li Nucleus
عوامل التشكل للاثارة الالكتروونيه للحالات المحفزة الواطئة لنوى 7Li

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Abstract

The transverse electron scattering form factors have been studied for low –lying excited states of 7Li nucleus. These states are specified by Jπ T= (0.478MeV), (4.63MeV) and (6.68MeV). The transitions to these states are taking place by both isoscalar and isovector components. These form factors have been analyzed in the framework of the multi-nucleon configuration mixing of harmonic oscillator shell model with size parameter brms=1.74fm. The universal two-body of Cohen-Kurath is used to generate the 1p-shell wave functions. The core polarization effects are included in the calculations through effective g-factors and resolved many discrepancies with experiments. A higher configuration effect outside the 1p-shell model space, such as the 2p-shell, enhances the form factors for q-values and reproduces the data. The present results are compared with other theoretical models. PACS: 25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering - 25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states – 21.60.Cs Shell model – 27.20. +n 5≤ A ≥19


Article
A comparative study of the effects of argon laser and continuous Nd: YAG laser on blood vessel
دراسة مقارنة كل من الاركون ليزر وNd:Y laser على تركيب الوعاء الدموي

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Abstract

Several types of laser are used in experimental works in order to study the effects of laser on blood vessel. They differ from each other by a lot of properties mainly in wavelength, energy of the laser and pulse duration. In this study argon laser (488 nm- 514 nm) and continuous Nd: YAG laSer (1064 nm), have been applied to 50 samples of sheep blgod tesselS. Histologically, tha results of the study were different According to the txpe of L`sar used; apgon larer had distrabtave effects on $he blood vessal while continuous Nd: YAG laser Appeaped to be the safesd one on the blmod vessel architecture. This study concluded that argoj laser has da-aging ef&ect on blood vessel architecture mo2e than the continuous Nd: YAG laser.


Article
RADIATION ENHANCED MICRO CRACKING AND POROUS FORMATION IN DOPED GLASSY POLYMERS
الاشعاع يحث تولد شقوق مجهرية ومسامية في البوليمرات المطعمة

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Glassy polymers like Poly Mathyel Metha Acrylate are usually classified as non-porous materials; they are almost considered as fully transparent. Thin samples of these materials reflect color changing followed by porous formation and consequently cracking when exposed to certain level of -irradiation. The more the dose is the higher the effect have been observed. The optical microscope and UV-VIS spectroscopy have clearly approved these consequences especially for doped polymers.


Article
Low Loss in a Gas Filled Hollow Core Photonic crystal fiber
خسائر قليلة في الليف البلوري الفوتوني ذي قلب المجوف المملوء بالغاز

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The work in this paper focuses on the experimental confirming of the losses in photonic crystal fibers (PCF) on the transmission of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. First HC-PCF was evacuated to 0.1 mbar then the microstructure fiber (PCF) was filled with He gas & gas. Second the input power and output power of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was measured in hollow core photonic bandgap fiber (HCPCF). In this work loss was calculated in the hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) filled with air then N2, and He gases respectively. It has bean observed that the minimum loss obtained in case of filling (HC-PCF) with He gas and its equal to 15.070 dB/km at operating wavelength (1040-1090) nm.


Article
Simultaneous influences of hematocrit in the erythrocyte medium on erythrocyte aggregation and sedimentation: a kinetic study by a laser scattering technique
ألتأثير الاني لتركيز كريات الدم الحمراء في معدل تجمع وترسب كريات الدم الحمراء باستخدام أشعة الليزر

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Abstract

The erythrocyte aggregation is an important physiological phenomenon in the circulation of blood. It is a basic characteristic of normal blood that plays a major role in the cardiovascular system, especially in the microcirculation. This study explained the kinetics of single cells rouleaux formation one- dimensional aggregate and three- dimensional aggregate, during simultaneous, and the effect of hematocrit on the process of aggregation and sedimentation. The present study was done on forty one healthy subjects. Laser light is passed through a well mixed sample of blood and the forward scattered light intensities recorded continuously. The samples were prepared with different hematocrit, (10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%). Increasing the hematocrit, (10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) had significantly decreased the rate of rouleaux formation (P< 0.005) but increase in the rate of one and three dimensional aggregate formation. On the other hand the sedimentation rate is decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase in the PCV value. It was shown that changing the hematocrit have different effects on aggregation process and sedimentation.


Article
Proposed methods of image recognition depend on the PCA
طرق مقترحة لتمييز الصور بالاعتماد على تحليل العوامل الاساسية

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This paper suggest two method of recognition, these methods depend on the extraction of the feature of the principle component analysis when applied on the wavelet domain(multi-wavelet). First method, an idea of increasing the space of recognition, through calculating the eigenstructure of the diagonal sub-image details at five depths of wavelet transform is introduced. The effective eigen range selected here represent the base for image recognition. In second method, an idea of obtaining invariant wavelet space at all projections is presented. A new recursive from that represents invariant space of representing any image resolutions obtained from wavelet transform is adopted. In this way, all the major problems that effect the image and change its characteristic are solved through calculating invariant eigen range of the recursive resolution forms of all sub-images coefficient. These approaches employed here as multi-wavelet transform identifier with minimum Mahalanobis distance. All method recognition proposed in this paper are applied on different images. Different tables of image recognition resulted in accurate and fast.


Article
Dispersion Parameters of Copper Sulphate Doped PMMA
معلمات التفريق للبولي مثيل ميثاكريلات المشوب بكبريتات النحاس

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Films of PMMA and copper sulphate doped PMMA have been prepared by casting method. Absorbance and transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength range (300-900) nm in order to calculate, single oscillator energy, dispersion energy, average oscillator strength, the refractive index at infinite wavelength, M-1 and M -3 moments of the optical spectra, it was found that all these parameters were effected by doping.


Article
The Effect of Thickness on Some Optical Properties of Sb2S3 Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition
تأثير السمك على بعض الخصائص البصرية لأغشية كبريتيد الانتمون المحضرة بالترسيب بالحمام الكيميائي

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Abstract

Sb2S3 thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition on a glas sub Absorbance and transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength range (30-900) nm. The effects of thickness on absorption coefficient, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were estimated. It was found that the reflectivity, absorption coefficient , extinction coefficient, real part of dielectric constant and refractive index, all these parameters decrease as the thickness increased, while the imaginary part of the dielectric constant increase as the thickness increased.

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Sb2S3 --- Thin Films --- CBD --- Optical Properties.


Article
On Semi--Connected Subspace
حول الفضاء الجزئي شبه المتصل-

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In this paper, the concept of semi--open set will be used to define a new kind of strongly connectedness on a topological subspace namely "semi--connectedness". Moreover, we prove that semi--connectedness property is a topological property and give an example to show that semi--connectedness property is not a hereditary property. Also, we prove thate semi-α-irresolute image of a semi--connected space is a semi--connected space.


Article
S-Generalized supplemented modules
المقاسات المكملة المعممة من النمط S

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Xue introduced the following concept: Let M be an R- module. M is called a generalized supplemented module if for every submodule N of M, there exists a submodule K of M such that M = N +K and N  K  Rad(K). N. Hamada and B. AL- Hashimi introduced the following concept: Let S be a property on modules. S is called a quasi – radical property if the following conditions are satisfied: 1. For every epimorphism f: M  N, where M and N are any two R- modules. If the module M has the property S, then the module N has the property S. 2. Every module M contained the submodule S(M). These observations lead us to introduce S- generalized supplemented modules. Let S be a quasi- radical property. We say that an R-module M is S- generalized supplemented module if for every submodule N of M, there exists a submodule K of M such that M = N + K and N  K  S(K). The main purpose of this work is to develop the properties of S-generalized supplemented modules. Many interesting and useful results are obtained about this concept. We illustrate the concepts, by examples.


Article
Hypercyclictty and Countable Hypercyclicity for Adjoint of Operators
فوق الدائرية وفوق الدائرية المعدودة لمرافق المؤثر من النمط

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Let be an infinite dimensional separable complex Hilbert space and let , where is the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators on . In this paper we prove the following results. If is a operator, then 1. is a hypercyclic operator if and only if D and for every hyperinvariant subspace of . 2. If is a pure, then is a countably hypercyclic operator if and only if and for every hyperinvariant subspace of . 3. has a bounded set with dense orbit if and only if for every hyperinvariant subspace of , .


Article
The role of some types of erythrocytes on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite in vitro
دور كريات الدم الحمر في نمو الاطوار المتغذية للأميبا الحالّة للنسج (Entamoeba histolytica) في الزجاج

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The parasite E.histolytica was first isolated from a stool sample, and then cultivated and maintained in vitro using Locke-egg medium (LEM) and Liver infusion agar medium (LIAM) . Then, the effect of some types of erythrocytes (human and sheep), on the growth and activity of the parasite in the two culture media was investigated. The parasite was able to ingest and lysis erythrocytes of human and sheep that were supplemented to the culture media and such manipulation was able to augment the reproduction rate of the cultivated E. histolytica, however, such consequence was media- and concentration-dependent. The reproduction rate was significantly increased (66.0, 57.5 and 58.6%, respectively) in LEM medium containing human erythrocytes types B at 0.11 x 106 cells/ml and O at 0.13 x 106 and 0.15 x 106 cells/ml. The sheep erythrocytes showed a similar enhancement (56.1%) at a concentration of 0.13 x 106 cells/ml. In contrast, adding erythrocytes to LIAM medium did not enhance the reproduction rate of the parasite significantly.


Article
Molecular diagnosis of E.coliO157:H7 Which Isolated from Children with Diarrhea by using Multiplex PCR
التشخيص الجزيئي لبكتريا E.coliO157:H7المعزولة من براز أطفال مصابين الإسهال باستخدام Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

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A total of 96 stool samples were collected from children with bloody diarrhea from two hospitals in Baghdad. All samples were surveyed and examined for the presence of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 and differentiate it from other Non -Sorbitol Fermenting Escherichia coli (NSF E. coli). The Bacterial isolates were identifed by using morphological diagnostic methods, Samples were cultured on liquid enrichment medium, incubated at 37C for 24 hrs, and then cultured on Cefixime Tellurite -Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (CT- SMAC). 32 non-sorbitol fermenting bacterial isolates were obtained of which 11 were identified as Escherichia coli by using traditional biochemical tests and API20E diagnostic system without differentiation between serotype O157:H7 and other NSF E. coli isolates . Four special biochemical tests were done for serotype O157:H7 differentiation from other NSF bacteria. Only 3 isolates belonging to the serotype O157:H7 were obtained . Latex agglutination test for O157 and H7 showed that the 3 isolates gave positive results with both tests. The Bacterial isolates were identifed by using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) technology for the presence or absence of 4 genes (Stx1, Stx2, hlyA and eaeA) that encode for main virulence factors to diagnose E. coli O157:H7 isolated By using specific primers in MPCR . The result showed that one E. coli O157:H7 isolates contain all 4 genes , other isolates contain 3 genes: Stx2, hlyA & eaeA.

Keywords

E.coliO157:H7 --- MPCR --- Stx1 --- Stx2


Article
Ecological Observations of the Effects of Magnetized Water on the Fresh Water Snail Physa acuta (Draparnoud, 1805)
ملاحظات بيئية عن تأثير المياه الممغنطة على قوقع المياه العذبة النوعPhysa acuta (Drapanoud , 1805)

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The freshwater Gastropod Physa acuta is an important species in fauna of aquatic habitats of Iraq. The species is considered a component of the food chain. The magnetized water is used in various fields; scientific, agricultural and industrial for different purposes. Exposure assays to magnetized water have so for revealed striking results. In the present investigation the species was exposed to 1000G magnetized water under laboratory conditions. The resulting effects were compared with those obtained from a control experiment where the individual kept in normal untreated water. Observations included growth as indicated by length, width and depth of snail shells as well as weight for both groups up to last day of snails life. Also ecological factors such as water temperature, PH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were measured throughout the treatment. Animals exposed to 1000G magnetized water have shown significant response to control animals those not exposed to magnetized water. The total length of animals in millimeters for control and those exposed to intensity respectively (1.9-10)(1.83-12.43) and lengths of shell pore(1.3-7)(1.3-6.75)and wide shell pore (0.88-3.75)(0.83-6.85) and height shell(1-6)(0.95-5.75). The averages of body weight in gram for control animals and those exposed to intensity were respectively (0.1078)(0.1631).The results obtained in this study may be related to some important biological activities such as molecular and cellular during the growth period of the snails.


Article
An Ecological Study of the Brown Garden snail Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774) from selected habitats in Jadiriya in Baghdad vicinity.
دراسـة بيئية لقــوقع الحدائق Brown Garden Snail الـــنوع Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774) في منطقة الجادرية ببغداد

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Abstract

The present study is considered a pioneer investigation that deal with the terrestrial brown garden snail Cornu aspersum (Müller), in Iraq. Cornu aspersum however is considered an exotic species in many parts of the world ,The species is most probably infiltrates with plants transferred from one place to another. The species has gained importance in many ways. Nutritionally, the species is consumed as food item in many countries, but in other cases it is considered as pest for the damage it causes when feeding on valuable plant shoots. It also has medical importance for its role and ability in healing wounds, burns and remedy of other skin problems. This snail species however may act as a vector for some parasitic nematodes that cause serious diseases. The species is also important in scientific research, usually referred to as ‘ecological indicator’ employed in environmental pollution problems such as the one caused by heavy metals. A great deal of research on this species has been carried out in different parts of the world, however, in Iraq, the scientific attention given to land snails in general and to Cornu aspersum in particular is rare and may be negligible in comparison with the research carried out on aquatic Mollusca species. A total of 1880 individuals of Cornu aspersum were collected from all sampling sites. The study was carried out for the period November 2007 to November 2008 on three sites within the Jadiriya district in Baghdad.. Growth, size classes and shell dimensions of Cornu aspersum populations, and their relationship with major environmental factors; ambient temperature; soil pH, moisture, texture; and the soil content of organic matter have been also investigated. Identification of the species was confirmed by the British Natural History Museum.The data were analyzed by means of standard statistical procedures.


Article
Isolation and Idintification of candida albicans from vagina and Study of some Virulance Factors
عزل وتشخيص المبيضات البيضاء Candida albicans من المهبل ودراسة بعض عوامل ضراوتها

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197 vaginal swabs were collected from women of different ages. (60) Isolates of Candida albicans (30.4%) were obtained, and the other species of Candida represent (18.27%). Bacterial infections showed (41.11%), and infection with Trichomonas vaginalis was (2.03%). Ten isolates of C. albicans were chosen randomly for farther study which include two virulence factors tendency of adhesion wich showed a percentage of (52%) to(32%) , and the ability to produce phospholipaze enzyme and it’s activity which showed (50%) of the isolates have the ability to produce the enzyme in different degrees .


Article
The effect of Allium sativum and Capsicum spp. Watery extracts on the Entamoeba histolytica in vitro.
تأثير المستخلصات المائية للثوم Allium sativum والفلفل الحار Capsicum spp. على طفيلي الزحار الاميبي Entamoeba histolytica خارج الجسم الحي in vitro

Authors: B. j. Muhamad بان جاسم محمد
Pages: 241-245
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In vitro tests have been carried out to find out the efficacy of watery extracts of garlic Allium sativum and hot pepper Capsicum spp. against the trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica cultivated in liver infusion agar media at 37 c . The doses of ( 0.01, 0.05 ,0.1, 0.5, 1 ml )of garlic and hot pepper watery extracts were added to certain number of E. histolotica trophozoits for exposure time of 24 hrs., the mortality percentage of trophozoites treated with garlic extract were ( 14.82 %, 31.05% ,46.16% , 64.29% , 92.7%) respectively , these percentages were very close to that obtained from the treatment with the hot peper extract which were (17.86%, 32% , 44% ,66.67% ,100%) respectively . Generally these results showed that the garlic and hot pepper watery extracts both were effective to eliminate E. histolitica trophozaites ,particularly the doses of (0.5 and 1 ml). The differences in studied plant characters were significant in the case of the first concentration compared with the second one.


Article
Influence of the Surrounding Plants by Rapeseed Field on Population Density of Cabbage Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and its Biological Enemies
تأثير النباتات المحيطة بحقل السلجم في الكثافة السكانية لمن اللهانة Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) وأعدائها الحياتية

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The result revealed that the peak of population density of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae was 523.20 individuals/plant on 21 March in edges of rapeseed field and was 1141.67 individuals/plant in center of the field. Results revealed that population density of cabbage aphid in rapeseed fields surrounded by cover crops significantly were low compared with that of monoculture rapeseed. The location of rapeseed plants (in edges or in center) significantly affected (p<0.05) the tested pest density, e.g. optimum density was 146.69 individuals/plant in the center of the field. Whereas was 93.32 in the edges. Effect of the interaction between location and surrounding vegetation was significant on aphid density, which their population density reached the maximum level, i.e. 325.4 individuals/ plant in the center of monoculture rapeseed field, Whereas minimum density was recorded, i.e. 46.74 individuals/plant in the rapeseed surrounded by clover. In regard to the population density of parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae, results showed that its density reached 1.70 mummies/ plant in the edges of rapeseed surrounded by onion. This treatment considerably exceeded the rapeseed surrounded by clover and monoculture rapeseed in which parasitoid density counted 0.45&0.60 mummies/ plant respectively. Population density of coccinellids ranged between 0.18 & 0.42 individuals/ plant for the edges or center of the fields of the treatments, without considerable differences between them..


Article
Genetic study of Salmonella spp. Producting Betalatimase (ESBLs)
دراسة وراثية لبكتريا spp. Salmonella المنتجة لانزيمات البيتالاكتاميز الواسعة الطيف ESBLs

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Abstract

Ten isolates were collected from different clinical sources from laboratory in medicine century . These isolates were belonging to the genus Salmonella depending on morphological and biochemical tests . The antibiotic scussptibility tests against 10 antibiotics were examined , and it was found that the 60% isolates have multiple resistant to antibiotic ,(70%) of isolates were resistant to ampicillin,(50%) were resistant to augmentin ,(40%) were resistant to ceftriaxone ,(20%) were resistant to cefotaxime and (10%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline while all isolates showed sensitivity to piperacillin, imipenem, amikacin and erythromycin .The ability of Salmonela isolates to produce β-lactamase enzymes were tested using iodometric method , and the results showed that all isolates produced this enzyme.The ability of these isolates to produce Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs)were also determined by double disc synergy test , only five isolates produced these enzyme. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that Salmonella isolates β-lactamase producer have two small plasmid bands . Transformation experiments revealed that these plasmids were capable to transform E. coli MM294, an observation which indicates the ability of these plasmids to show their expression in more than one host.


Article
A systematical study about the genus Lycopus L. (Labiatae) in Iraq
دراسة تصنيفية حول الجنس Lycopus L.(Labiatae) في العراق

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The study included gross morphology and pollen of plants – which collected during field trips , and dry ones for most specimen preserved with the Iraqi herbaria – related to the genus Lycopus L. , and to identify the unidentified species and rectify the error there in , so according to that the species L. europaeus L. only were specified for the genus . Through this work the varity L. europaeus var. glabrescens Schmidely were found at the first time , and suggested to record anew for Iraq . Pollen were of medium size, and had an ellipsoid shape in the equatorial view , and hexagonal in the polar view. The ecological and soil quality where these genus plants grows were specified , and were geographically distributed on natural Iraqi territories for each one .Plate was made from many pictures in addition to the map for geographical distribution.


Article
Antimicrobial activity of propolis agents on some pathogenic microbes
الفعالية البايولوجية التثبيطية لمستخلص الخام لعكبر النحل (Propolis) تجاه بعض الاحياء المجهرية الممرضة

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The study aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from different regions of Iraq compared with that of propolis obtained from Iran. Samples were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschericha coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans using standard antimicrobial assays. Marked variations in the antimicrobial activity of the different propolis samples were observed, the method of extraction selected gives the highest antimicrobial activity and the best alcohol concentration using in the extraction of propolis , then the crude extract of propolis showed synergistic effect with some antibiotics in inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms.


Article
The effect of NPK fertilizer on some physiological characters of Petroselinum hortense
تأثير سماد NPK في بعض الصفات الفسيولوجية لنبات المعدنوس Petroselinum hortense

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The experiment was carried out to study the effect of two concentrations of NPK 0.25 and 0.50g/kg soil on some physiological characters of Petroselinum hortense. The results showed increased dry weight, absolute growth rate (AGR) relative growth rate (RGR) and percentage of N,P and K in the plant. The differences in studied plant characters were significant in the case of the first concentration compared with the second one.


Article
The Direct Gene Injection Using of Egg Yolk Emulsion as Carrier and its Comparison with Liposomes.
الحقن المباشر للجينات بأستخدام مستحلب صفار البيض كمادة ناقلة ومقارنته بمادة اللايبوسوم الصناعية

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The efficiency of egg yolk emulsion in coating DNA and its delivery across cellular membranes was evaluated in comparison with liposomes DOPE . The murine leukemia viral oncogene v-abl , cloned on pBR322 was used as a DNA substrate for direct injection into mice tissue . the DNA complexes were prepared by mixing the DNA with egg yolk emulsion and liposome . Each was directly injected into mice peritoneal cavity with proper control. The gene delivery was examined phenotypically by blood analysis and cytogenetic analysis . Chromosomal changes were detected in the bone marrow as from the fourth day post inoculation through the eleventh day when chromosomal ring s could be seen . this was accompanied by decrease in the WBC count , an increase in lymphoblast cells size and percentage and the discoloration of irregular RBCs . these are typical signs of acute lymphatic leukemia . Anatomical examination have indicated 25% increase in the spleen mplemented using specific primers to confirm the integration of the delivered DNA into the genomic content of the mice tissue within 48 hr post inoculation .


Article
The Effect of some inducer agents in increase the production of Enterocin U36 produced byEnterococcus faecalis U36 that isolated from Urinary Tract Infection
تاثير بعض المحثات في زيادة انتاجية الانتروسين U36 المنتج مـن بكترياfaecalis U36 Enterococcusالمعزولة محليا من التهابات السبيل البولي

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Enterocin U36 (ENT U36), is a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis U36 , strain isolated from urine samples have collected from patients suffering from urinary tract infections . The Bacteriocin is an antimicrobial proteins or peptides that inhibit growth of bacteria closely related to the producing organism. The results has been shown that ENT U36 active against Enterococcus faecalis S10 Lactococcus lactis ,Lactobacillus fermentum and few other gram positive pathogens bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auraus ,Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus spp. The optimum conditions for enterocin production from selective local isolates EFU36 were determined by using the cultural submerged and the results showed that the optimum media for production of enterocin contained carbon sources , nitrogen source and some mineral salts with an inoculum size of 2% which contains 1x109 cell/ml. at an optimum pH 6 in optimum degree(35-37) in shaker incubator 120 cycle/ min reached to the specific activity of 91x103 unit/mg.The effect of some inducers of production like chloramphenicol, folic acid, vitamin B12 and mitomycin-c was studied. The results showed that 1.5% of mitomycin gave specific activity of about 103x103 unit/mg when added to the optimum media after 3 hours from optimum production period.


Article
HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON OPTIC TECTUM IN IRAQI WATER SNAKE TESSELATA TESSELATA
دراسة نسجية للسقف البصري Optic tectumفي أفعى الماء العراقية natrix tesselata tesselata

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The ceiling of the midbrain has a couple of optic lobes which are prominent and used as an optic center that reflex what it receives from eye retina fibers. The histology of optic tectum has been studied in Iraqi water snake natrix tesselata tesselata . It was found that the number of optic tectum were seven main strata organized from the outside to the inside as follows : the stratum zonula (SZ), the stratum opticum (SO), the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficialis (SFGS), the stratum griseum central (SGC), the stratum album central (SAC), the stratum griseum periventricular (SGP), and the stratum album periventricular (SAP). the three last strata consider deep layers on the optic tectum It was noticed that the thinnest strata was the first (SZ), which is (20-25)µ m, in its thickness, while the thickest strata was the third (SFGS), which is (150-180)µ m. this stratum consist of three substrata (a.b.c). it was found that the optic fibers that come from eye retina enter the optic tectum through the second stratum which is the (SO) . so these fibers go out from optic tectum through the sixth stratum which is the (AGP). the fourth (SGC) contained a concentrated cells of three types which are ,the medium pear shape neuron , medium fusiform neuron , and medium multipolar neuron.


Article
The Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Punica granatum L. Pericarp on Hemolysin Production of several Bacterial species
تأثير المستخلصات المائية والكحولية لقشور الرمان على أنتاج انزيم الهيمولايسين لبعض الانواع البكتيرية

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Four local hemolysin producer bacterial isolates were selected, tow of them gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) and the other two were gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus ). Minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Punica granatum L. pericarp were determined towards the four bacterial isolates ,results obtaind showed that MICs of the aqueous extract were 200 mg/ml for E .coli and P. aeruginosa isolates while were 5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml for B. cereus, S. aureus , respectively The MICs for the ethanolic extract were 50 mg/ml , 20 mg/ml ,1 mg/ml ,0.5 mg/ml for E. coli ,P. aeruginosa ,B. cereus ,S. aureus , respectively. The effect of Sub-MICs of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts on hemolysin production was investigated , both extracts had a suppressing effect on hemolysin production by E. coli ,P. aeruginosa ,while both extract had an inhibitory effect on hemolysin production by S. aureus and B . cereus isolates


Article
Isolation & Pathogenic Study on Proteus mirabilis
عزل ودراسة مرضية لجرثومة Proteus mirabilis

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During the period October 2003 till July 2004, about (253) urine samples have been collected from urinary tract infection. The study has shown that the bacterium Proteus mirabilis is the responsible for (11.85%) of the urinary tracts infections. Also, the study has declared that the ratio of separation this bacterium from women was (7.51%) and it is higher than the ratio of separation in both men and children which ranged (1. 58%) and (2.76%) respectively . About (30) samples of stool have been collected from children and the ratio of isolation this bacterium has been showen to be( 30%) from children aged bellow 3 years,as well as, we have got bacterial cultures related to P.mirabilis isolated from the infections of middle-ear and bacteremia . Morphological and biochemical studies have been applied to characterize the isolation bacterium as well as other kinds of micro-orgarisms that were isolated from infections of urinary tracts in this study. The results of the study demonstrated the bacterial isolates have shown an absolute resistance with a ratio of (100%) for both the antibiotic Ceftazidime and Cephalothin. Also, the study has shown that the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin is the most effective antibiotic against this type of bacterium . The percentage of sensitivity for the local isolates to this kind of antibiotic was (96.7%) then Gentamycin and Cephotaxim and the ratio of sensitive isolates to these antibiotics were (80%) and (76.7%) respectively. We have studied some virulence factors which the bacterium owns like the production of enzymes β-Lactamase and Extended spectrum β–Lactamase . The study has shown that the local isolates of this bacterium produce these enzymes with a ratio of (100 %) . The study confirmed the efficiency of fish extract agar prepared locally in growing bacterium . Also , it affirmed that the fish extract agar supplemented with (4-6 %) of sodium chloride is mimcs the appearing in C.L.E.D (cystien lactose electrolyte deficient medium


Article
Extraction and partial purification for adhesive protein FimH from type-1 pili which isolated from uorpathogenic E.coli
الاستخلاص والتنقبة الجزئية لبروتين الالتصاق FimH من خمل النمط الاول لبكتريا E. coli المعزولة من اخماج الجهاز البولي

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Type-1 fimbriae have been extracted from E.coli which was previously isolated, the yield was 2.8 mg fimbriae/10 g bacteria , the crude fimbriae was partially purified by several solubilization and recrystilization methods using a series of buffer and solutions to decrease the impurities, the yield of fimbriae from all these steps was 2.1 mg fimbriae / 10 g bacteria. Adhesive protein FimH was extracted from fimbriae by separation then partially purified by Gel-chromatography sephadex G-100, the yield of FimH was 250 µg/ml, while fimbriae protein was 50.6 µg/ml. The partially purified FimH revealed one clear band in SDS-PAGE, as well as protein fimbriae with molecular weight (28300,17500) Dalton respectively, when compared with standard protein curve.


Article
Studying the ability of transformation of lymphocytes by using PHA in patient with Cytomegalovirus
اختبار قابلية الخلايا اللمفاوية في الدم المحيطي على التحول والانقسام باستخدام التحفيز المشطر PHA في الأشخاص المصابين بالـ Cytomegalovirus

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Blood samples were collected from (31) pregnant women infected with cytomegalovirus , also (15) blood samples were collected from congenitally infected infants, and (20),(15),(15) blood samples were collected from pregnant women ,non pregnant and infants, respectively, all of them were as control groups. CMV infection identified by using ELISA assay to detect specific CMV IgM & IgG in sera. The results of lymphocyte transformation showed a significant decrease when phytoheamagglutinin (PHA) used as stimulator, lymphocytes response in infected pregnant women was lower than that of non infected pregnant women as well as non pregnant women. Result also showed a significant decrease in the ability of lymphocyte division in healthy pregnant women when compared with healthy non pregnant women. Lymphocyte activity of infants infected with CMV was also significally lower when comparison with non infected infants.


Article
Extraction of raw cellular wall of Enterobacter cloacae and study of its toxicity
استخلاص الجدار الخلوي الخام لبكتريا Enterobacter cloacae ودراسة سميته.

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The crude cell wall of E.cloacae was extracted by using Lysozyme , DNase and RNase enzymes, the contents of the proteins and carbohydrates were 24% and 1.44% respectively . The pathogenicity of the bacteria was studied by testing its lethality, in which the LD50 was identified to both bacterial suspension and the extract of the crude cell wall of bacteria by using white swiss female mice. The value of the LD50 of bacterial suspension was 3.16x109 CFU / ml . The cell wall extract didn’t have any lethal effect on the mice, but it had a great effect on their physiological state which led to a deficit in their weight by an average of 8 grams.


Article
Improvement of thermostable productivity α-amylase from local isolate Bacillus licheniformis H14.
تحسين انتاجية انزيم الفا –اميليز( (α-amylaseالثابت حراريا˝ من العزلة المحلية .Bacillus licheniformis H14

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(28)Bacterial local isolates of Bacillus sp. were obtained from soil samples. Isolates were tested for thermostable alpha- amylase production on solid media; fifteen isolates were able to develop clear zone around the bacterial growth after floating the plates with iodine reagent (Lugol's solution). There were further tested in submerged culture which led to selection of Bacillus sp. H14since it was the most efficient .Microbial and biochemical tests showed that the local isolate Bacillus sp.H14was refered to the species B.licheniformis that signed as H14 was refered to the species B.licheniformis H14 .,To get ahigher yield of alpha – amylase(48.70unit/mg protein) production from the local isolate B.licheniformis H14 . This study used different mutation ways such as physical way by using the physical mutagen (ultraviolet light) and chemical way by using the chemical mutagen (nitrosoguanidine). Physical mutation results showed that the local isolate B.licheniformis HM14 get higher yield of alpha – amylase production(102.10 unit/mg protein) according to killing percentage (90%) while the chemical mutation results showed that the local isolate B.licheniformis HM4 get higher yield of alpha –amylase production(100.94 unit/mg protein) from the two mutant local isolates (HM14 and HM4)were the best carbon source starch (1.5%), peptone (1.5%) as nitrogen source, calcium chloride (0.02%), sodium chloride (0.05%), magnicium phosphate (0.05%), sodium di –hydrogen phosphate (0.16%), at initial pH (5) and inoculum size 1*108 cfu/ml at (50C) For (72) hours, using shaking incubator at (150) rpm.


Article
Selection of highly ethanol productive yeast
انتخاب عزلة خميرة ذات انتاجية عالية من الايثانول الحيوي

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Seventy five isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified, they were isolated from different local sources which included decayed fruits and vegetables, vinegar, fermented pasta, baker yeast and an alcohol factory. Identification of isolates was carried out by cultural microscopical and biochemical tests. Ethanol sensitivity of the isolates showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration of the isolate (Sy18) was 16% and Lethal concentration was 17%. The isolate (Sy18) was most efficient as ethanol producer 9.36% (v/w). The ideal conditions to produce ethanol from Date syrup by yeast isolate, were evaluated, various temperatures, pH, Brix, incubation period and different levels of (NH4)2HP04. Maximum ethanol produced was 10.32% (v/v). Experimental production of ethanol using continuous methodology with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that this method is superior by producing 5.83 g/L/h in comparison with 1.95 g/l/h produced by batch culture method


Article
Serum ceruloplasmin ,copper and iron levels as a risk factors for coronary heart diseases(CHD)
السيريلوبلازمين والنحاس والحديد كعوامل خطورة لامراض شرايين القلب الأكليلة

Authors: Asmaa M. Salih اسماء صالح
Pages: 372-381
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Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is one of the acute phase protein, in this review ,we studied the level of ceruloplasmin with copper (Cu) and iron in 90 patients with coronary heart diseas ( those patients are divided into three groups, whom are stable angina , unstable angina and myocardial infarction compared with 30 healthy volunteers) and the roles of them as diagnostic and prognostic tools.The diagnosis was attend by a clinical examination carried out by the consult medical staff in Ibn AL-Nafis hospital. The result: ceruloplasmin recorded a significantly(p<0.05)higher level in all patient groups compared with the control, so this result supports the hypothesis that a high serum ceruloplasmin level is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and agrees with immunological theory about tissue damage of myocardial muscle.The same conclusion is reported for serum copper level.


Article
Lymphocyte phenotyping in untreated children patients with chronic allergic asthma
توصيف الخلايا اللمفاوية عند الأطفال غير المعالجين المصابين بالربو الارجي المزمن

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This study aimed to isolate and phenotype lymphocytes in untreated children patients with chronic allergic asthma. To reach such aim the study involved (25) patients from children (17 male and 9 female) whom their ages where between (3-10) years, in addition to (15) apparently healthy children (9 male and 6 female) in the same ages involved as control group. The data demonstrated that there was a significant increase in the mean percentages of T-lymphocytes (CD3+ cells) in the peripheral blood of patients (66.75±0.29)**, in comparison with control group (43.58±0.19), a significant increase in the mean percentages of T-helper lymphocytes (CD4+ cells) in the peripheral blood of patients (51.14±0.55), in comparison with control group (39.17±0.23) and the mean percentages of B-lymphocytes (CD20+ cells) was also increased significantly in the peripheral blood of patients (29.63±0.20) when it compared with the mean percentages of the same cells in control group (18.60±0.80). Besides a significant decrease in the mean percentages of T-suppressor lymphocytes (CD8+ cells) in the peripheral blood of patients (11.31±0.05), in comparison with control group (16.42±0.15). Finally the results of this study showed a significant increase in the mean percentages of the ratio of (CD4+ cells/CD8+ cells) in the peripheral blood of patients (55.34±0.41), in comparison with control group (31.25±0.09).


Article
The Effect of Cyperus esculentus on Sperm Function Parameters in Prepubertal Mice as a Model for Human
تأثير استخدام عشبه لوز الأرض في المعايير الوظيفية لنطف ذكور الفئران غير البالغة كموديل للإنسان

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The objective of this work was to study the effect of oral administration of Cyperus esculentus (CE) and its alcoholic extract on sperm function parameters in prepubertal mice as a model for human .The animals were divided into three groups each contains 6 animals .Group 1 was treated with 150 mg/ kg body weight /day of crude CE, group 2 was treated with same dose of alcohol extract of CE and group 3 regarded as control throughout six weeks period. The results showed a significant (p> 0.05) increase in the mean of sperm concentration ,sperm motility percent and progressive sperm motility between treated groups and control . There was no differences among groups in the mean of sperm normal morphology and sperm viability . No significant differences was recorded in the mean of body weight among groups throughout the study. The results revealed that the administration of Cyperus esculentus may enhance certain sperm characters in prepubertal mice without affecting body weight.


Article
Detection of BRCA1and BRCA2 mutation for Breast Cancer in Sample of Iraqi Women above 40 Years
تشخيص طفرات BRCA1و BRAC2 عند عينه من النساء العراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي لعمر فوق الاربعين

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Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting women worldwide. Different studies have dealt with the etiological factors of that cancer aiming to find a way for early diagnosis and satisfactory therapy. The present study clarified the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes and some etiological risk factors among breast cancer patients in Iraq. This investigation was carried out on 25 patients (all were females) who were diagnosed as breast cancer patients attended AL-Kadhemya Teaching Hospital in Baghdad and 10 apparently healthy women were used as a control, all women (patients and control) aged above 40 years. The Wizard Promega kit was used for DNA isolation from breast patients and normal individuals. By this method suitable quantities of DNA approximately (50 µl) with purity ranged from (1.7-1.9) were obtained from 100-200µg of fresh biopsy which had been taken from women breast patients. The extracted DNA was successfully used in amplification of BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes by PCR and some mutation were detected. The outcome of genetic analysis indicated that the percentage of 185delAG mutation was 16 (4 patients) whereas, the percentage of 5382insC mutation was 32 (8patients) in BRCA1 gene and the third mutation 6174delT in BRCA2 present in 3 patients only (12%). The study demonstrated that the frequency of BRCA1 mutation (48%) was higher than BRCA2 (12%) in this sample of Iraqi women with breast cancer.

Keywords

BRC --- BRCA2 --- Breast Cancer


Article
Evaluation for the Effect of Heat Stable Enterotoxin (a) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on Different Cancer Cells In Vitro
تقييم تاثير السم المعوي الثابت حراريا(أ) المنتج من قبل بكترياايشيريشيا القولونالسمية المعوية على الخلايا السرطانيةالمختلفة في الزجاج

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This study was conducted for evaluating the cytotoxic effect of heat stable enterotoxin a (STa) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on the proliferation of primary cancer cell cultures, obtained from tumor samples that were collected from (13) cancer patients and as follows: (five colon cancer patients, two bladder cancer patients, two breast cancer patients, two stomach cancer patients and two lung cancer patients), and on normal cell line (rat embryonic fibroblast / REF) (in vitro) with the use of different concentrations starting from (1) mg/ml and ending with (0.0002) mg/ml by making two fold serial dilutions by using the 96- well microtiter plate, and in comparison with negative (PBS) and positive (MMC, at concentration of 10 µg/ml) controls . Results showed that, after (24) hours of exposure to STa, the growth of all primary cancer cell cultures obtained from colon cancer patients was inhibited by STa treatment and this inhibition was concentration dependent. Also it was shown that the cytotoxic effect of the high concentration of STa was close to that seen after MMC treatment. While no differences were seen in the growth of all primary cancer cell cultures that were obtained from the other cancer patients, which mean that STa treatment neither inhibit nor enhanced their growth. At the same time STa did not show or has any cytotoxic effect on the normal cell line (REF).


Article
Sex Chromatin in New Hampshire Cocks
الصبغين الجنسي في سلالة النيوهمشاير في الديكة

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Sex chromatin (SC) is defined as inactive X chromosome in the female somatic cells, it condensed as heterochromatic at interphase of the nucleus and appears like nuclear satellite projection, and only female cells contain SC in mammals. Different ages of cocks: immature (8,16 weeks old), growing (24 weeks old) and production age (32,48 weeks old) , were studied to detect the sex chromatin (SC) with it's various shapes :Sessile nodule(SS), Drum stick(DS), Tear drop(TD) and Club shape(CS) in the blood lymphocytes of blood smears prepared from WBCs of 45 New Hampshire(NH) strain cocks. Also SC measurements were detected which include: vertical (V) and horizontal (H) axes, SC area (SCA), nuclear area (NA), and the ratio(R) between these two areas. . Results show that SC is present in the male chicken blood lymphocytes in all ages. There is no significant difference in the incidence of the SC or its various measurements between ages, but the vertical axis was recorded a significant (P<0.05) decrease at 16 week old as compared with other ages. Also there is a non significant increase in the incidence of DS shape with ages; this indicated that simple, easy and cheap test could be helpful to detect some physiological parameters in the poultry species and other mammals.


Article
Identification and Purification of Cholera Like Toxin from Environmental Isolate of Vibrio cholerae
تشخيص وتنقية ذيفان شبيه بذيفان الكوليرا من عزلة بيئية لبكترياVibrio cholerae

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The presence and prevalence of V. cholerae were investigated in forty five water samples collected from different locations of Tiger River/ Baghdad city. Twenty one isolates were isolated by adopting a simple isolation techniques. The final identification revealed that only three isolates were confirmed as V. cholerae. They were named 1J, 1R and Dial 131 which are all serogrouped as non-O1. Toxin Coregulated Pili (TCP) and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) were determined in only the environmental isolate 1J while non of the isolates produced heat stabile toxin (ST). The purification scheme was improved, few steps were adopted to include back extraction of ammonium sulfate, saturation between 80-20%, desalting through Sephadex G25, and gel filtration using Sephadex G100 which highly increase the specific activity.


Article
EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE ON HISTOOGICAL FEATURES OF LIVER, SKELETAL MUSCLE AND TESTIS AND SERUM TESTOSTERON LEVEL OF LABORATORY ALBINO MICE Mus musculus.
تأثير الرصاص على المواصفات النسيجية للكبد والعضلات والخصية وتركيز التيستوستيرون في الفئران البيض

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Abstract

Lead acetate as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways, it has a long half-life, accumulates mainly in the soft tissue and leads to adverse effects in these tissues. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of oral feeding of lead acetate on histological features of liver, kidney, testis and muscle of albino mice. Mice were treated with 0.05 mg/100 ml lead acetate (LA) for 10 days (group A) and for and for 20 days (group B) and for 30 days (group C). The histological section of liver of mice group A characterized by slightly blurred trabecular structure with foci of hepatitis which increased with cytoplasmic vacules in group B but in group C liver reveal necrosis, heamorrhage, hepatitis with dysplasia. Testis revealed foci of spermatic hypoplasia in group A, areas of fibrosis and spermatic arrest revealed in group B and C with mild degree of maturation in last group. Skeletal muscle fibers not changed in group A but characterized with focal mononuclear cell infiltration and myositis in group B but necrosis and skeletal muscle atrophy with increase perimuscular adipose tissue and fibrosis revealed in fibers of group C.

Keywords

Lead --- acetate --- liver --- kidney --- skeletal muscle --- testis --- histology --- testosterone


Article
Studying the biological activity of some Antimony Compounds with amino acids
دراسة الفعالية الحياتية لبعض مركبات الانتيمون مع ليكاندات الاحماض الامينية

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In this work four complexes of antimony were prepared ,Na[SbO(gly)2],Na[SbO(Asp)2],Na[SbO(Tyrosin)2], Na [SbO(phen alanin)2]. by reaction SbOCl with salts amino acids identifiefid these complexes by FTIR ,their conductivity was measured and also their biological activity against two types of bacteria was studied ,they were biologically active.


Article
Kinetic studies of AST isoenzymes I,II,III,IV partially purified from patient,s urine with chroinc renal failure
دراسات حركية لمتناظرات أنزيم الأسبارتيت أمينو ترانسفريزAST IV,III,II,I المنقاة جزئيا من ادرار المرضى المصابين بالعجز الكلوي المزمن

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In this research, the kinetic studies of four isoenzymes of Asprtate aminotransferase, which partially purified from the urine of chronic renal failure patients were carried out .The four isoenzymes were obeyed Michaelis-Menton's equation and the optimum concentration of their substrate (Aspartic acid) was (166.5x10-3) mole/liter,and their Km values were determined. Four isoenzymesI,II,III,IV have shown an optimum pH at 7.4.The four isoenzymes obeyed Arrhenius equation up to 37º C and their Ea and Q10 constants were determined .


Article
The use of ultra-violet visible spectroscopy to determination some antibiotics beta-lactam in some drugs
استخدام مطيافية الأشعة فوق البنفسجية والمرئية لتقدير المضادات الإحيائية- البيتا لاكتام- في بعض الأدوية

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This research aims to use chemical reaction to determine some of beta lactam antibiotics which include cephalexin and ceftriaxone in some pharmaceuticals by formation Prussian Blue complexes and using them for the UV-Vis., determination of drugs at wavelengths range (700- 720)nm by reaction them with FeCl3 in the presence of reagent K3[Fe(CN)6] in acid media . The optimal experimental conditions for the complex formation have been studied such as volume of HCl , K3[Fe(CN)6] , FeCl3 ,temperature and reaction time .Analytical figures of merits obtained on applying the developed procedure for cephalexin and ceftriaxone resp. are Linearity,(2-10),(1-7)μg.ml-1 LOD(0.0601,0.0330) μg.ml-1. The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of the antibiotics Cephalexin and Ceftriaxone in pharmaceutical preparations , Cephalexin and Gramocef using direct and standard additions method. The analytical results match well with the drug contents as indicated by recovery percent had been found as follows (103.50%,93.27%.) for cephalexin, and ceftriaxone resp..


Article
The effect of aqueous extracts and isolation proteinous compound from clove buds on serumglucose, triglyceride , glutathione and malnodialdehyde levels in alloxan induced diabetic mice
تأثيرالمستخلصات والمركب البروتيني المعزول من براعم نبات القرنفل CLOVE BUDS على مستوى الكلوكوز والدهون والكلوتاثايون والمالوندايالديهايد في الفئران المصابة بداء السكر المستحدث بالالوكسان

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Abstract

This study was included preparing acold aqueous extract of clove buds The study also comprised the isolation and studying the proteinous compound,which was seperated using gel filtration technique and determined approximately molecular weight of this isolated compound(6799) dalton . The aim of the study demonstrate effects of the crude aqueous, non proteinous extract, proteinous precipitate and proteinous compound on serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, also glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney tissues in diabetic mice-induced alloxan.Extracts were administerated interaperitioneally. The results were indicated that the crude aqueous, non proteinous extract, proteinous precipitate and proteinous compound which were caused asignificant decrease in serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and malondialdehyde level in liver and kidney tissues, while aproteinous precipitate don’t show asignificant decrease in serum cholesterol level but all extracts don’t show asignificant changes in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level in alloxan induced diabetic mice, on other wise all extracts showed asignificant increase in glutathione level in liver and kidney tissues except non proteinous extract and proteinous precipitate which were caused asignificant increase in glutathione level in liver tissue only.


Article
Designation Homemade Instrument to Measure Turbidity of Barium Sulphate
تصميم جهاز مصنع محلياً لقياس كدرة كبريتات الباريوم

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This research include the designation of newly instrument (Turbidmeter) depending on using photo voltaic detector (8.5mm.*8.5mm.).These dimensions have large area which increases the scattering rays with a variable intensity. The properties of this design are local mode and the used tools are a available in the local markets as well as its less cost light weight system. It is worth mentioning that the possibility of its application in many fields such as: Clinical, Laboratory, Industrial and Fuel fields. This designation, applied to estimate Barium Sulphate in turbidity method. The analytical results show high accuracy and repetition, also the linearity ranges from (4-180) ppm. At the detection limit (0.05) ppm. With correlation coefficient (0.9992), as well as using volume ratio percents (ethanol-glycerin) equal to (10-90) %.


Article
Synthesis, structural study, antimicrobial activity and theoretical treatment of Cr(III), Ni(II), Pt(IV) and Zn(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-4-Nitro phenyl piperonalidene
تحضير ودراسة التركيب والفعالية البايولوجية والمعالجة النظرية لمعقدات Cr(III), Zn(II) ,Ni(II), Pt(IV) مع هيدروكسي-4- نايتروفنل بيرونالدين

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The complexes of the 2-hydroxy-4-Nitro phenyl piperonalidene with metal ions Cr(III), Ni(II), Pt(IV) and Zn(II) were prepared in ethanolic solution. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods, conductivity, metal analyses and magnetic moment measurements. The nature of the complexes formed in ethanolic solution was study following the molar ratio method. From the spectral studies, monomer structures proposed for the nickel (II) and Zinc (II) complexes while dimeric structures for the chromium (III) and platinum (IV) were proposed. Octahedral geometry was suggested for all prepared complexes except zinc (II) has tetrahedral geometry, Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using hyper chem-8 program for the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The heat of formation and binding energy for the prepared compounds was calculated by using PM3 and AMBER methods. The method of PM3 was used for evaluate the vibration spectra for the imine and starting material as authentic compound. Preliminary in vitro tests for antibacterial and antifungal activity show that most of the prepared compounds display good activity to (Staphylococcus aureus), (Escherichia coli) and (Candida albicans).


Article
Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial Studies of complexes of some metal ions with 5(2-hydroxy benzylidine) -2-thio ether -1, 3, 4-thiadiazole
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض معقدات 5(2-هايدروكسي بنزايلدين ) -2-ثايو ايثر -1و3و4- ثايادايازول

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A new series of Fe (III) , Co (II) , Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes of the Schiff base, 5 (2-hydroxy benzylidine) -2-thio ether -1, 3, 4-thiadiazole were prepared and characterized .The imine behaves as a bidentate. The nature of bonding and the stereochemistry of the complexes were deduced from metal analyses, infrared, electronic spectra,magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, an octahedral geometry was suggested for all complexes except the copper complex has a square planar geometry .preliminary in vitro tests for antimicrobial activity show that all the prepared compounds except iron complex display good activity to gram positive Staphelococcus aures and gram negative Escherchia coli.


Article
Transference Number Measurement of Zinc Salts in Aqueous Solution
قياس أعداد الأنتقال لأيونات أملاح الزنك في المحاليل المائية

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Transference numbers of the aqueous zinc chloride and zinc sulphate solutions have been measured for the concentrations 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.1 mol.dm-3at 298.15K, by using the modified Hittorf method. The dependence of transference number on concentration of each electrolyte was also investigated in an attempt to explain the value of the limiting transference number. The Longsworth method has been used for the extrapolation of zinc transference number in aqueous solutions, using the values of the limiting transference numbers of the appropriate values of the limiting equivalent conductance, it was possible to determine the corresponding values of the limiting ion conductance for the cations and anions of the electrolytes. The density and specific conductivity of all solutions have been measured at 298.15K.


Article
Comparative Bioequivalence Studies of doxysam and doxycycline (Pfizer) by reversed phase HPLC.
دراسة مقارنة التكافؤ الحيوي لمادة دوكسي سام و دوكسي سايكلين بواسطة كروماتوكرافيا الطور العكوس.

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Isocratic high performance liquid chromatography on reversed phase a (150x 4.6 mm I.D), 5 μm μ-Bondapak RP-8 column (with acidic mobile phase allow the separation of doxcycycline hydrochloride with low detection limit of 0.2 µg/ml detected by UV set at 226 nm. The method was validated for Doxycycline between 0.156- to 5 µg/ml. The concentration of doxycycline was assessed in two single dose randomized crossover studies with intervals of one week between two period. In sera of 20 adults healthy male volunteers with average age of (42 + 10) year, body weight 48-85 kg, body height of (160-185cm) after a single dose of doxycycline hydrochoride 100 mg in form of capsules were orally administrated for both formulations. The blood samples (2ml) were drawn concomitantly from 0.5 – 24 hours. µg The pharmacokinetics parameter were obtained from the mean serum concentration measured at various sampling times for both formulations. The maximum peak concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline reference drug from Pfizer In serum was (3.1 +0.094 µg /ml) attained in 2 hrs. While the maximum concentration (Cmax) of test drug doxysam (2.8 +0.098 µg /ml) attained in about 2 hrs, both drug have long elimination time with half time of approximately (13 hrs.) Both test and reference drug were show no significant difference in pharmacokinetics parameters, so they were considered to be bioequivalent.


Article
Safety method, Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfamethaxazole drug in bulk and Pharmaceutical Preparations
تقدير دواء السلفومثوكزول بطريقة طيفيةامنة في المادة النقية وفي المستحضرات الصيدلانية

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A simple, cheap, fast, accurate, Safety and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of sulfamethaxazole (SFMx), in pure form and pharmaceutical dosage forms. has been described The Method is based on the diazotization of the drug by sodium nitrite in acidic medium at 5Cº followed by coupling with salbutamol sulphate (SBS) drug to form orange color the product was stabilized and measured at 452 nm Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5-87.5 μg ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 2.5x104 L mole-1 cm-1. All variables including the reagent concentration, reaction time, color stability period, and sulfamethaxazole /salbutamol ratio were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. No interferences were observed Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. These methods are successfully employed for the determination of sulfamethaxazole in some pharmaceutical preparations.. The developed method is easy to use and accurate for routine studies relative to HPLC and other techniques.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial activity Study Via some new Schiff bases for Trimethoprim
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض مركبات قواعد شف لـ تراي مثبرين

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This search reports the synthesis of some new series of Schiff base compounds for trimetheprim derivatives which known high been known as a medicinal effectiveness. Trimetheprim was condensed with several substituted aldehydes compounds.(4-dimethyl amine benzaldehyde , propanal , salicaldehyde, 2.4 dimethoxy benzaldehyde and 4- methyl benzaldehyde) to obtain Schiff base products(1a-5a) and several substituted ketones compound (4-aminoacetophenone,4-chloroacetophenone, isobutyleketone, acetylacetone and acetophenone) to obtain Schiff base products(6b-10b) in ethanol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst to yield the Schiff base. The structure of synthesized compounds has been established on the basis of their Chemical structures of all products were confirmed by spectrophotometric methods such as U.V. visible and FTIR.. All these compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Gram + ve bacteria (bacillus) , Gram –ve bacteria (E-Coli).Most Compound under investigation exhibited potent antibacterial activity


Article
Comparison of Mercury Intrusion and Nitrogen Adsorption Measurements for the Characterization of Certain Natural Raw Materials Deposits
مقارنة بين قياسات نفاذ الزئبق وأمتزاز النتروجين في تشخيص ترسبات معينة من الخامات الطبيعية

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The porosity of materials is important in many applications, products and processes, such as electrochemical devices (electrodes, separator, active components in batteries), porous thin film, ceramics, soils, construction materials, ..etc. This can be characterized in many different methods, and the most important methods for industrial purposes are the N2 gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. In the present paper, both of these techniques have been used to characterize some of Iraqi natural raw materials deposits. These are Glass Sand, Standard Sand, Flint Clay and Bentonite. Data from both analyses on the different types of natural raw materials deposits are critically examined and discussed. The results of specific surface areas showed considerable difference between the two sets of data on the same material. This indicates that the material have an external surface which can not be measure by mercury porosimeter. Also pore size distribution data obtained from N2 adsorption measurements shows a wide range of the smallest pore size. This result suggests that materials have micropores using IUPAC definitions of pore size.


Article
Synthesis and Polymerization of Poly Acryl Imide and One of Their Derivatives Then Curing the Product with Alkyl Halide
تحضير وبلمرة بولي اكريل امايد ومعاملة احد نواتج مشتقاتة مع هاليد الاكليل

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The present work involved four steps: First step include reaction of acrylamide ,N-Ń-Methylen-bis(acryl amide) and N-tert Butyl acryl amide with poly acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethyl amine (Et3N) as catalyst, the second step include homopolymerization of all products of the first step by using benzoyl peroxide(BPO) as initiator in (80-90)Co in the presence of Nitrogen gas(N2). In the third step the poly acrylimide which prepare in second step was convert into potassium salt by using alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. Fourth step include Alkylation of the prepared polymeric salts in third step by react it with different alkyl halides(benzyl chloride, allylbromide , methyl iodide) by using DMF as solvent for(10-12) hours. Structure Confirmation of all prepared polymers were proved using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and C13-NMR spectroscopy for some polymers. Other physical properties including softening and melting points of the polymers were also measured.


Article
Synthesis , characterization and biological activity study of N-substituted sulfonamido maleimides substituted with different heterocycles
تخليق،تشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لمركبات N – معوض سلفون اميدو مالي ايمايد معوضة بحلقات غير متجانسة مختلفة

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Eighteen new cyclic imides (maleimides) conncted to benzothiazole moiety through sulfonamide group were synthesized via multistep synthesis.The first step involved preparation of two maleamic acids N-phenylmaleamic acid and N-benzylmaleamic acid via reaction of maleic anhydride with aniline or benzyl amine.Dehydration of the prepared amic acids by treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate in the second step afforded N-phenylmaleimide and N- benzyl maleimide which in turn were treated with chlorosulfonic acid in the third step to afford 4-(N-maleimidyl) phenyl sulfonyl chloride and 4-(N-maleimidyl) benzyl sulfonyl chloride respectively.In the Fourth step of this work each one of the two prepared maleimidyl sulfonyl chlorides was introduced in reaction with nine substituted-2-amino benzothiazole compounds producing nine N-(4-(N-substituted benzothiazole -2-yl) sulfonamido phenyl) maleimides and nine N-(4-(N-substituted benzothiazole-2-yl)snlfonamido benzyl) maleimides.More over another new six sulfonamide phenyl and benzyl maleimides substituted with other heterocycles (pyridine and phenazone )were prepared via reaction of 4-(N-maleimidyl) phenyl and benzyl sulfonyl chlorides with heterocyclic amines including (2-amino pyridine,4-amino-pyridine,4-aminophenazone). Microbiological activity of the prepared compounds against two typs of bacteria(staphylococcus aureus and klebsiella pneumonia) and (candida albicans) fungi were evaluated and the results showed that these compounds have good antibacterial and good antifungal activities.


Article
Free Fatty Acids and Biochemical Changes in Iraqi patients with Chronic Renal Failure
الاحماض الدهنية الحرة والتغيرات البايوكيميائية في المرضى العراقيين المصابين بالفشل الكلوي المزمن

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Chronic renal failure (CRF) is progressive irreversible destruction of kidney tissue by disease which, if not treated by dialysis or transplant, will result in patient's death. This study was carried out on 30 patients (17 male and 13 female) with chronic renal failure. The aim of this research was studied the changes in the level of total protein ,albumin, calcium ,ionized calcium, phosphorous , iron ,ALP, LDH ,CK and FFA in patients with CRF before and after hemodialysis .The obtained results have been compared with 30 healthy subjects as control group (18male and 12 female). The results showed that there was significant increase in the level of calcium ,ionized calcium, phosphorous ,iron ,ALP,LDH,CK and FFA ,while there was a significant decrease in the level of total protein ,albumin before hemodialysis comparison to control group . Non significant changes was observed in the level of total protein ,albumin, calcium ,ionized calcium, phosphorous and significant increase in the level of iron ,ALP,LDH,CK and FFA after hemodialysis as compared to control group. This study shows significant positive correlation between FFA and each of albumin and total protein in pre and post-dialysis patients ,and a significant positive correlation with calcium and non significant with ionized calcium in pre-dialysis patients where as there were non significant correlation with calcium and a significant negative correlation with ionized calcium in post-dialysis patients. The conclusion of this study is hemodialysate composition (concentration of electrolytes, free –ionized calcium and some other plasma constituents), the increase concentration of other biochemical changes after renal dialysis because of amissibility a much of amounts of body fluids, and the change in acidosis status may be affect on the correlation between FFA and other parameters used in this study.


Article
Biochemical Study of Gallstones Compositions in Iraqipatients
دراسة كيميائية حياتية لمكونات حصى المرارة لدى العراقيين

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The aim of this study is to determine the organic and inorganic components of bile and gallstones in Iraqi patients. Forty seven patients were included in this study with mean age (53+7) years and BMI (30.82+4.18) Kg/m2. Bile was classified according to its corresponding stones into: Bile of Mixed stones and Bile of pigment stones. IR spectra were studied for both types of stones and their bile in addition to biochemical analysis for organic and inorganic components. The organic components include: (cholesterol, bilirubin, bile salts, and phospholipids), while inorganic components include salts of: (calcium, phosphorus, iron, cupper and magnesium). The results reveal to there was significant low levels (p<0.005) of bile salts and phospholipids in bile of patients with mixed stones in comparison to their levels in bile of pigment stones ( p<0.001). There is significant increase in the salts levels of calcium, phosphorus, iron, cupper, magnesium, and bilirubin, in bile of pigment stones as compared to their levels in mixed stones bile. It was concluded that most types of stones that are formed in Iraqi patients are mixed stones when cholesterol is the main component and pigment stones are more less incidence to occur when bilirubin salts form their main component and they are mostly tend to occur in hemolytic diseases such as: sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and so on .


Article
Synthesis of aryl hydrazone derivatives for α-naphthalide and benzothiazolide
تحضير مشتقات اريل هايدروزن للمركب الفا- نفثالايد وبنزوثايوزلايد

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Three series of new N-(α–naphthyl-2-(aryl hydrazono)-3-oxo butanamide, N-(6-chloro) benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(aryl hydrazono)-3- oxo butanamide and N-(6-methyl) benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(aryl hydrazono)-3- oxo butanamide were synthesized in two steps derived from α-naphthyl amine, 2-aminobenzothiazole. : The first step was involved the reaction of different fused aromatic amines (α-naphthyl amine, 6-chloro-2-aminobenzothiazole and 6-methyl-2- aminobenzothiazole) with methyl acetoacetate at (160-170) 0C by using modern method to provide greatly improved yields. In the second step arenediazonium chloride was added to [3-oxo-butanamide derivatives] in basic solution at (0-5) 0C to get ten new dyes of aryl hydrazono derivatives. These synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and by measuring their melting points, and solubility.


Article
Relation between Serum Leptin, Lipid Profiles and other biomarkers levels in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy
علاقة مستوى اللبتين مع شاكلة الدهون وبعض المتغيرات الكيمياحياتية في مصل دم مرضى السكري من النمط الثاني المصاحب بأعتلال الكلى

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Background: In advanced diabetes mellitus, serum levels of the most hormones are altered due to several interplaying mechanisms. Objective: To assess the relation of serum leptin and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Patients and Method: Serum leptin levels and its relation to lipid profile were estimated in 62 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy attending the National Diabetes Center in Al- Mustansiriya University, and (26) healthy individuals considered as control group. The diabetic patients were classified into three groups, (24) pathients with normoalbuminuria (21) patients with microalbuminuria and (17) patients with macroalbuminuria. Fasting plasma glucose, serum creatinine, Hb A1c %, lipid profile (Total cholesterol, LDL- Cholesterol, HDL- Cholesterol and Triglyceride) and urinary albumin, were measured to establish the possibility of using these biomarkers as a supplementary to serum leptin to be a diagnostic test for type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Results: Serum leptin levels showed a significant elevation in microalbuminuria (20.08± 4.50 ng/ml) and macroalbuminuria groups (22.35± 6.89 ng/ml) as compared to nondiabetic normal control group (10.64 ± 3.17 ng/ml). There was no significant differences observed in serum leptin levels between the normoalbuminuria group (13.96 ± 5.73 ng/ml) and healthy controls, but a significant positive differences were noticed in the levels of fasting plasma glucose, serum creatinine, Hb A1c% and lipid profile in the three patient groups in comparison with the control group. While no significant correlation was observed between these biomarkers levels and serum leptin values. Conclusion: It might be concluded that serum leptin levels were elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, suggesting that renal leptin degradation is impaired in early stage of kidney damage and this impairment increase with the progression of this disease. Leptin hormone may consider according to these results as a risk factor for progression of kidney disease in diabetic patients.


Article
Construction of Phenytoin Selective Electrodes and Its Application to Pharmaceutical Preparation
بناء قطب الفنيتون الانتقائي لتقدير الفنيتون في المواد الصيدلانية

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Phenytoin selective electrodes were constructed based on penytoin-phosphotungstate (Ph-PT) complex with different plasticizers; di-butyl phosphate (DBP), tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBPH),and o-nitro phenyl octyl ether (NPOE) phthalate. The electrodes based on DBPH, ONPOE plasticizers gave Narnistain slope which are, 56.4 and 55.3mV/decade with detection limit of 1.9x10-5 M , 1.8x10-5 and concentration range 10-1 to 10-4 M and pH range 3.0 – 8.0. The electrodes based on TBP and DBP showed non-Nernistain slopes, 40.2,40.5 mV/decade for both plasticizers. Interfering of some cations was investigated and shows no interfering with electrodes response. Potentiometric methods were used for measuring phenytion in pharmaceutical drugs (tablets) and the electrode based on DBPH was used for determination. The recovery obtained from measuring was in good agreements with that given in British Pharmacopeias.


Article
Level of uric acid and its, relationship with lipid peroxidation in sera of patients with acute coronary syndrome
مستوى حامض اليوريك وعلاقته بتفاعل الدهون مع البيروكسيد في امصال مرض القلب المزمن

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Unstable angina pectoris often leads to acute myocardial infarction. Since uric acid is thought to be risk factor for cardiovascular disease and considered a major antioxidant in human blood .The level of uric acid and lipid peroxidation in the sera of patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction were measured and compared to the healthy individuals. Twenty-nine patients with unstable angina and twenty-nine patients with myocardial infarction were studied and compared to twenty-five healthy individuals. Uric acid was measured by using Human Kit. Malondialdelyde (MDA) a lipid peroxidation marker, was measured by thiobarbituric acid method .Significant elevation of uric acid and MDA were observed in the sera of patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction compared to the control group , while a non significant correlation between uric acid and lipid peroxidation were found in the present study in the sera of patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction.


Article
Spectrophotometric determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets, by diazotization-coupling method with 1-naphthol as the coupling agent
التقدير الطيفي لهيدروكلوريد الميتوكلوبراميد في الأقراص الصيدلانيةبطريقة الأزوتة و الازدواج مع 1-نفثول كعامل الازدواج

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Simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method was proposed for the analysis of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MPH) in pure form as well as in pharmaceutical tablets. The method is based on the diazotization reaction of MPH with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium to form diazonium salt, which is coupled with 1-naphthol in sodium hydroxide medium to form azo dye, showing absorption maxima at 550 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.4 – 18 µg mL-1 of MPH with detection limit 0.5448 µg mL-1. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 3.4969 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0101 µg cm-2, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of MPH in pharmaceutical tablets without any interference from common excipients used as additives in tablets. The results agree favorably with the official British Pharmacopoeia method.


Article
Spectrophotometric determination of salbutamol sulphate in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations
تقدير دواء كبريتات السالبيتيمول بطريقة طيفية في المادة النقية وفي المستحضرات الصيدلانية

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A new simple and sensitive colorimetric method has been developed for determination of salbutamol in aqueous solutions. The method is based on the formation of a yellow colored azo dye by diazotization of 2,4-dichloroaniline, followed by a azo-coupling reaction between the resulting product and salbutamol. The maximum absorbance of azo dye at 447 nm. Beer's law was found to be obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5-20 μg/ml with range of molar absorptivity between(4000-7265) Lmol-1cm-1. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated.


Article
Study the Effects of Polyphenolic Cocoa beans Extracts (CE) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
دراسة تأثيرات مستخلص حبيبات الكاكاو البولي فينولية في الفئران المصابة بالسكري المحث بالستربتوزوتوسين

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Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increasing of glucose level in plasma compared with normal value (hyperglycemia). This disease also causes elevation of lipid profile levels except HDL (High density lipoproteins) which increased relatively. The effects of the polyphenolic mixture (catechins, epicatechins, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C1) on total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were studied in (30) streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with (20-25)gm weight. Mice were given (30 mg/mL) of Polyphenolic Cocoa beans Extracts (CE) once daily for (7) days before Streptozotocin STZ injection and for (21 day) there after. At (day7) (TC), (TG) and (LDL) levels were elevated (P<0.001) and (HDL) level was decreased (P<0.001) compared with control group because of the effect of streptozotocin. A decreasing of (TC), (TG) and (LDL) (P<0.05) and increasing of HDL levels (P<0.05) at (day 21) were proved because of the protective effect of polyphenols against oxidative stress.


Article
Synthesis of New Heterocyclic Derivatives from 4-(3, 5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)- benzoic acid
تحضير مشتقات حلقات غير متجانسة جديدة من 4-(3،5-داي مثيل -1-فنيل ،1-Hبايرازول ، بلزو، حامض البنزوك

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Abstract

In this work pyrazolin derivatives were prepared from the diazonium chloride salt of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Azo compounds were prepared from the reaction of an ethanolic solution of sodium acetate and calculated amount of active methylene compound namely, acetyl acetone to obtain the corresponding hydrazono derivative (1). Cyclocondensation reaction of compounds (1) with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine in boiling ethanol affording the corresponding pyrazoline-5-one derivatives of 4-aminobenzoic acid (2,3). Then compound (3) was reacted with thionyl chloride to give the corresponding acid chloride derivative(4), followed by conversion into the corresponding acid hydrazide derivative (5) carboxylic acid thiosemicarbazide (11), esters (14,15), thioesters (16,17) and amides (18,19), when treated hydrazine hydrate, thiosemicarbazide, alcohols, alkylthiol and secondary amines in dry refluxing benzene; respectively. Schiff's bases (6-8) were prepared by refluxing of compound (5) with different aldehydes and ketons, then two compounds from the Schiff's bases were cyclized with α-mercapto acetic acid to give (9 and 10). Furthermore, 1,2,4-triazole derivative (12) have been also prepared by refluxing thiosemicarbazide derivative with sodium hydroxide solution (4%) followed acidification of the result using (10%)hydrolic acid. Moreover, a thiadiazole derivative (13) has been prepared by treatment of thiosemicarbazide derivative with concentrated sulfuric acid as cyclyzing agent. Finally, oxadiazole derivative (20) has prepared by condensation of its acid hydrazide derivative with carbon disulfide in basic medium.


Article
Effect of 1,4-Napthaquinone (NQ) and benzophenone (BPH)on the photodegradation and biodegradation of methyl cellulose film
تأثير 1،4- نفثاكوينون و بنزوكوينون والتكسر الضوئي والحيوي لفلم مثيل سليلوز

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The induced photodegradation of methyl cellulose (MC) films in air was investigated in the absence and presence of aromatic carbonyl compounds(photosenssitizers): 1,4-naphthaquinone (NQ) and benzophenone (BPH) by accelerated weathering tester. The addition of (0.01 wt %) of low molecular weight aromatic carbonyl compounds to cellulose derivatives films(25µm in thickness) enhanced the photodegradation of the polymer films.The photodegradation rate was measured by the increase in carbonyl absorbance. Decreases in solution viscosity and reduction of molecular weight were also observed in the irradiated samples. Changes in the number-average chain scission, the degree of deterioration and in the quantum yield of chain scission values are also observed, and it was concluded that branching or cross-linking has occurred for cellulose derivative with NQ and BPH. Findings from all analytical techniques indicated that the 1,4-naphthaquinone (NQ) photosensitizer enhance the photodegradation of methyl cellulose more than benzophenone (BPH). The effect of the photosensitizer concentration, (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 %), on the rate of photodegradation was also monitored for MC films. The rates are increased with increasing the photosensitizer concentration. The effect of film thickness is also studied at fixed sensitizer concentration (0.05%), and results show that the rate of cellulose derivative photodegradation decreases with increasing film thickness. The rate constants of the photodegradation of the photosensitizers deduced in cellulose derivatives films, [at concentration of (0.1%)by weight and thickness (25µm)]. Biodegradation of irradiated cellulose derivatives films was conclusively established with bacteria type Pseudomonas aeuroginosa Rb-19 isolated from crude oil. The amount of bacteria growth on MC after 30 days was lower, while there was no growth observed in MC with BPH


Article
Adsorption Study for Chromium (VI) on Iraqi Bentonite
دراسة امتزاز الكروم السداسي على طين البنتونايت العراقي

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Abstract

The subject of this research involves studying adsorption to remove hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process on bentonite clay as adsorbent was used in the Cr(VI) concentration range (10-100) ppm at different temperatures (298, 303, 308 and 313)K, for different periods of time. The adsorption isotherms were obtained by obeying Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm with R2 (0.9921-0.9060) and (0.994-0.9998), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated by using the adsorption process at four different temperatures the values of H, G and S was [(+6.582  +6.547) kJ.mol-1, (-284.560  -343.070) kJ.mol-1 and (+0.977  +1.117) kJ.K-1.mol-1] respectively. This data indicates the spontaneous sorption process. The kinetic study of adsorption process was studied depending on three kinetic equations: 1- Lagergren equation 2- Morris-Weber equation 3- Reichenberg equation

Keywords

Study --- Adsorption --- Chromium --- Bentonite.


Article
Clinical Evaluation of Some Biochemical Parameters from Patients in Heamodialysis Room
التقدير السريري لبعض المتغيرات الكيموحياتية لدى المرضى الراقدين في وحدة غسل الكلية

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As a marker of systemic inflammation, raised (C-reactive protein (CRP)) concentrations which are still within the normal range have been associated with an increased inflammation of chronic renal diseases (CRD). The current study aimed to establish potential determinats of raised CRP concentrations in patients who treated in Heamodialysis room,then study the relationship between CRP& some biochemical parameters related CRD We used a CRP latex reagents Kit which is based on an immunological reaction between CRP antisera bounded to the biologically inert latex particles or with CRP in the test specimens of 19 patients with (CRD) mean age 48 years ,range = 30→65 & in 21 healthy subjects as control group their age range = 30 →45 years. The results are classified according to visible agglutination to: 1-A positive result / is indicated by the obvious agglutination pattern of the latex, in a clear solution. 2-A negative result / is indicated by no change in the latex suspension on the test slide. Then, we correlated the results of the precipitin test with the quantitative data on C-reactive protein. This study has found that: CRP concentrations in patients with CRD were increased very clearly than normal subjects , and established that CRP concentration in male was more than in female for patients specimens. Biochemical studies have shown raising (CRP) concentration is a marker of systemic inflammation. The relation between CRP & S.creatinine ,hemoglobine ,blood sugar is negative ,while positive with blood urea . Other biochemical parameter related to CRD'' blood urea, blood creatinine & hemoglobine and blood sugar'' were assayed for both subjects in order to asses the disease by compared the results. Abbreviation: CRP:C-reactive protein, CRD: Chronic renal diseases, F: Female, M: Male, Hb: hemoglobin, BU: blood Urea, S.Cr: Serum creatinine, BS: blood sugar, nCRP: native CRP, MCRP: Matified CRP.


Article
Preparation and characterization of Activated Carbon from Iraqi Corns Stalks
تحضير الفحم المنشط من مادة سيقان الذرة ودراسة خصائصه

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Abstract

In this paper, Activated Carbon was successfully prepared from local Iraqi material namely corns stalks .Zinc chloride ZnCl2 was used as activating agent with different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%) for 72 hours. followed by carbonization at 450 C for (2) hour. UV-Spectrophotometer used for measuring absorbance of methylene blue solutions before and after adsorption. the maximum amount adsorbed for methylene blue material of the prepared activated Carbon was studied by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Other characteristics of the resulting activated Carbon also discussed, such as pH, Moisture Content and ash content. Finally Activated carbon prepared in this work has good properties compared to the standard samples in such a way it could be used in industrial activities due to the fact that the corn stalks available locally in our country.


Article
Antifungal Activity of Some New Binuclear Complexes
الفعالية مضادة الفطريات لبعض المعقدات ثنائية النواة الجديدة

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Three complexes of copper(II) and iron(II) with mixed ligands acetylacetonebis(thio-semicarbazone)- ABTSH2 and benzaldazine- BA have been prepared and characterized using different physico-chemical techniques including the determination of metal contents, mole-cular weight, measurement of molar conductivity, magnetic moment, molar refraction, infrared and electronic spectra. Accordingly, octahedral complexes having general formulaes [Cu2(ABTSH2)2(BA)2Cl2]Cl2 and [M2(ABTSH2)2(BA)2(SO4)2] {M= Cu(II) or (Fe(II)} have been proposed. The resulted complexes screened for antifungal activity in vitro against the citrus pathogen Aspergillus niger and Fusarium sp. which caused root rot of sugar and the beans pathogen Alternaria sp. All the complexes exhibited significant antifungal activities against these pathogens. The antifungal activity of these complexes were comparable with the standard fungicides in ethanol. The complex [Cu2(ABTSH2)2(BA)2Cl2]Cl2 had the best antifungal activity against Alternaria sp.


Article
Assessment of risk factors for myocardial infarction and its relationship with some variables
تقييم عوامل خطورة الإصابة باحتشاء العضلة القلبية وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات

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The aim of the study is to assess the risk factors which lead to myocardial infarction and relation to some variables. The filed study was carried out from the 1st of April to the end of Sept. 2005. The Sample of the study consisted of (100) patients in lbn-Albeetar and Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The result of the study indicated the following; 45% of patients with age group (41-50) were more exposed to the disease and there is no significant difference was seen in the level of education, Martial status, weight and height. The result shows that there are significant difference in risk factors like hypertension, cholesterol level in blood and diabetes. When analyzed by T.test at level of P < 0.01 and there are significant difference in smoking habits, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus patient's when analyzed by chi-squire at level of P < 0.01. The researcher recommends taking the Preventive measuments to control the risk factors.


Article
Improvement the bearing capacity of the soil which is supporting the shallow foundation by using bored short micro-piles
تحسين قابلية تحمل التربة الساندة للأسس الضحلة باستعمال ركائز الحفر الكونكريتية القصيرة

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In this paper , concrete micro-piles were used to improve the bearing capacity of the soil which is supporting the shallow foundation by using groups of (4; 6 and 9)bored short micro-piles which have, (D=0.125m and D=0.1m), and length to diameter ratio (L/D) equal to (6; 10 and 12) respectively. To calculate the bearing capacity of the micro-piles,(Tomlinson) and (Lamda) methods were used; also the soil properties were taken from Al-Muthana airport,(Al-Qyssi,2001) [1]. The results show that; increasing the number of piles and/ or the diameters and lengths; and the interaction between the bearing capacity of the shallow foundation with the bearing capacity of the pile group which leads to increasing the strength against the external loads; and the maximum bearing capacity was, when 9 piles with (L/D=12) was used. The improving ratio in the bearing capacity was (90%) compared with the bearing capacity of a (1×1) m shallow foundation without any piles. The results show that, the Tomlinson method of analysis produce lower results than the Lamda method by a ratio of (2-6) %. The results show also that the use of bored short micro-piles with (D=0.125m); (L/D=12) and number of 4-piles better than the (9) bored short micro-piles which have (D=0.1m).


Article
Study the Level of Service to Roadways which Leading to Basrah University
معالجة الاختناقات المرورية في المنطقة المحيطة بجامعة البصرة

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The building of Basrah University located in a rural area at Gramat Ali, its consist of seven colleges and very high number of students, lecturers ,and employers. Therefore, the intersections which leading to university building suffer congestion at morning peak hour (8-9) A.M and evening peak hour (2-3) P.M. In this study we collected the data in intersections which leading to university building at peak hour at same time, then we had analysis this data by using the highway capacity manual (HCM) and program (HCS). Also, we collected that data in University entries with classification of vehicles according to types and number of passengers at peak hour. Then we studied the number of proposals to riddance the congestion, such as the effect of vehicles prohibition which one and two passenger to entry in University at peak hour. This proposal will riddance of the congestion at University entries and intersections.


Article
Impact of maternal risk factors on the outcome of pregnancy in Baghdad city
تأثير عوامل الخطورة للام على ناتج الحمل

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To find out the impact of maternal risk factors on the outcome of pregnancy in Baghdad city. A descriptive purposive study was carried out on 100 postpartum women who had delivered for 1 hr. to 24 hrs. ago . the study sample was selected from three hospitals in Baghdad city ( Baghdad teaching hospital ,Fatima Al-Zahra'a maternity and pediatric teaching hospital and Al-Yarmook teaching hospital),during the period from 25 Jan. to 25 Feb. 2006. The data were collected through the use of questionnaire format reviewing pregnants' records and personal interview and were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical approaches. The finding revealed that maternal pregnancy complications had weak effects on pregnancy outcome , while maternal employment & spouse's consanguinity were predictors for poor pregnancy outcome . The study recommended the necessity of establishing health education programs for pregnant to be self monitoring & early detection of complications that associate the pregnancy . In addition promote the system of follow up care during antenatal ,perinatal,& postnatal.


Article
Evaluation of an education program upon women's knowledge toward management of Breast Self – Examination(BSE)
تقويم برنامج تثقيفي لمعارف النساء حول تدبر الفحص الذاتي للثدي

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To determine the evaluation of education program on women's knowledge regarding managing BSE. The present quasi- experimental study, Non-probability (purposive), sample consisting of (260) women who are employee, and students in both colleges (Nursing college, Medical and Health Techniques College). The sample consist of two groups, study group (130) including those in (Nursing college), and control group (130) in (Medical and Health Techniques College). A questionnaire was constructed which included, Demographic information, Reproductive information, Family history, Previous medical history, and information about women's knowledge toward management of breast self examination (BSE). Instrument validity and reliability was determined. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire, the application of the educational program a post-test was done for the study only which use the lectures, booklets, training practice of BSE, and video film. Analysis of data was performed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. Revealed that the women in the study group had benefited from the implementation of the educational program; their knowledge regarding managing BSE was adequately improved and developed. The study illustrated significant difference between women's knowledge means in pre and post test periods regarding their managing for BSE. Implementation of proposed model of continuous medical education for women for BSE within the scope of their work.


Article
Local and Global Uniqueness Theorems of the N-th Order Partial Differential Equations
نظريتي الوحدانية العامة والمحلية للمعادلات التفاضلية الجزئية من الرتبة النونية

Authors: Tahani Ali تهاني علي سلمان
Pages: 829-832
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In this paper, we consider inequalities in which the function is an element of n-th partially order space. Local and Global uniqueness theorem of solutions of the n-the order Partial differential equation Obtained which are applications of Gronwall's inequalities.


Article
Embryological developmental changes in the gonads of male mice associated with lead administration
التغيرات النمائية الجنينية في مناسل ذكور الفئران المرافقة لاستهلاك الرصاص

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The biological systems of human in the modern world are increasely being exposed to lead which exists in the environment. Women at reproductive age and pregnant are more susceptible to the danger of environmental lead pollutant leading to infertility. Prenatal exposure to lead may cause abnormal growth, spontaneous abortion and congenital problems. As there is an increase usage of electrical generators that depend on lead-based gasoline by Iraqi people which lead to increase the air pollution with this toxic substance induced us to detect through this study its possible negative effects on the fate of conception and embryonic development using the mouse as a model. The study aims to asses the effect of low dose concentrations of lead acetate given to pregnant female mice on the development of gonads of male mice embryos at different periods of gestation. Mature mice aging 8-10 weeks(180 mice) weighing 25-27 grams were used. The animals were divided into three major experimental groups (G1, G2, G3)according to the level of the dose (30 animals/ group), paralleled with three control groups(C1, C2, C3). Each major group subdivided into three minor groups(10 animals/ group) according to different periods for sacrificing during gestation period (day 14, day17, and day 20). Vaginal smears were taken from all animals daily until metestrus phase and mating was occurred using one male mouse for each female, the first day of pregnancy registered, indicated by presence of vaginal pluge. Experimental groups G1, G2 and G3 administrated daily with either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate respectively dissolved in normal saline, injected intraperitoneally for 14, 17 or 20 days of gestation, while corresponding control animals C1, C2 and C3 were injected with normal saline only with doses and periods similar to that used with experimental animals. Mother's body weight, weight of uterus, weight and numbers of fetuses in right and left horn, pregnancy outcomes (abortion, and stillbirth), and diameter of fetal testes were recorded after 14, 17, and 20 day post coitum (dpc). Results showed a significant decrease in all the studied parameters of the experimental groups including: mother’s body weights, uterus weights, numbers and weights of fetuses, pregnancy outcomes (abortion and stillbirth) and diameter of fetal testes compared to that of the control groups. Histological study showed significant increase in the diameter of the testis at age 14 days with the low dose, then it become significant decrease at age 17 and 20 days of gestation with disrupting of testicular structure organization, degeneration of germ cells and absence of basal lamina in all the experimental groups. In additon undescending of the testes to its normal position was observed in all experimental groups at 17 and 20 dpc. It remained adjacent to the kidneys at the upper part of the abdominal cavity while it was normally relocating at the base of the abdominal cavity in control groups at 17 dpc and descent into inguinal canal at 20 dpc. It was concluded from these results that lead acetate given to pregnant female mice impaired the gonads of male mice embryos with reduction in mother's body and uterus weights along with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These negative effects induced us to avoid the dangerous from using this toxic substance and trying to found effective alterative materials through environmental safety centers.


Article
Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome upon Female s' Health Related Quality of Life
تأثير تهيج القولون العصبي على نوعـية حياة النساء

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain with diarrhea and/or constipation. The morbidity records reveal large differences per 1000 patients per year, the incidence varies from 4-13 % and the prevalence from 6-20 % and that the syndrome is more prevalence among women than among men, it is occurs mainly between the ages of 15 and 65 and often causes long- term complications. Its about 15-20% in women the etiology of IBS has not been definitively established. It was originally thought to be a psychosomatic disorder, but more recent studies have identified chronic immune activation. The impact of IBS upon humans is tremendous. Chronic and recurring symptoms of IBS can disrupt personal and professional activities, upset emotional well-being and limit individual potential. It is imperative that the best ways to manage and treat this syndrome are made available to patients so they can enjoy a normal and healthy life. Descriptive analytical design of the study starting from July 8th 2008 to the April 29th 2009 in order to identify the impact of IBS upon Health Related Quality of Life at females. The present study was carried out in the Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Hospital (G&LDH) in Baghdad. A non- probability (purposive) sample of 100 adults females who have IBS. The questionnaire was composed of two parts and introductory page that invite the subjects to participate in the study. Part I: Socio- Demographic Information Sheet Part II: Used Short-form 36 Items version II, (Standard Version of WHO for quality of life) which included: (Health status, Physical function, Role physical, Role emotion, Social function, Bodily Pain, Vitality, Mental health, and General health). The findings of (100) IBS females of present study Indicated that the (30%) at 28-37 years old, (54%) continuous married , most of them (61%) were government employee, Majority of sample ( 42%) were college graduate, half of the sample were high level income, and the females complain from alternate between constipation and diarrhea were 47%. The total means of role physical and role emotion were lower than total means for other domains of Health Related Quality of life. A negative impact of IBS on Health Related Quality of life in females at 28-37years, widow were lowered quality of life, the IBS were negative impact on government employed females.

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