Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2008 volume:5 issue:3

Article
Isolation and identification of fungi which associated with animal's leather
عزل وتشخيص بعض انواع الفطريات المرافقة لجلود الحيوانات

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Abstract

The study included the investigation of fungi which associated with heavy animal's leather (Cows and Buffalos) and light (Sheep’s and Goats )through different processing stages (raw hides ,dehairing ,pickling,chrome tanned and stainning or finished stages)there were 10 genera and 25 species in addition to sterile fungi associated with animal leathers which included Alternaria ,Aspergillus,Cladosporium,Fusarium, Mucor , Penicillium , Rhizopus , and Trichoderma .Aspergillus and Penicillium have observed in all leather samples and different processing stages, and that the first time isolate two genera Helminthosporium , Stemphylium form leather for staining stage.

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Article
Mutagenic Effect of Crucifers Lepidium sativum and Eruca sativa in Comparison to Carrot Daucus carota
التأثير المطفر لنباتات العائلة الصليبية الرشاد Lepidium sativum والجرجير Eruca sativa مقارنة بالجزر Daucus carota

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Abstract

The mutagenic effect of some crucifers widely consumed Lepiduim sativum (Garden cress) and Arugula (Eruca sativa) was studied in comparison to carrot (Daucus carota), using bacterial mutagenic system composed of three bacterial isolates; (Bacillus spp)G3 (Arthrobacter spp)G12, and (Brevibacterium spp)G27 ,. Treatment of isolates with plant extracts led to reduction in survival fraction (Sx)at different levels except that Aurgula extract did not show any inhibitory effect in isolates G12 and G27. Crucifers extracts induced streptomycin resistant mutants in G12 at higher level than G3 , but not in G27. No resistance to rifimpacin was detected in all isolates.

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Article
The Effect of Potassium Sorbate on Microorganism and Self life of Laboratory Biscuit
تأثير سوربات البوتاسيوم في أعداد الأحياء المجهرية واطالة مدة صلاحية البسكت المختبري

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Abstract

This study has been conducted to examin the effect of potassium sorbate at different level of 0.03,0.06,0.10% on the number of bacteria and mold and to extend the storage life of laboratory processed biscuit. The results indicated that the use of 0.03% potassium sorbate prolonged the storage peroid until the third month .three types of bacteria has been isolated from processed biscuit, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Esherichia coli using 0.06% potassium sorbate showed no growth of bacteria up to six month of storage ,while using of 0.03% and 0.06% potassium sorbate prevent the growth of mold up to three and six months of storage respectively. Both Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated from the processed biscuit.

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Article
Effect of sulphur on soil pH, growth and productivity of rape seed plant
تأثير إضافة الكبريت في درجة حموضة التربة pHونمو وإنتاجية نبات السلجم

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Abstract

A field trial was conducted in Experimental Station of The Field Crops Department – College Of Agriculture In Abu Ghraib, University of Baghdad to assess the effect of sulphur applications and the time after application on pH and EC of soil sample solutions ,and on the growth and yield of rape seed (Brassica napus L.)A split plot design was used with four replications , The main plot included four sulphur applications levels (0,2000,3000,4000Kg S/ha) the sub plot were the time after application (0,1,2,and 3 moths) .Sulphur application significantly decreased soil pH value ,although that decrease reached minimum parameter after two months from application date .Rather increment of sulphur application level significantly raised soil EC value, So that value decreased continuously with time after the application .Sulphur application level affected significantly increased plant height/cm and decreased seed oil content percent but not affected in seed yield /plant.

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Article
Chromosomal aberrations and N-ras activation in human larynx carcinoma cell line Hep-2.
الاضرار الكروموسومية العددية و التركيبية و دور مورث السرطان N-ras في خط خلايا سرطان الحنجرة Hep-2 .

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Abstract

In the present study, cytogenetic and molecular techniques were conducted to detect the chromosomal aneuploidy and the involvement of N and H genes in squamous larynx carcinoma cell line Hep-2.Our results showed that numerical and structural abnormalities were involved in larynx cancer Hep-2.The total number of chromosomes ranging from tripolyploidy in passage187to more than that in passage207.The more frequent chromosomes involved in numerical aberrations were chromosomes1,7,16,17 and 18. Structural chromosomal aberrations were also detected.Deletion of short arm was detected in chromosome 1(del 1p) and the long arm of chromosome 1(del 1q)and 6(del 6q).Gaining on short arms were also recorded in chromosomes 3(3p+) and 12(12p+).At the molecular level,one allele of N-ras proto-oncogene was found deleted in the location 61 in passage 187 and complete deletion of both locations in passage 207.These findings reflex a great genomic instability in the the tumor model used in this study. Also the results confirmed the multistages theory in cancer arising.

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Article
Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Hospital Contamination
التحري عـن بكتريـا Pseudomonas aeruginosa في تلــوث المستشفيــات

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Abstract

The Present investigation includes the isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for different cases of hospital contamination from 1/ 6/2003 to 30/9/2004, the identification of bacteria depended on morphological , cultural and biochemical characters, 37 of isolates were diagnosed from 70 smears from wounds and burns beside 25 isolates were identified from 200 smears taken from operation theater and hospital wards including the floors , walls , sources of light and operation equipment the sensitivity of all isolates to antibiotic were done , which exhibited complete sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin , Ceftraixon, Tobromycin and Gentamysin ,while they were complete resist to Amoxcillin , Tetracyclin , Nitrofurantion , Clindamycin Cefotoxam and Methoprim.

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Article
Effect of Low Level Acute of Aflatoxin on Performance in Faw- Bro Broiler
التأثير المزمن والطويل للجرع الواطئة من سموم الافلاعلى الأداء الإنتاجي والفسلجي في فروج اللحم

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the Poultry farm of the animal during the Production department, Iraqi during the (Ministry of Science and Technology) period from 3-9-2001 to 8-4-2002. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of low – level chronic aflatoxicosis on performance (body weight, feed conversion efficiency and mortality), Serum biochemistry and activity of some enzymes (GOT,GPT, ALKP, LDH). A total of 300 male chicks of broiler breeder (Faw–Bro) were used. Chicks at day 1 of age were fed diets contaminated with aflatoxine at levels of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 the feeding period were extended to 8 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance by the completely randomized design. The results showed the presence of a number of fungi especially the type of Aspergillus flavus genus that reaches 40%. All aflatoxine dose levels significantly (P < 0.05) decreased live weight, it was also noticed that there were higher significant decrease in feed conversion when aflatoxine level was elevated in the feed. Increasing mortality with each increasing in aflatoxine level, the low level of chronic aflatoxine in the diets caused increased in the relative weight of internal organs (Liver, Pancreases, spleen, heart, gizzard, fibresia gland) as a results of aflatoxine presence in the diet, the low level of chronic aflatoxicosis for long time decreased in packed cell volume percentage, heamoglbulin concentration and red blood cell cont., with increase in white blood cells and (neutrophil, Hetrophil, Lymphocyte). The aflatoxine increased the serum concentration of protein, albumin, Cholesterol, Phosphor the activity of LDH, GOT, GPT, AIKP.

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Article
Development of Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Chlorpromazine-Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Via Use Ion-Exchange to Overcome the Interfering Ions
تطوير طريقة طيفية مباشرة لتقدير الكلوربرومازين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستخدام مبادلات ايونية لازالة المتداخلات

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Abstract

In this scientific piece of research work, chlorpromazine CPZ (a psychaity drug) was determined spectrophotometrically using micro amount of reactant. In addition to micro amount of spectrophotometric reagent (400 l). Various oxidizing agents were tested, including periodate, iodate, bromate, ferric nitrate, ferri cynate and persulphate. Oxidation reactions of the active ingradient (2,10-disubstituted phenothiazine) was used for the determination of CPZ in the presence of ferric nitrate. Detailed study of all chemical and physical parameters were studied. Ion-exchange columns were used to overcome the interfering ions. Percentage linearity was 99.86 for 0.04-8 mM CPZ, L.O.D. was 110-6M. Repeatabilety was better than 1.5%. The established results were followed to determine in some drugs.

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Article
Production of Zinc oxide for medical application from Zinc scraps
انتاج اوكسيد الخارصين الدوائي من مخلفات الخارصين

Authors: Jehad.A.Taies .جهاد عبد طعيس
Pages: 371-373
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Abstract

In this work ,medical zinc oxide was produced from zinc scraps instead of traditional method which used for medical applications such as skin diseases, Iraq is importing around 50 ton/year for samarra plant the producted powder has apartical size less than 5 micron and the purity was more than 99.98%,also apilot plant of yield capacitiy 15 kg/8hours wsa designed and manufactured .

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Article
Proparyation of Low frequency microwave in dusty Plasma
انتقال الموجات واطئة التردد في البلازما المغبرة الممغنطة

Authors: H.H.Murbat .حامد حافظ مربط
Pages: 374-378
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Abstract

The numerical simulation for the low frequency waves in dusty plasma has been studied. The studying was done by taking two special cases depending on the direction of the propagation of the wave:First, when the propagation is parallel to the magnetic field K//B,this mode is called acoustic mode.Second,when K B this mode is called cyclotron mode.In addition, every one of the two modes divided into two modes depending on the range of the frequency.The Coulomb coupling parameter was studied, with temperature T,density of the dust particles Nd ,and the charge of the particle Qd.The low frequency electrostatic waves in dusty grains were studied. Also, the properties of ion-acoustic waves and ion-cyclotron waves are shown to modify even through the dust grains do not participate in the wave dynamics. If the dust dynamics induced in the analysis, new “ dust modes “ appear.

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Article
Design of Immersion Electrostatic LensOperated under Zero Magnification Condition
تصميم عدسة كهروستاتيكية مغمورة تعمل تحت ظرف التكبير الصفري

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Abstract

The inverse problem is important method in the design of electrostatic lenses which is used in this work, with new technique by suggesting an axial electrostatic potential distribution using polynomial functions of the third order. The paraxial-ray equation is solved to obtain the trajectory of particles that satisfy the suggested potential function.In this work design of immersion electrostatic lens operated under zero magnification condition. The electrode shape of sthe electrostatic lens was the dermined from the solution of laplace equation and plotted in two deimensions . The results showed low values of spherical and chromatic aberrations , which are considered as good criteria for good desigh.

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Article
The Extent of Homogeneity in the Distribution of Petrophysical Properties that Affecting the Primary and Enhanced Oil Recoveries of Reservoir Rocks in Zubair Formation of South Iraq
مدى التجانس في توزيع الصفات البتروفيزيائية المؤثرة على الاسترجاع النفطي الأولي والمتنامي للصخور المكمنية في تكوين الزبير جنوب العراق

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Abstract

Records of two regionalized variables were processed for each of porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks in Zubair Formation (Zb-109) south Iraq as an indication of the most important reservoir property which is the homogeneity,considering their important results in criterion most needed for primary and enhanced oil reservoirs.The results of dispersion treatment,the statistical incorporeal indications,boxes plots,rhombus style and tangents angles of intersected circles indicated by confidence interval of porosity and permeability data, have shown that the reservoir rocks of Zubair units (LS),(1L) and (DJ) have reservoir properties of high quality,in contrast to that of Zubair units (MS) and (AB)which have reservoir properties of less quality than the rest.In addition,the co- efficient of the central tendency of permeability data for the reservoir rocks have indicated the homogeneity,systematic and normal distribution, in contrast to porosity data of (DJ) & (AB) units that follow a distribution which predominate in difference and heterogeneity in their values.

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Article
Study the effect by CO2 laser on some optical properties of (Cd) thin film doping by Ni
دراسة تأثير اشعة ليزرCO2 على بعض الخواص البصرية والتركيبيةلأغشية CdS المطعمة بالنيكل

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Abstract

In this research study the effect of irradiation by (CW) CO2 laser on some optical properties of (Cds) doping by Ni thin films of (1)µm thickness has been prepared by heat evaporation method. (X-Ray) diffraction technique showed the prepared films before and after irradiation are ploy crystalline hexagonal structure, optical properties were include recording of absorbance spectra for prepared films in the range of (400-1000) nm wave lengths, the absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated before and after irradiation, finally the irradiation affected (CdS) thin films by changing its color from the Transparent yellow to dark rough yellow and decrease the value absorption coefficient also increase the value of energy gap.

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Article
The antiviral activity of the compound chalcone (4-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-4, 6-dimethoxy-chalcone) against rubella virus in vitro
فعالية المركب جالكون المضادة لنمو فايروس الحصبة الالمانية في الزرع النسيجي والزرع العضوي

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Abstract

The studies on the antiviral compound chalcone in vitro in both tissue and organ culture systems against rubella virus glass that this compound relatively non toxic to the cell culture and organ culture of the concentration of 8 ug/ml or less, chalcone have significantly antiviral activity against rubella virus in tissue culture and organ culture. We find that a concentration of 0.03ug/ml or more inhibit the IOOTCID50 of rubella virus. The therapeutic index (TI) used in this study to evaluate the drug, the (TI) which is the ratio of the dose of drug which is just toxic (Maximum tolerated dose) to the dose which is just effective (Minimum effective dose). If this index is one or less it not possible to use the drug under the conditions outlined without causing side effect, if the index is larger than the margin of safety is accordingly great, the TI of chalcone against rubella virus more than 70, therefore this compound if used in man have no side effect .

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Article
Effects of sulpher foam and mycorrhizal fungi on Eggplant infested with Nematode(Meloidogyne javanica) at seed or seedling stage
تأثيراضافة فوم الكبريت وفطريات المايكورايزا على نباتات الباذنجان المصابة بنيماتوداMeloidogyne javanica في مرحلة البذور او البادرات.

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Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and sulphur foam added either at direct seeding or at transplanting decreased the effects of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on eggplant growth, and improved plant health. Experiments were conducted to study the possible interactions between the Mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mossae and Gigaspora spp.) and sulphur foam to control M. javanica on eggplant at seed or seedling stage. Experiment at seed stage treated with Mycorrhiza or sulphur foam alone or together stimulated the growth and reduced Nematode infestation significantly. Treated plant at seedling stage increased plant growth and reduced the number of galls /gm of root system. The interaction between Mycorrhiza and sulpher foam treatments was not significant.

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Article
Bioremoval of chromium from wastewater of tannery factory in Iraq
الازالة الحيوية للكروم من الفضلة الصناعية لمعمل الدباغة في العراق

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Bioremoval of chromium from wastewater of tannery factory in Iraq was studied. The bacteria Proteus vulgaris 7E showed an enhanced capability in biosorping chromium when its concentration increased in the solution, reaching a maximum of 476,7 mg/ ml out of 492 mg/ ml under optimum conditions at pH 6 and 50°C at one hour contact time and biomass of 1 mg/ml. The present results showed that dead cells of P. vulgaris 7E biosorbed 87.41 mg/ml of chromium in comparison with91.18 mg/ml of chromium biosorbed by living cells, this indicates the insignificant effect of physiological state of cells. It was found that the above biosorption is physico-chemical process depends upon electrostatic attraction forces. The results has illustrated that the most efficient eluting solution was 0.1M HCL which recovered 85% of biosorbed chromium. P. vulgaris 7E was able to remove completely all chromium from the waste water taken from tannery factory.

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Article
Epidemiological Surveillance of Communicable Diseases in Baghdad City during the Period January-April 2006
الرصد الوبائي للأمراض الانتقالية في مدينة بغداد للفترة كانون الثاني- نيسان 2006

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The records of Primary Health Care Centres (Al-Risafa section of Baghdad) were inspected for communicable diseases during the period January-April 2006. There were 8622 recorded cases (the diagnosis was based on a clinical examination and laboratory findings), which were distributed as 4782 (55.5%), 1430 (16.6%), 1604 (18.6%) and 806 (9.3%) for Sadar city, Risafa, A'adhamyiah and Mada'in, respectively. The highest frequency was reported for chicken pox (42.7%), followed by mumps and typhoid fever (20 and 13.7%, respectively), while diphtheria and cholera were not recorded. These three most frequent diseases were further analyzed, and their distribution showed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.001). April was the month of the highest recorded cases (48.05%), followed by March (18.8%), January (18.1%) and finally February (14.7%).

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Article
Determination of Desferrioxamine in the Drug Desferal™ as DFOM-Au (III) Complex by Using Indirect Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Other Techniques.
التعيين غير المباشر للدسفيروكسامين في المستحضر الصيدلاني الدسفرال بصيغة المعقد DFOM-Au(III) باستخدام مطيافية الامتصاص الذري الكهروحراري وتقنيات اخرى

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An indirect method using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been established for the determination of DFOM in the drug desferal™as DFOM-Au (III) complex. The formation of this complex at 1:1 mole ratio computed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric technique was confirmed by distinction of the IR absorption spectra between the free DFOM and its complex. Several experimental factors that effect the formation of DFOM-Au (III) complex were optimized using AA responses. Aliquots of the complex extract were injected into a coated GF and the AA-signals measured. A direct calibration graph was constructed and from which the figures of merits were found such as: LDR (0.08-3.5 µg ml-1), m0º (293.3 pg), LOD (0.0154 µg ml-1), RSD% (2.0-3.5), recovery present (101.54±0.86), and %Erel (1.54). The established indirect ETAAS was applied to analyze the drug desferal™ for the determination of DFOM using direct and standard additions procedures and DFOM found to be 488 and 484 mg/unit respectively compared to the stated value of 500 mg/unit. All statistical calculations were implemented via the chemsoftware (Minitab version 11).

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Article
A Study of some biochemical parameters in patients with - thalassemia
دراسة بعض المتغيرات الكيموحيوية لمرضى فقر دم البحر الابيض المتوسط نمط بيتا ()

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Serum levels of iron,copper,ceruloplasmin and transferrine were estimated in three groups of patients with - thalassemia: 24 patients have splenectomy thalassemia major, 29 patients have non splenectomy thalassemia major and 19 patients have thalassemia intermedia , data were compared to normal and pathological controls (anemia and minor). There were significant increase in trace element levels in all studied groups of pateints as compared to normal and pathological controls. Also there were a significant increase in ceruloplasmin levels,While the result revealed that there were a significant decrease in transferrine levels in all groups of patients studied as compared to normal and pathological controls. The result also indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between serum ceruloplasmin & copper levels in thalassemia patients while the correlation between serum transferring & iron levels in thalassemia patients are negative.

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Article
Variables Affecting Developments of Hydroxyapatite Coating by Using Electrophoretic Deposition Technique
العوامل المؤثرة على تطوير اساليب الطلاء بمادة الهيدروكسي ابتايت باستخدام تقنية الطلاء بهجرة الدقائق العالقة المشحونة

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Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) process offers various advantages like the fabrication of the ceramic coatings and bodies with dense packing, good sinterability and homogenous microstructure. The variables namely (applied potential, deposition time and sintering temperature) affected the development of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings. The coating weight and thickness were found to increase with the increase in applied potential or coating time. Sintering temperature was found to affect in change phases of the metal, furthermore the firing shrinkage of the HAP coating on a constraining metal substrate leads to serve cracking. XRD Characterization indicates the formation of a contamination free phase pure, and the optical micrographs show the relatively uniform distribution of the HAP coatings. Analysis of the stiochiometric HAP before EPD process and after sintering indicates that the structural aspects do not change i.e. the EPD in ethanol does not affect the structure of HAP powder.


Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Al-Si-Cu Alloy in the Basic Media by UsingSix Inhibitors at Four Temperatures
تثبيط تأكل سبيكة المنيوم-سليكون-نحاس في وسط قاعدي باستخدامستة مثبطات عند اربع درجات حرارية

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The research involved attempt to inhibit the corrosion of Al-Si-Cu alloy in 2.5x10-3 mol.dm-3 NaOH solution (pH=11.4) by addition of six different inhibitors with three concentrations (1x10-3, 1x10-2, and 0.1 mol.dm-3). These inhibitors include three organic materials (sodium acetate, sodium benzoate, and sodium oxalate) and three inorganic materials (sodium chromate, disodium phosphate, and sodium sulphate). The data that concerning polarization behaviour are calculates which include the corrosion potential (Ecorr) and current density (icorr), cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (bc & ba), and polarization resistance (Rp). Protection efficiency (P%) and activation energy (Ea) values were calculated for inhibition by the six inhibitors. The results indicated the effect of temperature on the inhibition in basic media.

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Consisting of Benzodiazepine, Quinoxaline, Benzimidazole and Thiazole Rings
تحضير وتشخيص مركبات حلقية غير متجانسة ملتحمة جديدة جديدة تحتوي على حلقات البنزودايأيزوأبين، الكوينوكزالين، البنزايمدازول والثايزول

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In this study, new heterocyclic compounds were synthesized through the cyclization reactions of o-phenylenediamine (1) with various organic reagents. Benzodiazepine derivatives (2-4) were obtained by reaction of (1) with ethylacetoacetate, malonic acid and acetyl acetone.Treatment of compound (1) with chloroacetamide, chloroacetic acid, p-bromophenacyl bromide and oxalic acid dihydrate afforded quinoxaline derivatives (5-8), respectively. Reaction of compound (1) with benzoic acid, piperonal, cyclohexanone and carbon disulfide resulted in the formation of compounds (9-12), respectively. Finally, reaction of compound (12) with chloroacetic acid in the presence of potassium hydroxide produced compound (13).


Article
Measurements of The Spectroscopic Properties of Hydrogen Iodide Molecules
قياس الخواص الطيفية لجزيئة ايوديد الهايدروجين

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A calculation have been carried out for determination some of the spectroscopic properties of Hydrogen Iodide HI molecules such as, the intensity of the absorption spectrum as a function of the variation of the temperature ranging from 10 to 1000 K. This study shows that the populations and hence intensity of the molecule increased as the temperature increased. Another determination of the maximum rotational quantum number Jmax of N2 , CO , BrF AgCl and HI molecules has been carried out.

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Article
Study the effect of thickness and annealing temperature on the Electrical Properties of CdTe thin Films
دراسة تأثير السمك ودرجة حرارة التلدين على الخصائص الكهربائية لأغشية CdTe

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The electrical properties of polycrystalline cadmium telluride thin films of different thickness (200,300,400)nm deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates at room temperature and treated at different annealing temperature (373, 423, 473) K are reported. Conductivity measurements have been showed that the conductivity increases from 5.69X10-5 to 0.0011, 0.0001 (Ω.cm)-1 when the film thickness and annealing temperature increase respectively. This increasing in σd.c due to increasing the carrier concentration which result from the excess free Te in these films.

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Article
A Fixed Point Theorem for L-Contraction in Generalized D-Metric Spaces
مبرهنة حول النقطة الصامدة لتطبيق -L الأنكماشية في فضاءات D- المترية المعممة

Authors: Salwa.S.Al-Bundi سلوى البندي
Pages: 457-459
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Abstract

We define L-contraction mapping in the setting of D-metric spaces analogous to L-contraction mappings [1] in complete metric spaces. Also, give a definition for general D- matric spaces.And then prove the existence of fixed point for more general class of mappings in generalized D-metric spaces.


Article
Generation of 16 Micrometer IR Laser by theOptical Pumping of CF4 Gas Molecules
توليد أشعة الليزر تحت الحمراء 16 مايكروميتربواسطة الضخ الضوئي لغاز رابع فلوريد الكاربون

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We report here the observation of 16 µm superradiance laser action generated from optical pumping of CF4 gas molecules (which is cooled to 140 Kº by a boil-off liquid-N2) by a TEA-CO2 laser 9R12 line. Output laser pulses of 7 mJ and 200 ns have been obtained.

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Article
Hybrid Cipher System using Neural Network
نظام تشفير هجين باشكال الشبكات العصبية

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The objective of this work is to design and implement a cryptography system that enables the sender to send message through any channel (even if this channel is insecure) and the receiver to decrypt the received message without allowing any intruder to break the system and extracting the secret information. In this work, we implement an interaction between the feedforward neural network and the stream cipher, so the secret message will be encrypted by unsupervised neural network method in addition to the first encryption process which is performed by the stream cipher method. The security of any cipher system depends on the security of the related keys (that are used by the encryption and the decryption processes) and their corresponding lengths. In our work, there are two types of keys; the first type is the keystream that is adopted by the stream cipher stage with optimal length (length of the keystream greater or equal the message length); and the second key type is the final weights that are obtained from the learning process within the neural network stage, So we can represent our work as an update or development for using the neural network to enhance the security of stream cipher. As a result for a powerful hybrid design, the resulted cipher system provides a high degree of security which satisfies the data confidentially which is the main goal of the most cryptography systems.

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