Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2009 volume:6 issue:3

Article
Estimation of Immunoglobulins and complements and Using Enzyme linked Immuno sorbant Assay in Identification of Vulvovaginal candidiasis
القياس الكمي للكلوبيولينات المناعية واستخدام تقنية الممتز المناعي والمتمم الثالث والرابع المرتبط بالانزيم ((ELISA في تشخيص داء المبيضات المهبلي

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the Immuno – globulins and complements quantitatively. The result revealed that the concentration of Immunoglobulin M(IgM) was increased significantly in patient group comparing with control group . The concentration of complement protein C4 was increased significantly in patient group comparing with control group. IgG of Candida albicans was detected by using ELISA Technique, the result indicated also that this antibody was found in 628% of the women who infected with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 63% and 89% respectively.


Article
Regeneration and Cormels Production of White Prosperity and Priscilla Gladiolus Varities In Vitro
الاخلاف وأنتاج الكريمات من كالس نبات الكلاديولس صنفي White Prosperity و Priscilla خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

Plant regeneration and cormel production was carried out from callus cultures initiated from White Prosperity and Priscilla Gladiolus Varities. It is aimed to produce plants and cormels in vitro all year round. The study included many experiments, these were the effect of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Kinetin (Kin) interaction on callus initiation, effect of Benzyl adenine (BA) on shoot regeneration from callus culture, effect of NAA on rooting after 30, 40 and 50 days in culture. The role of the type of agricultural medium (Peat moss or river sand and their mixture on plantlets survival after weaning was studied. Results showed that the interaction between NAA and Kin induced callus on axillary bud explants. Callus was best initiated by using a combination (10.0, 0.5) mg/l for White Prosperity, (0.5, 1.0) and (10.0, 0.5) mgl for Priscilla of NAA and Kin respectively. Regeneration for the two varieties was best occurred when media were supplemented with BA at 1.0 mg/l achieving maximum number of shoots (6.2) and height (4.96 cm.). Highest response for shoot regeneration from callus occurred at a concentration of 0.5 mg/l NAA reached 100% and 83.3% for White Prosperity and Priscilla respectively. An obvious increase in rooting percentage, root number and length over time. Both varieties showed 100% response for cormels formation 50 days after rooting. Plantlets are well established in peat moss.


Article
Cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and diagnose the bacterial growths in culture media
استنبات الأميبا الحالّة للنسج (Entamoeba histolytica) في الزجاج و تشخيص النمو البكتيري في الوسط الزرعي

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Abstract

The parasite was isolated from a stool sample, cultivated and maintained in vitro using Locke-egg medium (LEM) and Liver infusion agar medium (LIAM) . The culture was maintained for up to 21 months, and the best time to maintain the parasite was every 48 hours, although the growth in the culture media continued for 13 days without a maintenance. Additionally, no cyst formation was observed during cultivation of parasite in the two culture media. Although, was observe young cyst formed in LEM media were deletion of maintained. The diagnosis of bacteria growth in the culture media, bacterial content (Escherichia coli) was an dominance and essential requirement for a successful cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica in the two culture media.


Article
Effect of food on growth and fecundity Brine Shrimp Artemia spp. laboratory Conditions
تأثير نوع الغذاء على نمو وإنتاجية الجنس Artemia تحت الظروف المختبرية

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Abstract

This in order to test the effect of food on growth and fecundity, two kinds of food have been used the algae Scendesmus quadricaudae and fresh water shrimp powder. For two generations, growth and productivity have been followed up. The fresh water shrimp has been noticed as a food better than algae, because it caused recording, for the two generation higher length rate for the weeks of experiment. The individuals length rate at the end of the forth week reached 9.35 and 9.48 mm for the first generation and second generation respectively. The average length weekly increase rate for the first and second generations individuals feeding on dried shrimp was higher through the first and second week compared to what was recorded when feeding algae. The results showed that the fecundity of the individuals feeding on dried better than those feeding on algae. These individuals got matured in about 15 – 18 days old for the first generation and about 16 – 18 days old for the second generation s. Broods number for the two generation was four; the resulting generation was as nuplii larvae. The average number of the generation nauplii was 55.53, 61.20, 16.13 and 57.73 nauplii per mother for the four broads respectively. The average number of the second generation was 56.56,58.10,61.73 and 49.96 nauplii per mother for the four broods respectively . The individual feeding on algae S. quadricaudae recorded length rate of 7.32 and 7.43 for the first and second generation at the end of the forth week . the individuals got matured in about 19-21mm days old for the first generation and about 18-20 days old for the second generation . The first brood appeared in about 25 – 27 days old for the first generation, and about 30 – 35 days old for the second generation. The brood number was two for the first generation, the first one as nauplii larvae with a rate 40.26 larvae per mother and the second as cyst with a rate 27.90 cysts per mother. For the second generation individuals, one brood has been appeared from which the resulting generation was as cysts with a rate of 45.66 cysts per mother.


Article
The effect of site of origin on fatty acid percent in sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus L)
تاثيرالاختلاف في مصادر الزيت على النسب المئوية للاحماض الدهنية في زيت زهرة الشمس Helianthus annuus L.

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Abstract

A Laboratory study was conducted in quality control department ,state company for food stuff trading ministry of trade (2005-2006) on sunflower oil imported to Iraq from different origins included 12 trade marks, Complete random design was used with four replication . The purpose of the study is to know the origins effect on fatty acid percent and study the simple correlation between them, the result showed Turkish origin for trademark (Narin) was superior in Palmitic and Stearic fatty acid (10.41,3.29%). While Omanian origin for trademark Alsafwa was superior in Oleic(35.09%) and Syrian origin for trade mark Alnahraen was superior in Linoleic fatty acid percent 66.53% whereas Egyptian origin for trademark Alasel was superior in the percentage of un saturation with 1.62% . We concluded from this study that fatty acids Oleic and Linoleic were the major fatty acid in sunflower and increase in their percentage determine the type and quality of sunflower especially Linoleic fatty acid which is belong to Omega -6 family and its cannot made in human body .


Article
Effect of some Factors on Human Peripheral Lymphocyte Cytogenetics In Pesticide ExXPOSED GROUPS
تداخل بعض العوامل في التأثير في بعض مؤشرات الوراثة الخلوية للمجاميع المتعرضة للمبيدات

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Abstract

The effect of smoking, age and exposure duration in pesticide risk groups were studied > Groups were all men and included farmers (25), pesticide sellers (25), pesticides manufacture workers (Al-Tark factory for agricultural pesticide production) (25), Control group (25) were from Baghdad university staff (living in Baghdad city) > The cytogenetic parameters studied were Chromosomal aberrations (CA), induction of micronuclei (Mn)formation . Results revealed that smoking synergized pesticides exposure in induction of structural CAs in all groups with significant differences (P<0.01) and the worst effect recorded in workers , the increment was more than folds the level of control group (0.68) for the non smokers and was 5.78 times (control group) in smoker workers > Mn showed similar pattern the most effected group ( i.e , Workers) > Age effected the level of CA greatly and significantly and the correlation coefficients were positive and was for control (r = + 0.944), farmers ( r = + 0.907), sellers ( r = + 0.993) and workers ( r = + 0.992), such positive correlations were observed for Mn induction (control, r = + 0.998 ; farmers, r = + 0.437; sellers, r = + 0.989; workers, r = +0.978), the lowest correlation recorded in farmer group . The correlation of CA and Mn with exposure duration was different since the extended exposure duration could induced tolerance state and adaptation.


Article
The Morphological Change in Sunflower Plant under Hardening Conditions to Drought Tolerance. II. Leaf Number and Leaf Area
ألتغيرات ألمورفولوجية في نبات زهرة ألشمس(Helianthus annuus L.) تحت ظروف ألتطويع لتحمل الجفاف II . عدد اوراق ألنبات ومساحته ألورقية

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Abstract

The study was conducted during the spring season of 2000 and2001. The objective was to study the changes in leaves number of sunflower plants and its leaf area during growth stages under hardening conditions to drought tolerance. Agricultural practices were made according to recommendations.Asplit-split plots design was used with three replications.The main plots included irrigation treatments:irrigation to100%(full irrigation),75and50%of available water.The sub plots were the cultivars Euroflor and Flame.The sub-sub plots represented four seed soaking treatments:Control(unsoaking), soaking in water ,Paclobutrazol solution(250ppm),and Pix solution(500ppm). The soaking continued for 24 hours then seeds were dried at room temperature until they regained their original weight. Amount of water for each irrigation were calculated to satisfy water depletion in soil using a neutron moisture meter. Results indicated that stress 800Kp reduced leaves number after 72 days from Planting by 5.29% compared with full irrigation as a mean of seasons.Increased stress to 600 and 800 Kp caused decreasing in leaf area at physiological maturation by 36.10 and 44.32% than full irrigation as a mean of seasons. Flame was superior over Euroflor after 58 days from planting in leaves number by 12.30 % in the season of 2001, while Euroflor was superior by 4.87% after58 days from planting in the season of 2000 ,and in leaf area by 58.25% after 44 days from planting in the season of 2001, and by 34.72% as a mean of seasons.Soaking the seeds presowing in paclobutrazol and pix solutions enhanced leaf formation , the percentage of increase reached to 5.57 and 7.49% after 86 days from planting as a mean of seasons, and leaf area by 35.9 and 36.95% respectively, compared with unsoaked as a mean of seasons. This study suggest that it could improve plant growth and kept sutable leaf area during seeds filling and drought tolerance by soaking the seeds presowing in water or plant growth regulators.


Article
A Study of the Nutritional Behavior and Body Mass Indexes for Students of Age (17-25) Years In Baghdad, Iraq.
دراسة السلوك الغذائي ومؤشرات المقاييس الجسمية لدى الطلبة من عمر(17-25 سنة) في مدينة بغداد-العراق

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The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status for samples at the age of 17-15 years. These samples were taken from secondary schools and universities in Baghdad area, 123 of them were male and 261 were female. Data on weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in each individual. Smaller sample of 215 individuals (male and female) from the original sample was taken in order to record their nutritional behavior and daily food intake during the 24 hours prior to the visit through personal meeting using special questionnaire. The results showed that the weight and the height were within the range of the people of neighboring Arab countries, who are in the same age. Beside 44.4- 55.95% of these samples were within the normal weight using body mass index. Percentages of obesity and overweight were between 43.5- 6.5% for male and female respectively. There was an increase in daily food intake in general for essential diet and energy indeed, as recorded in nutritional behavior. 67% of samples have their breakfast every day. There were 51% of the samples having snacks (additional meal) between the major meals everyday and 62% have beverages every day. Also high percentage of samples were having milk and its products, vegetables, fruits (as nutritional sources) every day and the percentages were 47%, 67%, 78% respectively. In general their nutritional behavior and daily food intake were within the limits which showed by American recommended daily dietary, still there was some incorrect nutritional behavior which need more education and learning about nutrition.


Article
Effects of lead and Zenic on Scenedesmus quadricaudaVar. longispina algae
تأثير الرصاص والزنك في طحلبScenedesmus quadricauda var. longispina

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Abstract

The study includs,effect of concentration of Lead 0.2 ,0.3 , 0.5, 5 , 10 mg/L and Zinc 0.1,0.5 , 2 , 4 , 8 mg/L lonely or to gether on growth green algae( Scenedesmus quadricauda var . longispina) according to the total qauntity for the cells and the adsorption of the algae to the zn,pb concentration .growth curve and dubbling time growth were calculated with or without there heavy metals . Results shows that there are significant differences (P<0.01) for growth curve and the control. (7.5201 cell /h)and with dubbling times (9.87 cell/h). The heavy metals(Pb, Zn). shows antagonistic effect when both used in media.

Keywords

growth --- heavy metals --- Alga


Article
Biological and chemical Study to evaluate the types of water used for drinking in the Al-youssiffiyah area and its effect on public health
دراسة كيمياوية وبايولوجية لأنواع المياه المستخدمه للشرب في منطقة اليوسفيه وأثرها على الصحه العامه

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Abstract

Election study included four sites for the waters in area of Youssifiyah south of Baghdad (river water, tank water, liquefactions water, and water filtrate and seethed and purifier by alum and chloride), the samples were collected during the month of June in 2007. Temperature, electrical conductivity and acidity are measured. Also , the concentration of chloride , sulphate , carbonate , nitrate , sodium , calcium , magnesium , hard total and total dissolved substances are determined , as well as heavy metals assess environmental risk (such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe). It was also a study of bacterial totals included both total Bacteria (TB) and Total Coliform Bacteria (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC) and Fecal Streptococci (FS). The study showed the increased values of electrical conductivity of water river, which ranged between (655 – 805) µs. cm-1 and increasing of total dissolved substances and the sodium and chloride, which ranged between (193 - 195) mg / L, (890 - 1200), (148 -- 155) mg / L, respectively, because of the use of al-shab and chlorine in the process of liquidation, which led to a decrease in the amount of the total suspends substances in all samples. Found high levels of iron in all the samples because of the deteriorating pipes liquidation, and that all the measurements fall within acceptable limits for the measurements of the specifications of the Iraq. While the results of Diagnostic bacteria showed that the highest values of bacterial totals were in the liquefaction that led to the emergence of cases of diarrhea and inflammation of urinary sewage when some residents of this region, these results agree with the statistical medical center's health in the region.


Article
Synthesis of several Urea plast Resins using Different Aldehydes Preparation of some Alkyde Resins and Empolyment of the prepared Resins as Additives for AZO Dyes
تحضير راتنجات اليوريا بلاست وراتنجات الالكايد وأستخدامهما في تحضير أصباغ جديدة مع بعض مركبات الازو المحضرة

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Urea formaldehyde resin was prepared by using basic media by yield 95%. The Remaining of ureaplasts resin were prepared in acetic acid media by high yield. Alkyde resins were prepared by condensation polymerization by react Succinic, Maleic, Phthalic anhydrides with Ethylene glycol or Glycerol. Select samples of the prepared alkyde resins were mixed with Azo dyes in special ratio. The mixtures were used as coatings for wood, and compaised with pure dyes. The Coating that some alkyde resins showed better adhesion from using dyes alone. Preparation of wood coating by mixing ureaplast resins and alkyde resins with Azo dyes in special ratios. The coating showed better adhesion, brighter colors and better resistance to heat from Preceding coat


Article
Radon concentration measurement in soil for some northen Iraqi's regions by using CR-39 detector
قياس تراكيز الرادون في تربة بعض المناطق الشمالية للعراق باستخدام كاشف الأثر النووي CR-39

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Concentrations of radon were measured in this study for twenty-four samples of soil distributed in six locations on the north part of Iraq. The radon concentrations in soil samples measured by using alpha-emitters registration that emits from Radon (222Rn) in (CR-39) track detector. The concentrations values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples. The results shows that the radon gas concentrations in Darbandikhan City varies from (16.60-34.04 Bq/m3), Halabja City (16.51-23.32 Bq/m3), Al Sulaimaniya City (17.61-32.25 Bq/m3), Koisnjaq City (22.04-35.65 Bq/m3), Shaqlaua City (21.10-29.10 Bq/m3) and Erbil City (22.30-34.63 Bq/m3). The average radon gas concentration in Al Sulaimaniya and Erbil governorate are (22.30 Bq/m3) and (26.17 Bq/m3) respectively. As a conclusion from the study Radon concentration in governorate of Erbil is relatively higher than that in governorate of Al Sulaimaniya.


Article
Study of some structural , optical , Electrical Properties of CdS thin films deposited by chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method
دراسة بعض الخواص التركيبية و البصرية و الكهربائية لاغشية كبريتيد الكادميوم المحضر بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري

Authors: Ban K. Mohamed بان خالد محمد
Pages: 519-525
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Abstract

In this research we prepared CdS thin films by Spray pyrolysis method on a glass substrates and we study its structural , optical , electrical properties . The result of (X-Ray ) diffraction showed that all thin films have a polycrystalline structure , The relation of the transmission as a function of wavelength for the CdS films had been studied , The investigated of direct energy gap of the CdS its value is (2.83 eV). In Hall effect measurement of the CdS we find the charge carriers is p – type and Hall coefficient 1157.33(cm3/c) ,Hall mobility 6.77(cm2/v.s)


Article
Study and Analysis the Mathematical Operations of Fuzzy Logic
دراسة وتحليل العـمليات الرياضــية للمنـطق المضــبب

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The last decade of this 20th century provides a wide spread of applications of one of the computer techniques, which is called Fuzzy Logic. This technique depends mainly on the fuzzy set theory, which is considered as a general domain with respect to the conventional set theory. This paper presents in initiative the fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy logic as a complete mathematics system. Here it was explained the concept of fuzzy set and defined the operations of fuzzy logic. It contains eleven operations beside the other operations which related to fuzzy algebra. Such search is considered as an enhancement for supporting the others waiting search activities in this field.


Article
Estimation of cellular immune response by evaluation of some cytokines in immunopathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and C pre- and post- treated Iraqi patients (in vivo and in vitro)
قياس الاستجابة المناعية الخلوية من خلال تقديربعض السايتوكينات في المرضى العراقيين المعتلين مناعيا والمصابين بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط ب وج قبل وبعد العلاج (داخل وخارج الجسم الحي)

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Two groups of chronic hepatitis B and C virus patients were divided into Pre-treated patients (25 CHB patients with positive HBs Ag for more than 6 months and 40 CHC patients), and post-treated patients [12 CHB patients (4, 6, and 2 were treated with lamivudine, IFN-α and combination of LMV + IFN-α respectively), and 27 patients for CHC (3, 13 and 11 patients were treated with Ribavirin, IFN-α and combination therapy (RBV+ IFN-α) respectively].These patients were followed up for 6 months. By using ELISA technique, levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured in vivo and in vitro (supernatant of PBMCs stimulated with PHA) and compared with healthy control. The mean level of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in CHB patients showed significant differences (P<0.05) between pre- and post-treated patients in vivo and in vitro, while there was no significant difference in IFN- γ between pre- and post-treated patients in vivo and in vitro. The difference between control and CHB patients was highly significant (P<0.0001) in IL-6 , IL-10 and TNF- α levels in vivo and in vitro. In CHC patients the mean levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN- γ and TNF- α showed significant difference between pre- and post-treated patients in vivo and in vitro. There was highly significant difference (P<0.0001) between patients and control in IL-10 levels. Hence, these observations indicate the predominance of Th2 cytokine, which promote the persistency of the CHB and CHC virus.


Article
Detection of autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with celiac disease
التحري عن أمراض الغدة الدرقية الذاتية في مرضى حساسية الحنطة

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Abstract

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten intake in genetically susceptible individuals. The incidence of celiac disease in various autoimmune disorders is increased 10-30 fold in comparison to the general population and the prevalence of celiac disease was noted to be 2-5% in autoimmune thyroid disease. To detect the autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with celiac disease, we investigated 22 patients suspected with celiac disease of age 1-13 years old and 20 healthy controls. IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies were measured in serum with celiac disease sample. The patients which were positive to gliadin antibody were carried out to T3, T4 and TSH by ELISA tests. There was no significant differences (P>0.05) in age group and gender of patients afflicted with celiac disease and there was highly significant deferances (P<0.01) with increased mean level of IgG antibody in sera of hyperthyroidism patients afflicted with celiac disease than normal group. We found a relationship between celiac disease and hyperthyroidism in patients. The aim of this study was to detect the autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with celiac disease.


Article
Bacteremia in Ibn Al-Baladi hospital in Baghdad; Incidence etiology and antibiotic resistance of pathogens
تجرثم الدم في مستشفى ابن البلدي في بغداد:نسبة الحدوث, المسببات ومقاومة المضادات الحياتية لمسببات تجرثم الدم

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60 cases of Bacteremia were documented at Ibn Al-Baladi hospital during 6 months (1-1-2002 to 1-7-2002), with an incidence of 5.2 were gram-negative organisms and most common one was Salmonella and Klebsiella. Incidence was significantly higher in male than female .Antimicrobial sensitivity tests revealed that isolated bacteria are with multiple drug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Salmonella showed high resistance to cephaloxin, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin and also Klebsiella showed resistance to cephaloxin and amoxicillin.

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bacteremia --- pathogens --- antibiotic


Article
Study of Malondialdehyde Levels in sera, RBCs and Tissues homogenate of Iraqi Women With Breast Tumors
دراسة مستويات المالوندايالديهايد في أمصال كريات الدم الحمراء ومتجانس الأنسجة لنساء عراقيات مصابات بأورام الثدي

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Breast tumors patients generally have more oxidative stress than normal females. This was clear from a highly significant elevation (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde level in RBCs, serum and tissue of all patients groups with breast cancer as compared with control group. In this study we had found that free radicals in malignant breast tumors were higher than benign tumors, therefore the MDA might be used as a marker for prognosis of the disease.


Article
Influence of Immersion Period on the Corrosion Behavior of Heat Treated Biomedical Alloy Ti -5Al - 2.5Fe
تأثير فترة الغمر على سلوك التأكل السبيكة الطبية Ti -5Al - 2.5Fe المعاملة حراريا

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Heat treatment by solid solution method in the + phase region was used at 970°C for Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy. The specimens cooled under different cooling media [water quenched (WQ), air cooled (AC) and furnace cooled (FC)], and subsequently aged at 550°C for 4 hours. Five specimens from each treatment were immersed in simulated body fluid SBF for a period of time (3 months). The dependence of corrosion rate on compositional variation in the phases resulted from various type of cooling rates are discussed based on immersion tests. The EDXA results show the precipitation of phosphate and calcium compounds on the alloy after 3 months of immersion in blood plasma solution forming a bone-like apatite, which enhanced the alloy biocompatibility making it more suitable to use as biomedical implant.


Article
Nitroso-R-salt as a sensitive spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations
التقدير الطيفي للباراسيتامول في المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستعمال ملح النتروزوR- ككاشف طيفي حساس

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Nitroso-R-salt is proposed as a sensitive spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of paracetamol in aqueous solution. The method is based on the reaction of paracetamol with iron(III) and subsequent reaction with nitroso-R-salt to yield a green colored complex with maximum absorption at 720 nm. Optimization of the experimental conditions was described. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 0.1 – 2.0 μg mL-1 paracetamol with a molar absorptivity of 6.9 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations without any interference from common excipients. The method has been statistically evaluated with British Pharmacopoeia method and no statistical difference between methods was found at the 95% confidence level.


Article
Band Gap Energy for SiC Thin Films Prepared By TEACO2 Laser Irradiated With Nuclear Radiation
تأثير الأشعة النووية على فجوة الطاقة للأغشية SiC الرقيقة المحضرة بواسطة ليزر TEACO2

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The effect of high energy radiation on the energy gap of compound semiconductor Silicon Carbide (SiC) are viewed. Emphasis is placed on those effects which can be interpreted in terms of energy levels. The goal is to develop semiconductors operating at high temperature with low energy gaps by induced permanent damage in SiC irradiated by gamma source. TEACO2 laser used for producing SiC thin films. Spectrophotometer lambda - UV, Visible instrument is used to determine energy gap (Eg). Co-60, Cs-137, and Sr-90 are used to irradiate SiC samples for different time of irradiation. Possible interpretation of the changing in Eg values as the time of irradiation change is discussed


Article
Spectrophotometric Study of م-Irradiated PM-355
الدراسة الطيفية PM-355المشعع باشعة كاما

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The aim of the present work is concerned with the effect of γ-irradiation on PM-355 with absorbed dose of (30-160Mrad) range. This polymer is evaluated spectrophotometrically for use as high dose dosimeters. The absorption spectra of irradiated samples showed radiation induced absorption changes. There is an increment in absorption proportional with absorbed dose. This increment is attributed to interfaces traps which, are formed by irradiation. Calibration curve was drawn .The linear relation was found in calibration curve, and dosimeter range was determined from the linear part. The linearity in response curve suggested that PM-355 could be used as dosimeter within (30-160Mrad) rang. Energy gap shift was used as a second tool to determine the dosimeter range. It was found that PM-355 energy gap systematically decreasing with absorbed dose, and it could be used as a second tool to determine the dosimeter range.


Article
Study of R -molar ratio effect on the transformation of tetraethylorthosilicat precursor to gels in sol-gel technique
دراسة تأثير النسبة المولارية R على تحول محلول مادة التترااثيل اورثو سيلكات الى حالة الجيل في تقانة السول – جيل

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Abstract

The effect of using different R -molar ratio under variable reaction conditions (acidic as well as basic environment and reaction temperature) have been studied. The overall experiments are driven with open and closed systems. The study shows that there is an optimum value for a minimum gelling time at R equal 2. The gelling time for all studied open system found to be shorter than in closed system. In acidic environment and when R value increased from 2 to 10, the gelling time of closed systems has increased four times than open systems at T=30 ˚C and fourteen times when temperature reaction increased to 60 ˚C. While in basic environment the influence of increasing R value was limited.

Keywords

Sol-Gel --- TEOS --- R -molar ratio


Article
A note on an –module with -pure intersection property
ملاحظات حول المقاسات التي تمتلك خاصية التقاطع النقي من النمط-(m,n)

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Let be a ring. Given two positive integers and , an module is said to be -presented, if there is an exact sequence of -modules with is -generated. A submodule of a right -module is said to be -pure in , if for every -Presented left -module the canonical map is a monomorphism. An -module has the -pure intersection property if the intersection of any two -pure submodules is again -pure. In this paper we give some characterizations, theorems and properties of modules with the -pure intersection property.


Article
Extension of the Chebyshev Method of Quassi-Linear Parabolic P.D.E.S With Mixed Boundary Conditions
توسيع طريقة تشبيشف لتشمل المعادلات التفاضلية الجزئية التكافؤية الشبه خطية ذات شروط حدودية مختلطة

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Abstract

The researcher [1-10] proposed a method for computing the numerical solution to quasi-linear parabolic p.d.e.s using a Chebyshev method. The purpose of this paper is to extend the method to problems with mixed boundary conditions. An error analysis for the linear problem is given and a global element Chebyshev method is described. A comparison of various chebyshev methods is made by applying them to two-point eigenproblems. It is shown by analysis and numerical examples that the approach used to derive the generalized Chebyshev method is comparable, in terms of the accuracy obtained, with existing Chebyshev methods.


Article
Cox proportion hazard model for patients with hepatitis disease in Iraq
تقدير نموذج المخاطرة النسبية لبيانات البقاء لمرضى اللتهاب الكبد الفايروسي في العراق

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Abstract

Cox regression model have been used to estimate proportion hazard model for patients with hepatitis disease recorded in Gastrointestinal and Hepatic diseases Hospital in Iraq for (2002 -2005). Data consists of (age, gender, survival time terminal stat). A Kaplan-Meier method has been applied to estimate survival function and hazerd function.


Article
Magic square
المــــــــــربــــــــع الســــحـــــري

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Abstract

In this paper we introduce two Algorithms, the first Algorithms when it is odd order and how we calculate magic square and rotation for it. The second Algorithms when it be even order and how to find magic square and rotation for it.

Keywords

matrix --- magic square --- number theory

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