Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:8 issue:1

Article
Age,Growth and Reproduction of Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha in Al-Musayab Thermal Power Plant, Iraq
العمر والنمو والتكاثر للمحار المخطط Dreissena polymorphaفي محطة كهرباء المسيب الحرارية

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Some biological aspects of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha have been studied at Al-Musayab thermal power plant ,sixty km. south west of Baghdad. Data collected during the period extended from November, 2002 to October, 2003 except for the month of April The population consisted of five age groups; O, I, II, III, and IV which have 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 annuli respectively. The study also proved the validity of annuli readings for age and growth determination. The average annual growth rates for age groups O,I, II, III, and IV were 5.7, 5.5, 5.4, 5.2 and 5.4 respectively. Average calculated length for laboratory reared mussel was 2.5 mm compared to 5.4 mm in natural environment. Correlation coefficients were very high between age and shell length, shell hight and total weight. their respective values were 0.892, 0.929 and0.934. Mature gonads were recognized during March, June and October where sex ratio was determined. Chi-square test showed no statistical difference between the two sexes.By calculating total average weights during months of study, two maturing and spawning periods were noted. The first was in late June and July, the second extended from September through February.


Article
The effect of Bacillus thuringiensis in Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepetoptera:Gelechiidae)
تأثير بكتيريا Bacillus thuringiensisفي عثة درنات البطاطا Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)

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The following dilutions -710X46, -610X46, -510X46 of Bacillus thuringiensis were used for bioassay against the different larval instar of the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella by the spraying method, the results showed that there was no significant influence in the percentage of egg hatching in comparison with the control. The sensitivity of larval stages was reduced with the increasing the age and exposure period. The study also showed that the larvae infected with B.t. stopped feeding, movement and a general paralysis causing the death of larva after (24-48) hours , and the larva color was changed from the natural waxy colour to brown finally to the black after death.


Article
Histological Structure of the Integument in Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Solander)
التركيب النسجي للجلد في سمكة المرمريجMastacembelus mastacembelus (Solander)

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The histological structure of integument in Mastacembelus mastacembelus have been investigated from skin fragments cut from nine regions at body surface. The results revealed that the integument of the fish investigated comprises three principal layers- the epidermis, the dermis (corium) and the subcutis-All the three principal layers may further be divided into secondary layers according to the function performed by their cells. The epidermis may further divided into three layers- the outermost epithelial coverage, the middle layer and the basal layer (stratum germinatiuum)-The dermis consists of a relatively thin upper layer of loose vascular connective tissue called the stratum laxum and a thick lower compact layer- the stratum compactum. The upper loose layer contains blood capillaries, nerve fibers and scale pockets. The subcutis is the innermost and the thinnest layer of the skin and is situated in between the stratum compactum and the muscles. All the above main layers showed great extend in their thickness.


Article
Epidemiological Study of Viral Hepatitis/ Chibayish Marsh Reality in Iraq
دراسـة التهاب الكبد الفايـروسي /هور الجبايش في العراق

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Total of 170 samples were collected from Al-Chibayish Marsh reality in Dhi-Qar governorate southern of Iraq to study the epidemology of viral hepatitis in these areas and to detect the type of hepatitis viruses which include A ,B,C,D .The percentage of hepatitis A was 1.17% and most of them below age of ≤10 (66.6%) while infection with hepatitis B account 5.29% and includes all age groups. There was no detected cases of hepatitis C,D. The laboratory study showed that the incidence of hepatitis B higher in male (4.11%) compared to female ( 2.35%)


Article
Isolation and Identification of Vibrio cholerae causes Epidemic cholera 2007 in Iraq by Rapid Method (Immunochromatographic one step rapid visual test) and comparing it with the traditional Bacterlogical Methods
عزل وتشخيص بكتريا الكوليرا المسببة لوباء الكوليرا لعام 2007 في العراق بالطريقة السريعة والمتضمنة(Immunochromatographic one step rapid visual test ) ومقارنتها بالطرائق البكتريولوجية التقليدية .

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Abstract

This study was for searching for Cholera Bacteria serotype which causes epidemiology Cholera in the 2007 in a fast method which contains (Rapid Visual Test) (Crystal V.C.) which was used for the first time in Iraq to diagnosis of Cholera Bacteria & compared with the traditional bacteriology method. The Cholera disease is one of the most dangerous epidemiological diseases which lead to death with a percentage of (50 – 70) % in the severe cases for untreated patients . For this purpose, 100 samples of stool from the patients from a (13) hospitals in Baghdad Governorate in the period from August to the end of December. The Cholera was diagnosis in two methods, 1st method was the fast method using the nitrocellulose which is coated with anti-body of Cholera Bacteria .The results was compared with the 2nd method which depends on the cultural characteristics of the cultural media, also the bacteria was diagnosis using the biochemical inspects by the system of API 20E in addition to the using of antisera to specify serotype& sub-serotype ( Monovalent, Polyvalent(O1) . Also, the relation between the disease & the months in the year in which the disease appear was studied. The results show the ability to isolate & identifecate (78) isolate for the serotype (01) in the fast method ( Rapid Visual Test ) ( Crystal V-C ) , & after the bacteriology inspects on these (78) isolate the all isolates were belongs for Cholera Bacteria of the serotype (01) till the sub-serotype , all the (78) isolates were belongs to the sub-serotype (Inaba). The results show, the most infection was in September (36) , & October (22).


Article
Effect of Waste Water Bacteria and some chemical properties on drinking Water in AL-Mada,in Treatment Plan Station
تأثير بكتريا المياه الثقيلة وبعض العوامل الكيميائية على مياه الشرب في محطة إسالة منطقة المدائن

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Abstract

Three stations were chosen on the water treatment plan of al- madaan .The Samples collected from the (Raw water) and the Sedimentation, filtration and storage water and the drinking water of outlet. Coliform densities T.S and F.C and TS and F.S and total bacterial count as bacteriological pollution indicators, as moste probable number (MPN) method was studied in test. Also some of the chemical characteristics of the water like pH , total suspended solid T.S.S, T.D.D.and S04 , T.Hardness , Ca++ , Mg++ . From the results it were indicated . The study showed the drinking water of outlet (distriputed in system) was agree with WHO criteria and Iraqi limits standards .


Article
Measuring Uranium in the Soil of Some Area in Missan Governorate/ Iraq
قياس تراكيز اليورانيوم في تربة بعض مناطق محافظة ميسان /العراق

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Abstract

Concentrations of uranium were measured in this study for twenty soil samples from four areas with different depths (soil surface-20-40-60-80)cm .The study regions include Missan Governorate (Al-Iskan area,Al-Shibbana area ,Hai-Al Moualimin Al Jadied area ,Sector 30 area). The Uranium concentrations in soil samples measured by using fission tracks registration in (CR-39) track detector that caused by the bombardment of (U-283) with thermal neutrons from (241Am-Be) neutron source that has flux neutron thermal of (5 ×103 n cm-2 s-1). The concentrations values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples. Through out the result, it was found that averages of uranium concentrations in soil samples were as the following : Al - Iskan area (0.404 ± 2.765) ppm, Al - Shibbana area (0.432 ± 1.719) ppm, Hai - Al - Moualimin Al - Jadied (0.236 ± 2.320) ppm, Sector 30 area (2.158±0.631) ppm.


Article
Laser Effect on Fatique Resistance of Carbon Steel
تأثير الليزر في مقاومة الكلال للفولاذ الكاربوني

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Laser beam has been widely used to improve the mechanical properties of the metals. It used for cutting, drilling, hardening, welding……etc. The use of Laser beam has many features in accuracy and speeding in work, also in the treatment of metals locally, and in the places that is hard to reach by traditional ways. In this research a surface treatment was done to medium carbon steel (0.4%C) which is common kind of steel that is used in industry. Pulsing Neodymium -YAG Laser has been used and 1.06 micrometer wave length and 5 msec and the distance is about 30 centimeter between the exit area of the Laser beam from the system and the piece that treated . We are going to check the fatigue resistance for samples that is treated by Laser beam and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also we made check for the microstructure by using the light microscope and the SEM for the breaking samples. The results of checking showed that there is an improvement in the fatigue resistance after the treatment by the Laser beam. The results of microscope checking showed that the beginning of the failure is from the surface area and there is more than one level of the break.


Article
The Calculation of the partical distribution function g(r12,r1) for Carbon Ion cases (C+2,C+3,C+4) in the position space
حساب دالة التوزيع الجزيئية g(r12,r1) لذرة الكاربون المتأينة للحالات C+4,C+3,C+2 في فضاء المكان

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The aim of this work is study the partical distribution function g(r12,r1) for Carbon ion cases (C+2,C+3,C+4) in the position space using Hartree-Fock's Wave function, and the partitioning technique for each shell which is represented by Carbon Ions [C+2 (1s22s2)], [C+3 (1s22s)] and [C+4 (1s2)]. A comparision has been made among the three Carbon ions for each shell. A computer programs (MATHCAD ver. 2001i) has been used texcute the results.


Article
Study of opacity broadening in spectral lines for helium like ions in aluminum plasma which produced by laser
دراسة توسع العتمة لأيونات شبيهة الهليوم في بلازما الالمنيوم المنتجة بواسطة الليزر

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Abstract

A theoretical analysis studied was performed to study the opacity broadening of spectral lines emitted from aluminum plasma produced by Nd-YLF laser. The plasma density was in the range 1028-1026 )) m-3 with length of plasma about μ300) m) , the opacity was studied as function of plasma density & principle quantum number. The results show that the opacity broadening increases as plasma density increases & decreases with the spacing between energy levels of emission spectral line.

Keywords

laser produced plasma --- opacity --- plasma --- LPP --- laser


Article
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Fig (Ficus carica) Fruit on Some Hematological Parameters in Female Rabbits
تأثير المستخلص المائي لثمرة التين Ficus carica في بعض صفات الدم لإناث الأرانب

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The effect of the aqueous extract of fig (Ficus carica) fruit was studied by using different concentrations of this fruit (15, 20 and 25 mg/kg of body weight) on some hematological parameters (hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, white blood cell count and platelets count) in female rabbits. Twenty female rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (five animals in each group). Three groups were dosed with the concentrations mentioned above, while the last was administered with distilled water and considered as control group. These animals were orally dosed by aqueous extract using a micropipette. The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume means for all groups treated with aqueous extract of fig fruit compared with the control animals. In addition, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in white blood cells count at levels of 20 and 25 mg/kg of body weight compared with the control group while there was no significant difference between 15 mg/kg group and control group. Concerning the platelets count, the results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) increase at level of 25 mg/kg of body weight compared with the control group while there was no significant difference at both levels of 20 and 15 mg/kg of body weight as compared with control group. It was concluded from this study that the effect of aqueous fig extract in hematopoiesis and improving blood parameters in female rabbits.


Article
Stimulation of Hatching Efficiency in Capsulated Cysts of Artemia fransiscana Using 890 nm Diode Laser
تحفيز نسبة الفقس وكفاءة الفقس للحويصلات المتكبسلة للـجنس Artemia بأستخدام ليزر الدايود بالطول الموجي 890 نانوميتر

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Artemia fransiscana is one of the most important live food for commercial larval aquaculture. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 890 nm diode laser irradiation on Artemia capsulated cysts using (1-10) minutes exposure time, and 2.26x10-3 J/cm2 Fluence. The Artemia samples were obtained from two locations: Dyalaa and Basraa. After irradiation, hatching percentage (H %) and hatching efficiency(HE) of Artemia were measured after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. The results of the effect of laser light on the capsulated cysts from Dyalaa showed that the optimum dose for enhancing (H %) after 24 hours of incubation is using 10 minutes exposure time, while after 48 hours of incubation the (H %) enhancement can be achieved using 6 minutes exposure time. The optimum exposure times for (HE) enhancement after 24 and 48 hours of incubation were 5 and 7 minutes. The results of the effect of laser light on the capsulated cysts from Basraa showed that after 24 hours of incubation, the optimum exposure times for enhancement (H%) was 9 minutes, while after 48 hours of irradiation the best exposure times was 5 minutes . Very effective enhancement of (HE) was noticed after 24 hours of irradiation at 3 minutes exposure time using 2.26x10-3 J/cm2 Fluence. No enhancement was observed after 48 hours of irradiation In conclusion, 890 nm diode laser irradiation can be used successfully for increasing Hatching percentage (H %) and Hatching Efficiency (HE) of Artemia capsulated cysts using certain energy density and certain exposure times


Article
Studying the Effect of Aqueous Extract from Curcuma Longa on Some Parameters of Cytogenetic, Immunity and Fertility in Female Mice
دراسة تاثير المستخلص المائي لنبات الكركم على بعض معاملات الوراثة الخلوية والمناعة والخصوبة في اناث الفئران

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The research work was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of turmeric at doses of (5, 10) mg/kg body weight for two weeks daily by determining the genotoxic effect (mitotic index), evaluation of immunological effect (IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4) and measuring fertility hormones (follicles stimulation hormone/FSH, lutenising hormone/LH) levels with histological examinations of female albino swiss mice ovaries in comparison with control (normal saline). A clear effect in increasing mitotic activity was reveled for both doses in comparison with control. Results also showed a significant increase in the value of all immunological parameters at both doses, in comparison with control. Also, obvious raise was seen in the levels of FSH and LH hormones for both doses when compared with normal saline treated mice with no significant damage seen in female ovaries tissue, in fact, there were certain changes in mice ovaries tissue which were represented by increasing in the numbers of primary and secondary follicles and in the numbers of corpus luteum at both doses also.

Keywords

turmeric --- curcumin --- mitotic index --- immunity --- fertility


Article
Detection of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli among Normal Stool Flora of Young, Healthy, Unmarried Males & Females as Predisposing Factor to Extraintestinal Infections:A Comparison Study
التحري عن بكتريا Escherichia coli الممرضة خارج الامعاء (Extraintestial Pathogenic Escherichia coli) ضمن النبيت الطبيعي لخروج ذكور واناث شباب اصحاء و غير متزوجين كعامل معرض للاصابات خارج الامعاء:دراسة مقارنة

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In this study we surveyed the dominant normal stool flora of randomly selected healthy, young (18-23 years old), unmarried (doctrinal) Iraqi college students (males and females) for the carriage of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). ExPEC virulence was detected phenotypically by mannose resistant hemagglutination of human red blood cells (MRHA) and mannose sensitive (MS) agglutination of Bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisceae). From 88 college students, 264 E. coli isolates were obtained (3 isolates per person): 123 from 41 females and 141 from 47 males. Of these isolates, 56% (149/264) caused MS agglutination of yeast cells and 4.16% (11/264) showed MRHA. Eighty two percent (9/11) of the isolates with MRHA also caused MS agglutination of yeast cells. Statistically the difference is not significant (P < 0.05) among males and females regarding the MS agglutination of yeast cells: 59% (72/123) of females' isolates vs. 55% (77/141) of males' isolates. Conversely, the difference is clear regarding the carriage of isolates with MRHA. All the isolates with MRHA were distributed among females' dominant stool flora (11/123: 8.94%) whereas none of the males' dominant stool flora showed MRHA (0/141: 0%). Five females out of 41 (12.19%) had isolates with MRHA. All the three isolates in 2 of these 5 females showed MRHA, 2 isolates in another 2 showed MRHA, and only one isolate in 1 female caused MRHA. Therefore we can say that the difference among males and females in fecal carriage of E. coli ,with characteristics of ExPEC, can be a predisposing factor of females to ExPEC infections more than males.


Article
Toxoplasmosis: Serious disease during pregnancy
داء القطط: مرض خطير عند النساء الحوامل

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Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii that leads to abortion or hydrocephalus during pregnancy.One hundered and twenty two aborted women were selected for this study. Serum samples were collected form Al-Kadhmia and Kamal Al-Samari Hospitals,and laboratories around Baghdad, and tested for specific IgG and IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies to confirm toxoplasmosis in those women by using ELISA test.The result recorded that 51(41.8%) women had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, 25(59.5%) women were positive for IgG, and 17(40.5%) women were positive forIgM, while 9(17.6%)women were positive for both.


Article
Identification and Quantitative Estimation of Lutein in Iraqi Spinacia oleraceaFamily Chenopodiaceae by Using Chromatographic Methods
التشخيص والتقدير الكمي للوتين في السبانغ العراقي باستعمال الطرق الكروماتوغرافية

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Lutein is an antioxidant carotenoid present in the highest quantities in dark, leafy green vegetables such as spinach. In this study, and for the first time we try to separate and calculate the quantity of lutein in Iraqi spinach to know the dietary requirements from this active drug to avoid age macula degeneration caused by lutein depletion. Extraction and fractionation of lutein from Iraqi spinach leaves were carried out by soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether: acetone (1:1) as a solvent system, then lutein was isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography and identified by thin layer chromatography using two different solvents system: (petroleum ether: diethyl ether:acetic acid) and (petroleum ether: acetonitrile: methanol) compared with standard , melting point, mixed melting point and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).50gm of Iraqi spinach gives about 32mg of lutein.

Keywords

Lutein --- carotenvid --- spinacia plant


Article
Studying of the optical properties of poly (vinyl alcohol) films using Aluminum sulphate as additive by measuring allowed direct transition energy gap
دراسة الخصائص البصريه لشرائح افلام بولي فينيل الكحول باستخدام مضافات كبريتات الالمنيوم عن طريق قياس فجوة الطاقه للانتقال المباشر

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The change in the optical band gap and optical activation energy have been investigated for pure Poly (vinyl alcohol)and Poly (vinyl alcohol) doped with Aluminum sulphate to proper films from their optical absorption spectra. The absorption spectra were measured in the wave range from (200-700) nm at temperature range (25-140) 0C. The optical band gap (Eg) for allowed direct transition decrease with increase the concentration of Aluminum sulphate. The optical activation energy for allowed direct transition band gap was evaluated using Urbach- edges method. It was found that ∆E increases with increasing the concentration of Al2 (SO4)3 and decreases when temperature increases.


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Epinephrine in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Praseodymium as Mediating Metals
تقدير دواء ايبفرين في بعض المستحضرات الصيدلانية بطريقة الاطياف المرئية وباستخدام عنصر البراسودميوم كوسيط

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A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determinaion of epinephrine is described . The method is based on the coordination of Pr (III) with epinephrine at pH 6. Absorbance of the resulting orange yellow complex is measured at 482 nm . A graph of absorbance versus concentrations shows that beer 's low is obeyed over the concentration range (1-50)mg.ml-1 of epinephrine with molar absorpitivity of ( 2.180x103 L.mol-1.cm-1 ), a sandell sensitivity of (0.084 mg.cm-2 ), a relative error of (-2.83%) , a corrolation coffecient (r= 0.9989) and recovery % ( 97.03 ± 0.75 ) depending on the concentration.This method is applied to analyse EP in several commercially available pharmaceutical preparations using direct methods .All statistical calculations are implemented via a Minitab software version 11.


Article
The influence of Packed Cells Volume (PCV) and Temperature on Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
تأثير حجم كريات الدم المضغوطة و درجة الحرارة في معدل ترسيب كريات الدم الحمر

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Erythrocytes aggregation is an important physiological phenomenon in the circulation of blood, and is a basic characteristic of normal blood that plays a major role in cardiovascular system especially in the microcirculation. Blood samples have been taken from (30) volunteers (15 male, and 15 female), their ages (20-30) years. The Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR) for those subjects was measured at different Packed Cells Volume (PCV) (10%-25%), and also it was measured at different temperature (10oC-25oC). The results show that there was a highly significant decrease (P<0.01) in ESR when the PCV increase and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in ESR when the temperatures increase. The conclusion from these results is that the ESR values were affected by each of PCV and temperature of the samples.


Article
Optical Investigations of CdSe1-x Tex Thin Films
الاستقصاء البصري لاغشيةCdSe1-xTex الرقيقة

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The alloys of CdSe1-xTex compound have been prepared from their elements successfully with high purity (99.9999%) which mixed stoichiometry ratio (x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) of (Cd, Se and Te) elements. Films of CdSe1-xTex alloys for different values of composition with thickness(0.5m) have been prepared by thermal evaporation method at cleaned glass substrates which heated at (473K) under very low pressure (4×10-5mbar) at rate of deposition (3A˚/s), after that thin films have been heat treated under low pressure (10-2mbar) at (523K) for two hours. The optical studies revealed that the absorption coefficient (α) is fairly high. It is found that the electronic transitions in the fundamental absorption edge tend to be allowed direct transition. It was also found that the optical energy gap vary non-linearly with composition (x) and have a minimum value at x=0.5 and increases after heat treatment. It is found that the optical constants vary non-linearly with composition, and the behavior inverse at x=0.5, and affected by heat treatment. The behavior of 1 is similar to the behavior of n, while the behavior of 2 is similar to the behavior of k.


Article
Isochronal Studies of the Structural and Electrical Properties of CdTe Films
دراسـة تأثـير التـلدين في الخـــواص التركــيبية والكــهربائية لأغشـــية الـCdTe

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The paper reports the influence of annealing temperature under vacuum for one hour on the some structural and electrical properties of p-type CdTe thin films were grown at room temperature under high vacuum by using thermal evaporation technique with a mean thickness about 600nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of CdTe cubic phase at all annealing temperature. From investigated the electrical properties of CdTe thin films, the electrical conductivity, the majority carrier concentration, and the Hall mobility were found increase with increasing annealing temperatures.


Article
Growth Techniques and Some Physical Properties of InSb Single Crystal
المسلك التكنولوجي لإنماء البلورة المفردة (InSb) ودراسة بعض خصائصها الفيزيائية

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Near intrinsic single crystal of InSb compound has been grown from the pure melting by annealing of two-zone furnuse technique and its some physical properties are characterized at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations show that the crystallographic direction is well oriented within (220) plane, while it is indicated that there is a poly crystalline structure for InSb thin films. The absorbance spectra at the fundamental absorption edge has been measured .The values of optical energy gap of single crystal specimens and deposited InSb films were calculated of 0.16 eV and 0.17 eV respectively at room temperature. The aim in this paper is to study and compare the growth of single crystal and thin film to InSb.


Article
Electrical and dielectric properties of kevlar - carbon hybrid fiber / epoxy laminated composites
الخصائص االعزلية والكهربائية لمتراكبات الطبقية الايبوكسي - الياف هجينية الكفلر والكاربون

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This paper reports a.c., d.c. conductivity and dielectric behavior of Ep-hybrid composite with12 Vol.% Kevlar-Carbon hybrid . D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted on the graded composites by using an electrometer over the temperature range from (293-413) K. It was shown then that conductivity increases by increasing number of Kevlar –Carbon fiber layers (Ep1, Ep2, Ep3), due to the high electrical conductivity of Carbon fiber. To identify the mechanism governing the conduction, the activation energies at low temperature region (LTR) and at high temperature region (HTR) have been calculated. The activation energy values for hybrid composite decrease with increasing number of fiber layers. The a.c. conductivity was measured over frequency range 100 Hz-1MHz. It was found that σ(ω) values increase with increasing frequency according to the relation σ (ω)=Aws . The values of frequency exponent (s) were found to increase with number of layers.


Article
Optical Characteristics of CdSSe Films Prepared by Thermal Evaporation Technique
الخصائص البصرية لاغشية CdSSe المحضرة بتقنية التبخير الحراري

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Thin films of cadmium sulphoselenide (CdSSe) have been prepared by a thermal evaporation method on glass substrate, and with pressure of 4x10-5 mbar. The optical constants such as (refractive index n, dielectric constant εi,r and Extinction coefficient κ) of the deposition films were obtained from the analysis of the experimental recorded transmittance spectral data. The optical band gap of (CdSSe) films is calculate from (αhυ)2 vs. photon energy curve. CdSSe films have a direct energy gap, and the values of the energy gap were found to increase when increasing annealing temperature. The band gap of the films varies from 1.68 – 2.39 eV.


Article
Calculation of Coefficients of Cassegrain Telescope Mirrors
حساب معاملات مرايا تلسكوب كاسكرين

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In the present work, a program for calculating the coefficients of the Aplanatic Cassegrain Telescope (ACT) system, free from the effects of spherical and coma aberrations, were constructed. In addition, the two-mirrors of the optical system, as aspherical surfaces, were adopted. This means, that the two-equations of the mirrors are assumed to be polynomial function of five even terms only. The numerical method, least-squares curve fitting method to calculate the two-mirror coefficients system, was adopted. For choosing the values and ratios that give the best results, Rayleigh Criterion (Rayleigh Limit), for purpose of comparison and preference, was adopted.


Article
The effect of additives metal on the D.C conductivity of epoxy resin
تاثيرا لمضافات المعدنية في التوصيلية المتناوبة لراتنج الايبوكسي

Authors: Nadia A. Ali نادية عباس علي
Pages: 168-174
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Abstract

The present studies are focused on the modification of the properties of epoxy resin with different additives namely aluminum, copper by preparing of composites systems with percentage (20%, 40% and 50%) of the above additives. The experimental results show that the D.C of conductivity on wt% filler content at ( 293-413 ) K electrical conductivity of all above composites increased with temperature for composites with filler contact and find the excellent electrical conductivity of copper and lie between (2.6*10-10 - 2.1*10-10)Ω.cm . The activation energy of the electrical conductivity is determined and found to decrease with increasing the filler concentration.


Article
The Approximated Solution for The Nonlinear Second Order Delay Multi-Value Problems
الحــل التقريبي للمســائل اللاخطية التباطؤيه ازدواجية القيم الذاتية ذات الرتبة الثانية

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Abstract

This paper is attempt to study the nonlinear second order delay multi-value problems. We want to say that the properties of such kind of problems are the same as the properties of those with out delay just more technically involved. Our results discuss several known properties, introduce some notations and definitions. We also give an approximate solution to the coined problems using the Galerkin's method.


Article
The Composition operator induced by a polynomial of degree n
المؤثر التركيبي المحتث من متعددة حدود من الدرجة n

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Abstract

In this paper, we characterize normal composition operators induced by holomorphic self-map , when and .Moreover, we study other related classes of operators, and then we generalize these results to polynomials of degree n.


Article
The Relationships between Relatively Cancellation Modules and Certain Types of Modules
العلاقة بين موديولات الحذف نسبيا وبعض انواع اخرى من الموديولات

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Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity and M be unitary (left) R-module. The principal aim of this paper is to study the relationships between relatively cancellation module and multiplication modules, pure submodules and Noetherian (Artinian) modules.


Article
Numeral Recognition Using Statistical Methods Comparison Study
تمييز الأرقام باستخدام الطرق الإحصائية دراسة مقارنة

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Abstract

The area of character recognition has received a considerable attention by researchers all over the world during the last three decades. However, this research explores best sets of feature extraction techniques and studies the accuracy of well-known classifiers for Arabic numeral using the Statistical styles in two methods and making comparison study between them. First method Linear Discriminant function that is yield results with accuracy as high as 90% of original grouped cases correctly classified. In the second method, we proposed algorithm, The results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithms, where it is found to achieve recognition accuracy of 92.9% and 91.4%. This is providing efficiency more than the first method.

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