Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2008 volume:5 issue:2

Article
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration(MFC) of extracted oil of lemon grass and thyme against Candida spp. and Bacteria Spp. Isolated from children with oral thrush
تحديد قيم التركيز المثبط الادنى(MIC) والتركيز القاتل الفطري(MFC) والبكتيري الادنى للمستخلص الزيتي لنباتي حشيشة الليمون والزعتر ضد خميرة المبيضات Candida spp. وبعض الانواع البكتيرية المعزولة من افواه الاطفال

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Abstract

120 samples were collected from children (ages between new born and 10 years) who infected with oral thrush. The results revealed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of extracted oil of lemon grass against C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.keyfr, C.glabrata and C.guilliermondii were 1.25,1.25,1.25,2.5 and 2.5µl/ml and 2.5, 2.5, 2.5, 5 and 5 µl /ml respectively. while the (MIC) and (MFC) for the extraction oil of thyme against C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.keyfr, C.glabrata and C.guilliermondii were 0.6, 0.6, 1.25, 1.25, and 1.25µl/ml and 1.25, 1.25, 2.5, 2.5, and 2.5µl/ml respectively . While the value of (MIC) and (MFC) for Nystatin against Candida species were 32 and 64 µg / ml respectively. On the other hand the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value of exctracted oil for lemon grass against E.coli, S. aureus and S. pyogenes were 5, 2.5 and 2.5 µl/ml and 10 , 5 and 5µl /ml respectively. while the (MIC) and (MBC) value of exctracted oil for thyme against E.coli, S. aureus and S. pyogenes were 2.5, 2.5 and 1.25 µl/ml and 5 , 5 and 2.5µl /ml respectively.

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Article
Cytogenetic effects of insecticide Lamda cyhalothrin on meristemic cells of Allium cepa L.
التأثيرات الخلوية الوراثية للمبيد الحشري Lambda cyhalothrin على الخلايا المرستيمية لجذور البصل Allium cepa L.

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Abstract

تمت دراسة التأثير الخلوي الوراثي للمبيد الحشري Lambda cyhalothrin على الخلايا المرستمية لجـذور البصل باستعمال ثلاثـة تراكيـزهي%5 , %7.5 , %10 ولفتـرات معـاملـة 6 ,12 , 24 ساعة. المبيد خفض معدل دليل الانقسام لجميع التراكيز معنويا عن السيطرة واظهر قابليته في زيادة طور C-metaphase في التركيز 10% بنسبة %100 وكذلك ازدياد حالات الزيغ الكروموسومي متمثلة بـ الكروموسومات المتميعة في الطورين الانفصالي والنهائي, خلايا ثنائية النواة , انويه صغيرة مما يدل تاثير المبيد على تكوين وتوزيع الالياف المغزلية .

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Article
Relationship between Diabetes mellitus and Urinary tract infections
علاقة مرض السكري بأصابات المجاري البولية

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Abstract

Blood and urine samples were collected from 203 patients to study the relationship between Diabetes mellitus and urinary tract infections (UTI). Blood and urine specimens were subjected for estimation of random blood sugar, in addition to detection of the most pathogen bacteria which cause urinary tract infection in diabetic patients. The study included the detection of bacterial sensitivity to some antibiotics used in treating urinary tract infections, and also included the study of genetic basis which cause both types of diabetes mellitus. The results can be summarized as follows: The incidence of type Ι diabetes in males was (35.8%), and (45.9%) in females . and type 2 diabetes in males was (49.6%), while in females was (40.16%).The incidence of urinary tract infection in females was higher (69.6%) in comparison to males (37%).Escherichia coli was the most causative agent of urinary tract infections in diabetic males (19.7%), while Candida albicans was the most causative agent in urinary tract infections in females (18.8%).The majority of isolated bacteria were highly resistant to Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Penicillin G, while they were sensitive to Cephotaxim, Cephalexin, Ciprofloxacin.

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Article
Plasma alkaline phosphatase polymer phism and it’s association with productivity in Iraqi fowl
العلاقة الوراثية بين متناظرات أنزيم الفوسفاتيز القاعدي والصفات الإنتاجية للدجاج العراقي

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Abstract

Plasma alkaline phosphatase isozyme in Iraqi fowl was studied by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two phenotypes fast and slow, were observed. These two phenotypes have been shown to be controlled by one single autosomal locus with two allel AKPF and AKPS. The gene frequency of AKPS is dominant over the AKPF. The result indicated that gene frequency of AKPF in leghorn and new hamshire was more frequent than in local Iraqi birds. Birds of fast isozyme type had higher 90 – day's egg production and egg weights as compared to those with slow isozyme. It is concluded that the fast isozyme can be used as gene marker for spotting out pullets with high body weight sexual maturity, high egg production and high egg weight.

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Article
Effect of physical form and washing of treated and untreated rice straw with sodium hydroxide upon chemical composition and in vitro digestibility
تاثير الشكل الفيزيائي وعملية الغسل لتبن الرز المعامل وغير المعامل بهيدروكسيد الصوديوم في تركيبه الكيميائي ومعامل هضمه المختبري

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Abstract

Hydroxide upon the chemical composition and dry matter(DM) and organic matter(OM) digestibility . Rice straw was treated with 4% sodium hydroxide using 30% of DM basis moisture, and incubated at 40 ºC for 40 days., DM digestibility (DMD) was significantly affected (P<0.01) by the treatment , where DMD increased The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of physical form (long ,chopped and ground ) and washing rice straw treated with sodium from 42.32 to 45.41% , OM digestibility (OMD) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) increased(P<0.05) from 47.38 and 49.33 to 49.67 and 52.83% ,respectively. While hemicellulose content increased (P<0.05 ) from 261.71 to 268.17 gm/kg DM ,and metabolizable energy (ME) from 7.11 to 7.48 MJ/ Kg DM. The NDF and lignin contents decreased (P<0.01) from 742.73 and 141.21 to 703.01 and 96.36 gm/ kg DM respectively . While dry matter (DM) ,organic matter (OM) and ADF contents decreased (P<0.05) from 987.99,854.18 and 481.02 to 962.45 ,852.35 and 434.83 gm /Kg DM, respectively. OM ,DMD and GE were affected significantly (P<0.05 ) by treating ground rice straw with sodium hydroxide compared with chopped and long rice straw, and in hemicellulose with ground and as it is compared with chopped . While NDF content decreased (P<0.05 ) in ground rice straw treated with sodium hydroxide . OMD and ME increased (P<0.05 ) in washed rice straw treated with sodium hydroxide .While DM,OM,NDF ,hemicellulose and cellulose content were decreased (P<0.05) . Furthermore, the best treatment which improved the nutritive value and in vitro digestibility of DM and OM was associated with washed and ground rice straw treated with sodium hydroxide.


Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Plant Density on Yield and Growth of Sunflower
تأثير السماد النيتروجيني و مسافات الزراعة في بعض الصفات المظهرية وحاصل زهرة الشمس

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Abstract

The effect of nitrogen fertilizer and the planting distance on growth and yield of the sunflower cultivar (Taka) was investigated. The experiment was conducted in the field using five nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200) kg/donum and three planting distances (10, 20, 30) cm/plant. The experiment design was split-plot by using RCBD with four replicates. The level of fertilizer as the main plot, while the planting distance as the sub plot. Plant high and yield components were measured. Results indicated that using 200 kg/donum of nitrogen and 30 cm/plant of planting distance gave the highest rate of 1000 seeds weight and the number of seeds/ head. While using 200 kg/donum of nitrogen fertilizer with 10 cm/plant of planting distance gave the highest fertility percentage. Also the results indicated that the interaction between the nitrogen fertilizer and planting distance was not significant in most of the characters that were measured.

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Article
Dietary Assessment for Meals of Nurseries Children in Baghdad City
التقييم الغذائـي لوجبات طعام أطفال دور الحضانـة في مدينة بغـداد وعلاقته بالحالـة التغذويــة

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of childs of nurseries in Baghdad city so that an early detection of malnutrition cases could be carried out. The results revealed that the daily consumption of food calories, protein, fat and carbohydrate were 1180.5 calories, 27.2gm, 38gm and 180gm, respectively, which were less than the RDA values and the percentages of these nutrients supplied by the food intake were 90.8, 83.7, 87.3 and 90.3%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that the highest percentages of stunting, underweight and wasting, which amounted to 32, 22.7 and 1.5%, respectively, were among those childs who obtained inadequate calories, while the percentages of the forementioned malnutrition cases among those childs who obtained inadequate calories were 7.5, 4.5 and 3%, respectively. The results also pointed out that the general nutritional pattern of the childs food style in this study was strictly and unbalanced due to the lack in food meals recommended to be taken daily of certain main food groups according to the food guide pyramid for young children, such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes,nuts as well as vegetables and fruits group, otherwise, the food consumed was stricted to milk,yogurt and cheese group ,vegetables and fruits group, bread, rice, and other cereals as well as their products and bakeries. There was anumber of bad food habits among the children of research sample was also observed and was found effect the quantity and quality of food consumed.

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Article
Prevalence of head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) among primary schools pupils in Nassirya city
دراسة انتشار قمل الرأس في المدارس الابتدائية في قضاء الشطرة / محافظة الناصرية

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Abstract

This study showed the spreading of head lice in pupils of primary schools of Al-Nassirya city. The results showed that the percentage of males infected with lice was (5.4 %) and (9 %) for females. Also was obtained difference at age groups which we found maximum percentage of infection at age between (8 – 11) year. The highest infection for the hair tall at medium tall for both sex which the ratio (35.2 %) while for both sex with ratio (25 %) for girls. While the highest percentage for straight hair was (14.8 %) for girls

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Article
Study the Effect of thickness on the Optical Properties Performance of active polymeric laser media
دراسة تأثير السمك على الخصائص البصرية للوسط الليزري اللدائني الفعّال

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Abstract

The paper include study the effect thickness of the polymeric sample which is manufactured by thermo press way. The sample was used as an active tunable R6G laser media. The remarks show that, when the thickness of the samples is increased, with the same concentration, the spectrum will shift towards the short wavelength, & the quantum fluorescence yield will increased. The best result we obtained for the quantum fluorescence yield is (0.68) at the sample, with thickness (0.304mm) in Ethanol solvent, while when we used the Pure Water as a solvent, we found that the best quantum fluorescence yield is (0.63) at (0.18mm) thickness of the sample.

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Article
Plasma Heating of Tokamak by Microwaves at Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH)
تسخين بلازما التوكاماك بالموجات المايكروية عند تردد رنين الإلكترون السايكلوتروني ECRH

Authors: H.H.Murbat حامد حافظ مربط
Pages: 217-223
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Abstract

The brief description to the theory of propagation of electromagnetic waves in plasma was done. The cutoff and resonance regions have been showed. The principles of plasma heating at electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) method have been mentioned. The numerical simulation to three different station: Tosca station in United Kingdom, ISX-B station in USA and T-10 station in Russia had been done. The optical depth and the friction of energy absorbed A have been calculated. The simulation results indicate that both and A are increase with size of the tokamak and it is possible to obtain full absorption in large tokamak.

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Article
Preparation and Purification of natural uranium metal by Iodine method.
تحضير وتنقية اليورانيوم الطبيعي بطريقة الايودين

Authors: Jehad.A.Taies جهاد عبد طعيس
Pages: 224-229
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Abstract

In this work ,glass-metal apparatus was designed and manufactured which used for preparing ahigh purity uranium. The reaction is simply take place between iodine vapour and uranium metal at 500C in closed system to form uranium tetra iodide which is decomposed on hot wire at high temperature around 1100C. Also another apparatus was made from Glass and used for preparing ahigh purity of UI4 more than 99.9% purity.

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Article
Laboratory study on the effects of nutrient enrichment on a phytoplankton population in Sawa Lake, Iraq
دراسة مختبرية لتاثيرات الاغناء بالمغذيات على سكان الهائمات النباتيةفي بحيرة ساوة , العراق

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Nutrient enrichment of Sawa lake water was made using different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations during autumn and spring at three stations. Different concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and N: P ratios were used to test variations in phytoplankton population dynamics. Nitrogen at a concentration of 25 µmole.l-1 and N: P ratio of 10:1 gave highest phytoplankton cell number at all stations and seasons. A total of 64 algal taxa dominated by Bacillariophyceae followed by Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae were identified. The values of Shannon index of diversity were more than one in the studied stations.

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Article
Microbiological Examination of some ImportedCanned and Frozen Foods
الفحص الجرثومي لبعض الأغذية المستوردة المعلبة والمجمدة

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A number of juices, jams, canned foods and frozen fishes available in local markets were inspected with respect to microbial contamination. We have determined the total viable bacterial cell counts in these samples and the number of g(-) lactose fermentors as a bacterial indicator of food spoilage. The results indicated that most of the food items inspected, were contaminated with large numbers of different species of g(-) ,g(+), yeast and fungi and some were contained more than the maximum permissible number of pathogenic g(-) enteric E-coli, which render these food items unsafe for human consumption.

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Article
Observations on the age and growth of Varicorhinus damascinus (Val.) in Tigris river at Salahuldin province – Iraq
ملاحظات عن العمر والنمو في سمكة التيلة الدمشقيةVaricorhinus damascinus (Val.)في نهر دجلة عند محافظة صلاح الدين ـ العراق

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Age and growth of Varicorhinus damascinus (Val.) in Tigris river at Salahuldin province have been investigated. Monthly samples were taken during the period from September 1999 to August 2000, using small-meshed gill nets. The age data showed that there were six age groups and the dominant age groups were (III – IV) for both sexes. The results of the present study revealed that the increment in length of V. damascinus at the sites of study showed a tendency to decrease with the increase in age, after the third year of life in both sexes. The length-weight relationship of males and females were calculated and demonstrated in a straight line logarithmic formula, as follows: Log W = 1.5404 + 2.6885 log L for males r = 0.95 (P > 0.05) Log W = 1.6723 + 2.7877 log L for females r = 0.77 (P > 0.05) The values of the regression coefficient (b) indicated that the growth of both sexes of V. damascinus was allometric..

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Article
The role of annealing temperature on the optical energy gap and Urbach energy of Se:2%Sb thin films
تأثير درجة حرارة التلدين على فجوة الطاقة البصرية وطاقة اورباخ لأغشية Se:2%Sb

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The optical energy gap(Eopt) and the width of the tails of localized states in the band gap (ΔE) for Se:2%Sb thin films prepared by thermal co-evaporation method as a function of annealing temperature are studied in the photon energy range ( 1 to 5.4)eV.Se2%Sb film was found to be indirect transition with energy gap of (1.973,2.077, 2.096, 2.17) eV at annealing temperature (295,370,445,520)K respectively. The Eopt and ΔE of Se:2%Sb films as a function of annealing temperature showed an increase in Eopt and a decrease in ΔE with increasing the annealing temperature. This behavior may be related to structural defects and dangling bonds.

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Article
The Datums Transformation for GPS Navigation Measurements Correction
تحويل المجسمات لأغراض تصحيح قياسات نظام التموضع العالمي

Authors: A.S. Mahdi علاء سعود مهدي
Pages: 253-260
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Abstract

The GPS navigation measurements become more widely used in many civilian and scientific application. All GPS navigation data holds many errors, the main error sources arise from the geodetic Datum variation when user apply the GPS measurements with the map. Geodetic datums define the size and shape of the earth and the origin and orientation of the coordinate systems used to map the earth surface. In this paper, the Datum transformation was evaluated in two mathematical methods to overcome the errors due to the difference between the WGS-84 and our country Datum Clarck-1880. The results was evaluated and investigated using Carmin GPS device for GCPs comparison, topographic map for Hilla city, mid Iraq 1:100000 scale, and two georefrencing ETM+ & TM satellite images. The spatial transformation error was less than 10 meter for UTM projection & less than 1 sec for (Φ, λ) projection, which can considered as suitable results in transformation calculation All results were overcome using two written program for each method with the help of Matlab facility. GPS: Global Positioning System, GCPs: Ground Control Points

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Article
Monochrome Image Hologram (MIH)
الهولوغرامات المولدة للصور الاحادية اللون

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A new computer-generated optical element called a monochrome image hologram (MIH) is described. A real nonnegative function to represent the transmittance of a synthesized hologram is used. This technique uses the positions of the samples in the synthesized hologram to record the phase information of a complex wavefront. Synthesized hologram is displayed on laser printer and is recorded on a film. Finally the reconstruction process is done using computerized .

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Article
Distribution of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Components
توزيع مركبات الطيف الزمني لفناء البوزترون

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The intensities of the positron annihilation lifetime components are shown to be related to the free volume model, and the theoretical value of the ratio between the singlet to the triplet state intensities, described by the ratio η, is shown to follow an empirical model. An application of the model on some experimental data shows that the calculated value of the ratio η approaches the theoretical value, which is 1/3. Furthermore, the relation between the free volume hole fraction, Fh, with the free volume Vh described by the constant C is related to τ3. Therefore, the deviation of the constant C and the ratio η that are reported and differ from the theoretical values for similar researches could be corrected. When data are collected by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), the spread-intensity model is suggested to explain this correction.


Article
Study of Spectral and thermal properties of Selenium Diatomic Halides by Semi-empirical Treatment
دراسة الخواص الطيفية والحرارية لجزيئة السلينيوم-هالوجينباستخدام برامج الكم الشبه تجريبية

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The spectroscopic properties, potential energy curve, dipole moments, total charge density, Electrostatic potential as well as the thermodynamic properties of selenium diatomic halides have been studied using code Mopac.7.21 and hyperchem, semi-empirical molecular orbital of MNDO-method (modified neglected of differential overlap) of parameterization PM3 involving quantum mechanical semi-empirical Hamiltonian. The relevant molecular parameters like interatomic distance, bond angle, dihedral angle and net charge were also calculated.

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Article
Ligand reduction in variously substituted cerium (IV) tetrakis acetylacetone complexes by electrochemistry technique
اختزال الليغاند في مختلف تعويض لمعقدات السيريوم بتقنية الكيمياء الكهربائية

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In this work, substantial evidence was obtained for ligand reduction in cerium tetrakis acac complexes. Also, this ligand reduction of a negatively charged ligand proved to depend far less on the nature central metal than neutral ligands does. It is supposed that in Mz(acac)z complexes the charge is distributed evenly over the whole molecule. In this work these complexes were prepared and characterized by IR and CHN analysis to indicate the purities of these complexes. The electrochemistry techniques were shown as obtained for ligand reduction. This research was carried out at School of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Sussex University, U.K.

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Article
Synthesis and characterization of VO(II), Cr(III),Mn(II), Fe(II),Zn(II),Cd(II),Hg(II) and UO2(VI) complexes with ligands containing (ONO) and (ON) donor set atoms
تحضير وتشخيص معقدات الفندايل (II) ،الكروم(III)، المنغنيز(II)، الحديد(II)، الزئبق(II) واليورانيل (II) مع ليكاندات حاوية على (ONO) و (ON) كمجاميع واهبة

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A new Schiff base o-hydroxybenzylidene-1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-amino-3-pyrazolin-5-on (HL) ,have been prepared and characterization.(HL) has been used as a chelating ligand to prepare a number of metal complexes VO(II) ,Cr(III) ,Mn(II),Fe(II),Hg(II) and UO2(II) .and mixed ligands complexes have been prepared between o-hydroxybenzylidene-1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-amino-3-pyrazolin-5-on and 8- hydroxy quinoline with VO(II),Zn(II),Cd(II), Hg(II) and UO2(II) the prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by (FT-IR)and (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Elemental analysis (C.H.N) Chloride contents, Flame atomic absorption technique. in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. Molar ratio measurement in solution gave comparable results with those obtained from solid state study.

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Article
Studying of the complexes product of the nerve agent Soman with the Butyrylcholinesterase and Acetylcholinesterase Enzymes
دراسة المعقدات الناتجة لغاز الأعصاب السومان مع أنزيمات الاسيتايل كولين استريز والبيوتيريل كولين استريز

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Cholinesterases are among the most efficient enzymes known. They are divided into two groups: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) involved in the hydrolysis of the neurotransimitter acetylcholine, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) of unknown function. Several crystal structures of the former have shown that the active site is located at the bottom of a deep and narrow gorge. Human BChE has attracted attention because it can hydrolyze toxic esters and nerve agents. Here we analyze the complexes of cholinesterase with soman by describing the 3D geometry of the complex, the active site, the changes happened through the inhibition and provide a description for the mechanism of inhibition. Soman undergoes degradation in the active site of the AChE and BChE. We calculate the energy of the products of the degradation reaction and suggest the reaction path. The product of the former reaction bind to serine residue in the active site and forming a stable bond and ends the catalytic function of the enzyme. This study has a useful role in the search of inhibitors to help in the treatment of Alzahimer's disease.

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Article
A New Derivatives of Benzodiazepine, Imidazole, Isatin, Maleimide, Pyrimidine and 1,2,4-Triazole: Synthesis and Characterization
مشتقات جديدة من البنزودايايزأبين, ايميدازول, أيساتين, مالأيمايد, بايريمدين و١,٢,٤-ترايازول: تحضير وتشخيص

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The synthesis of new benzodiazepine, imidazole, isatin, maleimide, pyrimidine and 1,2,4-triazole derived from 2-amino-4-hydroxy-1,3,5-triazine, via its cyclocondensation reaction with different organic reagents, is described. FT-IR, 1H-NMR and as well as 13C-NMR spectra disclosed the structures of the precursors and heterocyclic derivatives formed.

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1 --- 3 --- 5-Triazine --- Isatin --- 1 --- 2 --- 4-Triazole --- Fused heterocyclic rings


Article
Tamper Detection in Text Document
اكتشاف التلاعب في الوثائق النصية

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Abstract

Although text document images authentication is difficult due to the binary nature and clear separation between the background and foreground but it is getting higher demand for many applications. Most previous researches in this field depend on insertion watermark in the document, the drawback in these techniques lie in the fact that changing pixel values in a binary document could introduce irregularities that are very visually noticeable. In this paper, a new method is proposed for object-based text document authentication, in which I propose a different approach where a text document is signed by shifting individual words slightly left or right from their original positions to make the center of gravity for each line fall in with the middle point of intended line. Any modification, addition or deletion in a letter, word, or line in the document will be detected.

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Article
The Writer Authentication by Using Syllables Frequency
استخدام تقنية تكرار مقاطع الكلمة في أثبات هوية الكاتب

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An approach is depended in the recent years to distinguish any author or writer from other by analyzing his writings or essays. This is done by analyzing the syllables of writings of an author. The syllable is composed of two letters; therefore the words of the writing are fragmented to syllables and extract the most frequency syllables to become trait of that author. The research work depend on analyzed the frequency syllables in two cases, the first, when there is a space between the words, the second, when these spaces are ignored. The results is obtained from a program which scan the syllables in the text file, the performance is best in the first case since the sequence of the selected syllables is higher than the same syllables in the second case.

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