Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2008 volume:5 issue:4

Article
Optium Conditions for the Production of Neutral Protease from local strain Aspergillus niger var cabonarius
دراسة الظروف المثلى لانتاج البروتيز المتعادل من العزلة المحليةAspergillus niger var. carbonarius

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Abstract

The optimum conditions for the production of neutral protease from local strain Aspergillus niger var carbonarius by solid – state fermentation system (Wheat bran) moisted with 0.2 M phosphate buffer (PH7.0) . the hydration ratio was 1:5 (V:W) . the concentration of inoculum was 1×106 spores per 10 gram of solid materials , initial P H 6.5 and 96 hours of incubation period at 30 C .the enzyme activity was 1300 unit / ml and specific activity was 1550 unit / mg protein .

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Article
The use of wastewater and inorganic fertilizers as nutrients source for cultivation of diatom Nitzschia palea
استخدام مياه الصرف الصحي والأسمدة اللاعضوية مصدراً للمغذيات في استزراع الديتوم Nitzschia palea

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Abstract

Two kinds of alternative media (domestic wastewater and inorganic fertilizers) were used for cultivation of diatom Nitzschiapalea (Kuetz.)W. Smith in control conditions (temperature 25°C and light intensity 260 µE/m²/sec). These media were mixed with modified Chu-10 medium. Highest growth rate (0.56 cell/h) and lowest doubling time (13 cell/h) recorded for 50% wastewater supported with Chu-10. Followed, by inorganic fertilizers media formed of 125mg/L N:P:K, 12.5mg/L supper phosphate P2O5, 100 mg/L magnesium sulphate and 10 mg/L sodium silicate, which gives 0.35 cell/h of growth rate, 20.75 h doubling time, 9.75 × 106 cell/ml of cells count and absorption of 0.86 nm. So, its enable to benefit from wastewater and inorganic fertilizers as alternative media for cultivation this algal species and it is easy to obtain for reducing the cost of production.

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Article
Cytogenetic effect of crude aqueous extract from leaf of Lycium barbarum on root tip of Allium cepa L.
التاثير الوراثي الخلوي للمستخلص المائي الخام لاوراقنبات العوسج Lycium barbarum على خلايا القمم الناميةلجذور البصل Allium cepa L.

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the cytogenetic effects of crude aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum on the roots tip of Allium cepa Using three concentration 125, 25, 50 mg/ ml for 2, 4, 6 hours treatment periods.This study were included some cytogenetic analysis such as mitotic index , phase index and chromosome aberration. The data showed that the treatment with 50mg/ml for 6huors led to reduce the mitotic index less than 50% . This reduction considered to have toxic and sublethal effect . These results revealed mutagenic potency by inducing differents type of chromosome aberration.

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Article
Developing of Bacterial Mutagenic Assay System for Detection of Environmental and Food MutagensV – Using Anticancer Drug Cyclophosphamide
تطوير نظام بكتري لتحديد المطفرات في البيئة والاغذيةخامسا: استخدام عقار مضاد للسرطان السايكلوفوسفامايد

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Abstract

G-system composed of three isolates G3 ( Bacillus),G12 ( Arthrobacter )and G27 ( Brevibacterium) was used to detect the mutagenicity of the anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (CP) under conditions similar to that used for standard mutagen, Nitrosoguanidine (NTG). The CP effected the survival fraction of isolates after treatment for 15 mins using gradual increasing concentrations, but at less extent comparing to NTG. The mutagenic effect of CP was at higher level than that of NTG when using streptomycin as a genetic marker, but the situation was reversed when using rifampicin resistant as a report marker. The latter effect appeared upon recording the mutagen efficiency (ie., number of induced mutants/microgram of mutagen). Measuring the Relative mutability revealed that isolate G12 was highly mutable by both mutagens. The Relative mutational results showed also that isolate G12 is more sensitive, except when recording rifampicin resistance as a genetic marker, and this pattern was similar to NTG.

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Article
EFFECT OF HARDENING TO DROUGHT TOLERANCE ON THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF SUNFLOWER PLANT. I. MOISTURE PERCENTAGEIN ROOT AND STEM
تأثيرعمليات ألتطويع لتحمل ألجفاف في ألمحتوى ألرطوبي لنبات زهرة ألشمس(Helianthus annuus L.)I. نسبة الرطوبة في الجذر والساق

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Abstract

Two field experiments were conducted during the spring seasons of 2000,2001.The aim was to study the effect of hardening to drought tolerance on moisture percentage in root and stem of sunflower plant during growth stages . Asplit-split plots design was used with three replications.The main plots included irrigation treatments:irrigation to100%(full irrigation),75and50%of available soil water.The sub plots were the cultivars Euroflor and Flame.The sub-sub plots represented four seed soaking treatments :Control(unsoaked),soaking in water ,Paclobutrazol solution(250ppm),and Pix solution(500ppm). The soaking continued for 24 hours then seeds were dried at room temperature until they regained their original weight. Amount of water for each irrigation were calculated to satisfy water depletion in soil using a neutron meter. . Results indicated that stress at 800 Kp reduced moisture percentage in the root by 15.96% compared with full irrigation after86 days from planting,and in the stem by 9.64 and 11.99%compared with full irrigation and stress 600 Kp, respectively after 72 days from planting in the season 2001.Also stress 600 Kp reduced moisture percentage in the root after 58 days from planting by 5.81 and 5.97% compared with full irrigation and stress 800 Kp as a mean of seasons. Euroflor was superior over Flame after30 days from planting in the moisture percentage of its roots by 6.78 in the season of 2000 and by 3.10% as a mean of seasons..While Flame was superior in the moisture percentage of its stems by 4.62 and 2.51% after 58 days from planting in the season of 2000 and as a mean of seasons, respectively.Unsoaked treatment gave highest moisture percentage in the root, the percentage of increase reached to 5.05 and 9.63% than soaking in water and paclobutrazol after 30 days from planting and by 11.43 and 10.65% than soaked in water and pix solution after 86 days from planting as a mean of seasons. soaking in paclobutrazol solution decreased moisture percentage in the stem after 30 days from planting by 4.43 and 8.31% in the season 2000 and by 2.82 and 3.23% as a mean of seasons compared with soaking in water and pix solution , respectively. On the other hand paclobutrazol increased the percentage of moisture in the stems during the next stages of growth. The study suggest that it could improve water relations specially during the stages which increased water requirement (flowering and seeds filling), and increased drought tolerance by soaking the seeds presowing in water or plant growth regulators


Article
Prepared (PbS) Thin Film Doped with (Cu) and Study Structure Properties
تحضير أغشية (PbS) المطعم بالنحاس (Cu) ودراسةالخواص التركيبية

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Abstract

In this research PbS and PbS:Cu films were prepered with thicknesses (0.85±0.05)μm and (0.55±0.5)μm deposit on glass and silicon substrate respectively using chemical spray pyrolysis technique with a substrate temperature 573K, from lead nitrate salt, thiourea and copper chloride. Using XRD we study the structure properties for the undoped and doped films with copper .The analysis reveals that the structure of films were cubic polycrystalline FCC with a preferred orientation along (200) plane for the undoped films and 1% doping with copper but the orientation of (111) plane is preferred with 5% doping with the rest new peaks of films and appeared because of doping. Surface topography using optical microscope were be checked, it was found that the doping cause an increase in grain size and enhance the crystalline structure in comparison with the undoped samples. These results were fitted to the X-ray analysis.

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Article
Study of Ratio fission width to total width for fission materials bombarded by monoenergitic neutrons
دراسة سلوك نسبة عرض الانشطار الى العرض الكلي للمواد الانشطارية عند طاقة النيوترونات الاحادية

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Abstract

This study aims to know the way of the ratio fission width to total width for compound nuclei of fission materials , when it had been bombarded by monoenergetic neutrons as a function of nuclear radius and ranges ( 1-10) *10-13 cm , and it concluded the mathematical equations that can be used for this way of the study . Also we concluded the empirical relations by fitting method in which the ratio fission width to the total width for monoenergitic neutrons for various fission nucleuses, for Uranium-238 and Thorium-232 respectively.

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Article
Nahrwan Clays Study for Brick Industry
دراسة الأطيان الصالحة لصناعة الطابوق في منطقة النهروان

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Abstract

Nahrawan clay deposits lies in Diyala governorate , 65 Km, NE of Baghdad , according to the previous work in this field, in which they study the reserve belong to category of investigation ( C2 & C1 ) , we choice the proper area to investigation of category (B) with drill net( 200x 200m ) to rise the amount of reserve. The investigation work included drilling (116) boreholes of total depth ranges from (10.0-12.55m) , showed mainly clayey and silty deposits with little sand , and the typical borehole (648) represents all types of sediment in the area , and most of boreholes without sandy deposits , and all of these deposits is Quaternary sediment which is consist of two main sedimentary cycles ( the Pleistocene & Holocene ) . Chemical analysis for (343) samples were done , and physical test carried on ( 143 ) samples , and all show suitable properties for clay brick industry . the area of investigation covered ( 5.200.000 m2) involving ( 620.000 m2 ) containing soluble salt more than ( 3.5%) , which was separated from the total area , so the residual (4.580.000m2 ) had been taken to calculate the reserve , with depth of ( 10.76m) for the industrial clay bed . The reserve calculations depended on the following chemical & physical Properties: The chemical analysis shows that , CaO ( 16.53%) MgO ( 4.65% ) , SO3 ( 1.42%) , T.S.S. (2.42%) , the physical properties are unfired properties Which contains Bulk density ( 2.09gm/cm3) , moisture content (20.95%) , linear dry shri. (7.63%) , and fired properties which contain water absorption (18.8%) , linear shri. (0.8%) volume shri. (2.212% ) , compressive strength ( 468.606Kg/cm2) . So the reserve of category (B) is ( 49.280. 800 m3 ) or (102.966.000 Ton) the physical test showed that the brick classified into class (A-B) .

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Article
New Method for Determination of Molybdenum(VI) through Flow Injection Analysis Via the Consumption of Liberated Oxygen from Reaction System Ammonia-Hydrogen peroxide-Molybdenum(VI) in the Presence of Pyrogallol
طريقة جديدة لتقدير الموليبدينوم(VI) بتقنية الحقن الجرياني باستهلاك الاوكسجين المتحرر من تفاعل محلول الامونيا-بيروكسيد الهيدروجين-موليبدينوم(VI) وبوجود البايروكالول

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Abstract

This piece of research work aims to study one of the most difficult reaction and determination due to continuous and rapid variation of reaction products and the reactants. As molybdenum (VI) aid in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium of ammomia, thus means a continuous liberation of oxygen which cuases and in a continuous manner a distraction in the measurement process. On this basis pyrogallol was used to absorbe all liberated oxygen and the result is an a clean undisturbed signals. Molybdenum (VI) was determined in the range of 4-100 g.ml-1 with percentage linearity of 99.8% or (4-300 g.ml-1 with 94.4%) while L.O.D. was 3.5 g.ml-1. Interferring ions (cations and anions) were studied and their main effect was reduced using mini column cataining resin, or the separation of molybdenum via its precipitation prior to injection. The reaction system and manifold were used to determine pyrogallol (4-40 g.ml-1, L.O.D. 80 M) and hydrogen peroxide (0.1-5M, L.O.D. 50 mM). Relative standard diviation was better the 1%.

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Article
Evaluation of home-mode ELISA system for thedetection of antibodies against Escherichia coli O157:H7 using purified lipopolysaccharide
تقييم عدة تشخيصية لعزل وتشخيص بكتريا Escerichia coli O157:H7

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Abstract

An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantitation of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against vero- cytotoxine (VT) producing Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 was produced. E. coli O157: H7 lipopolysaccharide was extracted from locally isolated strains by using hot phenol- water method, followed by partial purification using gel filtration chromatography by sepharose- 4B. The purity of the lipopolysaccharide was checked by measuring the protein and nucleic acid content and then used as antigen. Four isolates of vero- cytotoxin producing E. coli serogroup O157:H7 was obtained by culturing 350 stool samples from children suffering from bloody diarrhea. These isolates were identified on bacteriological, serological and biochemical basis. Toxin production was confirmed on laboratory animals as well as by cytopathic effect on tissue culture. The possibility of using E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide in an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay for the routine diagnostic testing of serum from patients for evidence of O157:H7 infection is discussed.

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Article
Modeling of Mixing Time for Bioreactors withSelf-Inducing Impellers
النمذجة الرياضية لزمن الخلط للمفاعلات الحيوية ذات الخلاطات الساحبة للهواء

Authors: Alaa K. M علاء كريم محمد
Pages: 569-576
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Abstract

The mixing time is one of the most useful criterions for characterization of the broths mixing intensity and for scaling up of biosynthesis processes. This parameter value depends mainly on the presence of biomass in the broths, mixing system characteristics and operating conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on mixing efficiency, this study was carried out for simulated fermentation aerated broths consisted of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMCNa) taking into account the broth's viscosity, rotation speed (rpm) and the stirrer geometry. The experimental results were used in obtaining a correlation to calculate the mixing time for Re <5000, domain of flow regime for which only few data are available from literature. This model offer a good concordance with the experimental results, the average deviation being of 6.6% for CMCNa solutions and can be used for fermentation scaling up.


Article
Optical Properties for SeTe Thin Films
الخصائص البصرية لآغشية SeTe الرقيقة

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Abstract

Chalcogenide glasses SeTe have been prepared from the high purity constituent elements .Thin films of SeTe compound have been deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates for different values of film thickness . The effect of varying thickness on the value of the optical gap is reported . The resultant films were in amorphous nature . The transmittance spectra was measured for that films in the wavelength range (400-1100) nm . The energy gap for such films was determined .

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Article
Three Dimensional MHD Simulationof Comet Hale-Bopp Tail
محاكاة الماغنيتوهيدروديناميك ثلاثية الأبعاد لذيل المذنب هايل – بوب

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The interaction between comet Hale-Bopp tail with the solar wind is investigated in the present paper using magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation, which accounts for the presence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The simulation is based on three-dimensional Lax-Wendroff explicit scheme, providing second-order accuracy in space and time. The ions produced from the nucleus of the comet will add considerable effects on the microstructure of the solar wind, thus severely altering its physical properties. The present simulation focuses on careful analysis of these properties by means of simulating the behavior of the comet Hale-Bopp’s tail at 1 AU from the sun. These properties include the changes of the plasma density, particle velocity, IMF changes, pressure, and internal energy. The results indicated that comet tail will highly disturb the physical properties of the solar wind for a considerable distance. These changes reflect the effect of including the source term in the present simulation. It is shown that the comet tail will retain its original shape faster as it approaches the sun. Practical comparisons are also presented in the present research with earlier work. The present simulation was made using MATLAB program.


Article
The effect of doping ratio of Cu on the structural properties of CdSe Films
تأثير نسب التطعيم بالنحاس على الخصائص التركيبية لأغشية CdSe

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Abstract

Films of CdSe have been prepared by evaporation technique with thickness 1µm. Doping with Cu was achieved using annealing under argon atmosphere . The Structure properties of these films are investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The effect of Cu doping on the orientation , relative intensity, grain size and the lattice constant has been studied. The pure CdSe films have been found consist of amorphous structure with very small peak at (002) plane. The films were polycrystalline for doped CdSe with (1&2wt%) Cu contents and with lattice constant (a=3.741,c=7.096)A°, and it has better crystallinty as the Cu contents increased to (3&5wt%) Cu. The reflections from [(002), (102). (110), (112), and (201)]planes are more prominent referring to hexagonal unit cell. Therefore the crystal structure of CdSe:Cu films are hexagonal at Cu content (pure, 1&2wt%) with a sharpness and also in the hexagonal form at (3&5wt%).The crystalline size were found to depend on concentration of doping materials, and it is varied between (20.3-81.4)nm and increased with Cu content.

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Article
Improvement of the monochrome image hologram by using a random phase and increasing number of Samples
تحسين الهولوغرامات المولدة للصور الاحادية اللون باستخدام عاملي الطور العشوائي وزيادة عدد العينات

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This paper present a study about effect of the random phase and expansion of the scale sampling factors to improve the monochrome image hologram and compared it with previous produced others. Matlab software is used to synthesize and reconstruction hologram.

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Article
Measurements of Radon-222 and its Daughters Concentrations in Buildings of Department Physics in College of Sciences of Baghdad University
قياس تراكيز الرادون ووليداته في بنايات من قسم الفيزياء في كلية العلوم في جامعة بغداد

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The present work aims to investigate approaches, measures and detection of indoor radon level in buildings of the department of physics in college of science of Baghdad University. CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations inside the rooms, including five laboratories and five workplace rooms in ground and first storey of the department. The average radon concentration at first storey was found to be 43.1±13.2 Bq/m3 and 40.1±13.4 Bq/m3 at the ground storey. The highest level of radon concentration at the first storey in the radioactive sources store was 87.5±29 Bq/m3 while at the ground storey in room(2) was 70.2±24 Bq/m3 which is due to the existence radioactive sources in some selected places at the buildings.

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Article
Polar Gap Properties for Neutron StarWithin Light Cylinder Limits
خواص الفتحة القطبية للنجم النيوتروني ضمن حدود الاسطوانة لضوئية

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The huge magnetic fields of neutron star cause the nuclei of the stellar surface to form a tightly bound condensed layer. In this research some characteristics of polar gap and magnetosphere enclosed the star according to Sturrock Model were illustrated, positrons move out along the open field lines, and electrons flow to the stellar surface as in the related to Sturrock model. The magnetic field within polar gap areas, which is defined by the Irvin Radius (RL) decreases due to the expansion of the polar, resulting from the physical motion of the accreted material. The values of height gap at different distances from the star were estimated. The obtained results improve the most energetic positrons those with E≈ Emax radiate away their energy in a distances re = 104m above the polar gap while less energetic positrons produced at much greater distances re =108m. The potential drop across the polar gap is obtained using a well defined adopted formula, it is found that the potential drop across the polar gap grows like (h2), when h « rp

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Article
Synthesis and Copolymerization of several N-substituted acrylamides
تحضير وبلمرة مشتركة لعدد من مركبات N-معوض اكريل أمايد

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Five N-substituted acrylamides were prepared by reaction of substituted aromatic primary amines with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethyl amine. The synthesized acrylamides were allowed to introduce copolymerization reaction with three vinylic monomers including acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate respectively to obtain eleven new copolymers having different physical properties which may used in different applications.

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Article
Synthesis of New Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Anthrone and Evaluation of Their Biological Activity
تخليق مركبات حلقية غير متجانسة جديدة مشتقة من الأنثرونوتقيم فعاليتها البايولوجية

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In this research, Schiff bases derived from the reaction of anthrone with different heterocyclic amines have been described. The resulted Schiff base compounds were reacted with various nucleophiles in order to obtain new heterocyclic derivatives. Chemical structures of all products were confirmed by IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. All synthesized compounds were in vitro tested against a standard strain of pathogenic microorganism including Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram –ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and fungi (Candida albicans).

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Schiff base --- Biological activity --- Imidazole --- 1 --- 3 --- 4-Thiadiazole


Article
Spectrophotometric micro determination of drug promethazine hydrochloride in some pharmaceutical by chelating with Rhodium
التقدير الطيفي للدواء هيدروكلوريد البروميثازين في بعض المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستخدام فلز الروديوم كوسيط

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The drug promethazine hydrochloride (PRZH) forms with rhodium (II) a colored chelate (λmax = 472 nm) complex at (pH = 2.1) which is extractable with benzyl alcohol as organic solvent. Under the appropriate experimental conditions a calibration plot was set up from which some analytical parameter were derived and deduced by regression. Standard addition procedure was also adopted. It has been estimated that the concentration of the drug PRZH to be 24.89 mg per unit and 24.19 mg per unit for both calibrations. Under optimal conditions, the developed method has been achieved the following characteristics: LDR (30 – 150 µg ml-1 ) PRZH , RSD % ( 0.6 – 2.47 ) , sandell sensitivity( 0.0844 µg. cm -2 ) , LOD ( 1.66 µgml-1 ) , recovery % ( 100.74 ± 1.34 ) , Erel % ( 0.74 ) . Stability constant (6.4 × 10 5 M-1). The mole – ratio method (1: 1) approved that PRZH – Rh (II) as a structure of the complex. The developed procedure has been adapted to analyze PRZH in various pharmaceuticals.

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Article
SYNTHESIS,ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF2-AMINO 5-PHENYL -1,3,4- OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES
تحضير والفعالية البايولوجية لمشتقات 2 –أمينو فنيل-4,3,1 –أوكسادايازول

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In the present investigation, five derivatives were synthesized as potential antimicrobial agents , The compounds are : 2-amino 5-phenyl - 1,3,4- oxadiazole dithi-ocarbomate, 2-amino 5-( 4-amino- N,N-dimethyl phenyl)- 1,3,4- oxadiazole, 2-amino 5- (4-amino N,N- dimethyl phenyl)- 1,3,4- oxadizole dithiocarbamate, 2-amino 5-(4-nitr-ophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, 2-amino 5-(4-nirophenyl)-1,3,4- oxadiazole dithiocarbamate. The above newly synthesized compounds were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal activities. The results of the biological revealed that the compounds activities against S.aureuss and B.subtilis and also P.aeureoginosa and Staph. Aureus. The prepared compounds were characterized by infrared spectrum, 1HNMR nuclear magnetic resonance and some physical properties.

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Article
Oscillation of Nonlinear Differential Equations with Advanced Arguments
تذبذب المعادلات التفاضلية غير الخطية ذات المعاملات التقدمية

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This paper is concerned with the oscillation of all solutions of the n-th order delay differential equation . The necessary and sufficient conditions for oscillatory solutions are obtained and other conditions for nonoscillatory solution to converge to zero are established.

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Article
ON CERTAIN SUB-SPACE OF X
حول فضاء جزئي معين من X

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Abstract

The study of properties of space of entire functions of several complex variables was initiated by Kamthan [4] using the topological properties of the space. We have introduced in this paper the sub-space of space of entire functions of several complex variables which is studied by Kamthan.


Article
Some Results on Reduced Rings
بعض النتائج حول الحلقات الاختزالية

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The main purpose of this paper is to study some results concerning reduced ring with another concepts as semiprime ring ,prime ring,essential ideal ,derivations and homomorphism ,we give some results a bout that.


Article
An Approximate Solution of Fredhom Integral Equation Using Bernstein Polynomials
حل تقريبي لمعادلة فريدهولم التكاملية باستخدام طريقة متعددة حدود برنشتن

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In this paper, Bernstein polynomials method has used to find an approximate solution for Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. These polynomials are incredibly useful mathematical tools, because they are simply defined, can be calculated quickly on computer systems and represent a tremendous variety of functions. They can be differentiated and integrated easily.

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Article
On CSO-Compact Space
حول الفضاء المرصوص-CSO

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The aim of this paper is to introduces and study the concept of CSO-compact space via the notation of simply-open sets as well as to investigate their relationship to some well known classes of topological spaces and give some of his properties.

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Article
Optimal Color Model for Information Hidingin Color Images
النظام اللوني الأمثل لإخفاء البيانات في الصور الملونة

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In present work the effort has been put in finding the most suitable color model for the application of information hiding in color images. We test the most commonly used color models; RGB, YIQ, YUV, YCbCr1 and YCbCr2. The same procedures of embedding, detection and evaluation were applied to find which color model is most appropriate for information hiding. The new in this work, we take into consideration the value of errors that generated during transformations among color models. The results show YUV and YIQ color models are the best for information hiding in color images.

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