Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

Loading...
Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:4 issue:2

Article
Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of Potassium Chloride Solutions in N-Methylmorpholine by Physical Methods at Different Temperatures
تحليل التداخلات الجزيئية لمحلول ملح كلوريد البوتاسيوم في مذيب N-مثيل مورفلين بالطرق الفيزيائية في درجات حرارة مختلفة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, the densities,  viscosities,  and refractive index, nD were measured for the binary mixtures of N-methylmorpholine and water, in different weight percentages (25%, 50% and 75%) and at three different temperatures 298.15 K, 308.15 K and 318.15 K. The experimental results of the densities, viscosities and refractive index of the binary mixtures of N-methylmorpholine and water, the excess molar volumes, VE excess viscosities, E and excess refractive index, nE were calculated. the experimental results of the mixtures containing potassium chloride within the concentration range (0.00250.1 M), we have found that the potassium chloride is a structure breaker for the mixtures of water and solvent. At the same time potassium chloride increases the molecular interaction between salt ion with water and with solvent as indicated from B-coefficient values of Jones-Dole equation: (rel  1) /  A + B where the A-coefficient indicates the interaction between ion-ion, and B-coefficient indicates the interaction between ion and solvent. The study showed that the increasing the concentration of N-methylmorpholine causes decreasing in B-coefficient value and this prove that the salt is a structure maker for mixtures of water with solvent. Calculation of the excess activation energy of viscous flow, G*, proved that the highest value of activation energy achieved when the mixture contains equal weight (50% : 50%) of water and solvent N-methylmorpholine.

Keywords


Article
Newly Developed System For The Analysis Of Micro Quantites Of Molybdenum (VI) Using Flow Injection Analysis
منظومة شبه تلقائية مايكروفوتومترية مستحدثة لتحليل كميات مايكروئية من ايون المولبيدنيوم (VI) باستخدام التحليل بالحقن الجرياني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

New microphotometer was constructed in our Laboratory Which deals with the determination of Molybdenum (VI) through its Catalysis effect on Hydrogen peroxide and potasum iodide Reaction in acid medium H2SO4 0.01 mM. Linearity of 97.3% for the range 5- 100 ppm. The repeatability of result was better than 0.8 % 0.5 ppm was obtanined as L.U. (The method applied for the determination of Molybdenum (VI) in medicinal Sample (centrum). The determination was compared well with the developed method the conventional method.

Keywords


Article
Some Immunological Parameters Paraw in Women with vaginal candidiasis
بعض المؤشرات المناعية لدى النساء المصابات بداء المبيض المهبلي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted to know some Immune responses in women with vaginal candidias is by Candidia species. Hemoglubin (Hb) was decreased significantly in patient women comparing with control group. The differential count of Blood cells revealed that neutrophils and monocytcs were increased significantly in patient women comparing with control group. The percentage of the Phagocytosis index was decreased significantly in patient women (66.45 + 15.05) comparing with control group (73.72 + 3.77) and the T- lymphocytes were decreased also in patient women (57.75 + 18.787) comparing with control group (74.25 + 7.759).

Keywords


Article
Effect of crude extract of menthaspicata on fertility in Albino female mice
تأثير تراكيزمختلفةمن المستخلص المائي الخام لنبات النعناع في خصوبةاناث الفئران البيضAlbino Female mice

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The crude aqueous extract of menthespicata , the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this extraction , on the histological changes of the ovares and levels of sex hormone , ( FSH , LH , Estradiol ) in albino female mice . the extract was given orally for( 45 ) days . fourty mature female mice were used in this study , the animals divided into four major groups . each group was include ten mice . the first three groups was given different concentration )) (21 , 14 , 7 %) . While the fourth group considered as control group which had been administrated tab water . For ( 45 ) days each group had been killed for hormonal assay in blood , and for histological study . The results showed that aqueous extract of menthe spicata , increased the significant value p<0.05 , in the levels of ( FSH, LH , Estradiol ) hormones in the third group (7%) . While there was no significant effect p> 0.05 in both first and second group ( 21 ,14 % ) . The results of histological study for ovaries recorded asignificant increasing in the number of ovarian follicles in different stages , moreover the increasing on follicles diameters and in the size and activity of the ovaries . This result appeared clearly in the third group (7%) . In the seam time the athere two groups ( first , second ) recorded reduced in the number and diameters of ovarian follicles and in the corpus luteum . From the above mentioned outcomes we can conclude that the equeous extract of menthe spicata had a positive effect on the female reproductive systeme when it used in low concentration , while the high concentration had negative effect or toxcic effect .

Keywords


Article
Study on Candida spp. infection oral thrush and bacteria accompanied it from children
دراسة حول المبيضات Candida spp. المسببة لداء السلاق الفمي والبكتريا المرافقة لها لدى الاطفال

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Oral swab samples were collected from 120 children (ages between one month- 10 years) who were infected with oral thrush and 30 healthy children. The percentages of isolated yeasts and Bacteria were 66.6% and 96.6% respectively. The dominate yeast and bacteria were Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus with of 78.7% and 34.4% respectively. Results revealed that the highest percent of infection with oral thrush disease was 32.5% in children within the age of 1-2 months.

Keywords


Article
Epipelic Algae in Hemren Reservoir , Iraq
الطحالب الملتصقة على القاع في خزان حمرين ، العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study includes the epipelic algae in Hemren reservoir, for the period between Januarys to October 2000 .The samples were collected from three selected sites at north, middle and south of reservoir. A total of 96 taxa of epipelic algae were identified. The diatoms were the dominated by 82 taxa represented 85.4% of the total identified species, followed by blue-green algae (cyanophyta) of 6.3 taxa (6%), and then green algae (chlorophyta) of 5.2 taxa (5%). One species was recorded for each crysophyta, euglenophyta and pyrrophyta. The seasonal variation for the cell density showed two peaks during spring and autumn seasons. Few species were dominated during the most studied period such as Achnanthes minutissima, Navicula cryptocephala, N. cryptocephala var . veneta and Nitzschia palea .

Keywords


Article
Study of some effective factors on the production of garamicidin from locally isolated Bacillus brevis
دراسة بعض العوامل المؤثرة في انتاج المضاد الحيوي الكرامسيدين من جراثيم Bacillus brevisالمعزولة محليا

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The optimum cultural conditions for garamicidin production by local isolate B.brevis were studied.Best result was obtained when the isolate B.brevis was grown on media composed of 1%glucose as carbon source,1% ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source ,0.5% Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate as a phosphate source and after 48 hours of incubation at 30C .Garamicidin has been extracted and purified through acid precipition and then extracted by organic solvent (ether& acetone ).Using HPLC the garamicidin antibiotic showed three types A,B and C garamicidin .

Keywords


Article
Biodiversity of Rotifera and Cladocera in the upper region of Euphrates River- Iraq
التنوع الاحيائي لمجوعتي الدولابيات ومتفرعة اللوامس في الجزء العلوي لنهر الفرات- العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Five representative sampling stations were selected in upper region of Euphrates river. Bimonthly sampling were collected from December 2000 to December 2001. Rotifera showed high density in December 2000 while high density of cladocera which recorded in October .The results of relative abundance index showed that rotifera: Polyarthera dolichoptera , Keratella cochlearis , K. valga, Cephalodella auriculata and cladocera: Bosmina longirostris , B.coregoni ,Chydorus spharicus, were more abundant in study stations. The results of constancy index showed 4 taxa belonged to rotifera and 2 taxa belonged to cladocera which were considered constant in the Euphrates river, where the other species varied between accessory and accidental species in study stations. The index values of Species richness of rotifera varied between 0.41 – 2.8 and cladocera varied between 0.5 - 1.95. The Shanon-Weiner index of rotifera varied between 0.54-1.72 bit/ind., while the Shanon index of cladocera varied between 0.5-1.6 bit/ind. The uniformity index of rotifera varied between 0.41 – 0.99 but the uniformity index of cladocera varied between 0.61- 0.98 .

Keywords


Article
Micropropagation of kiwi Actinidia chinensis
الاكثار الخضري الدقيق لنبات الكيوي chinensis Actinidia

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Shoot tip of Actinidia chinensis plant were excised and sterilized with mercuric chloride (Hgcl2) at concentration 0.1% for 5 min, then cultured on MS medium supplemented with benzeladinine BA at concentration (0.0,0.5,1.0,2.0,2.5) mg/l in multiplication stage Moreover, indole butyric acid IBA at concentration (0.0, 0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0) mg/l and (0.0,0.5,1.0,2.0) mg/l on solid and liquid solution media respectively in rooting stage were studied. All experiments have done under controlled conditions (25 ±2) Cº and 1000Lux light intensity for 16 hrs / day. Results revealed that supplementing the media with BA at concentrations 2.0 and2.5 mg/l was superior to give highest rate of shoot and number of leaves reached 5.8 /explant and 6.0 leaves respectively. While control treatment gave highest rate of shoot lengths reached 1.99cm Moreover, including liquid media with 2.0 mg/l IBA gave highest rooting percentage(100% )as compared with the same concentration of IBA which gave rooting percentage reached 90% . Results of Acclimatization stage showed that addition of 1:1 peatmos and loamy soil was superior to give highest rate of success( 100%) after 4 weeks of acclimatization .

Keywords


Article
The Influence of The Kind of Feeding on The Average of Body Growth for The Infant of The Age (3-6) Months in Baghdad.City
تأثير نوع الرضاعة على معدل النمو الجسمي لدى الرضيع بعمر ( 3 - 6 ) أشهر في مدينة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper was conducted to identifying the body growth averages for the infants of the age (3-6) months and their relation with brest (natural ) or artificial feeding The results showed that the higher percentage was for the infants with the natural feeding in comparison with those of the artificial or mixed feeding. Also there was a clear increase in the average of the body growth for those with the natural feeding and such results were closer to the standard criterion. While the averages of body growth for those with the artificial or mixed feeding were low. In addition, it was clear that the averages of body growth of the infants with natural feeding and having home-made food were higher than those with the artificial feeding and having ready-made food. Therefore, it is important to add additional and complementary food for the infant and from the fourth month of the infant's age to ensure the sound continuity of the infant's growth. Such types of food are not necessarily ready-made or bought from the markets, they can be simple and home-made.

Keywords


Article
Determination of chemical composition of local black seeds Nigella sativa L
تشخيص التركيب الكيميائي والعناصرالمعدنيه لبذور الحبة السوداء المحليه .Nigella sativa L

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Chemical analysis for evaluation of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) seeds showed a composition of Fat 39% ; Protein 28% ; Carbohydrate 21% ; Moisture 6% and Ash 4.5% . It was found that the black seed contains the following mineral element : Magnesium 0.26 gm /100gm seed ; Calcium 0.25 gm /100gm seed and Iron 25 μg / gm /100gm seed ; zinc 4.51μg /gm /100gm seed and Copper 3.60 μg /gm /100gm seed. The analysis also showed that mineral element I. e. ; lead ; Cobalt ; Nickel ; Chrom ; Cadmium and Aresenic are not present . It was found that the fat of the black seed contains the following fatty acids : Myristic 2.8%; Palmtic 16.6%; Stearic 0.8 % ; Oleic 13.79% ; Linoleic 64.2% and Arachidic 1.9% .

Keywords


Article
Using Different Types of Projectiles to Make Avalanches to Avoid Human Being Disasters and Properties Destruction
أستخدام الأنواع المختلفة من القذائف لتحريك وإسقاط الأجسام والكتل الصخرية للحد من الخسائر بالأرواح ولتقليل التدمير بالممتلكات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Some geological phenomena as landslides and the mobilization of the accumulated rocks or soil are discussed in this research by using projectiles that cause mobility and falling of these land masses which are present at the top of mountains and edges of roads and streets to avoid accidents and human disasters which will occur if they are left falling by effect of climate or vibrating factors that are produced by performing dams, bridges and reservoirs. According to the different divisions of land masses groups, primary and secondary, which depend on type of movement and material arrangement that form the mobile masses, this research had shown the effect of projectiles for every type of cannons on the mobility of every groups of these rocks masses by forming vibrations and earthquakes as a result of these different types of projectiles according to their power degrees.

Keywords


Article
Theoretical Studies of Sum Optical Properties for InAs (001) by Surface Differential Reflectivity
دراسـة نظرية لبعض الخواص البصـرية لسـطح المركـب InAs(001) بأسـتخدام اطيـاف الانعكاسية السطحية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The real and imaginary part of complex dielectric constant for InAs(001) by adsorption of oxsagen atoms has been calculated, using numerical analysis method (non-linear least square fitting). As a result a mathematical model built-up and the final result show a fairly good agreement with other genuine published works.

Keywords


Article
Study of the electrical properties of Ion Beam Sputtered thin AlNiCo films
دراسة بعض الخواص الكهربائية لاغشية AlNiCo الرقيقة المحضرة بطريقة الرش الايوني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The electrical properties of the AlNiCo thin films with thickness (1000oA) deposited on glass substrates using Ion – Beam sputtering (IBS) technique under vacuum <10-6 torr have been studied . Also it studied the effect of annealing temperature from this films , It is found that the effective energy decrease with increase of temperature and the conductivity decrease with increase temperature 323oK but after this degree the conductivity increasing .

Keywords


Article
DIFFICULTIES IN USING THE INTERNET IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCES
صعوبات إستخدام الإنترنت في تدريس العلوم

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present research aims at recognizing the difficulties and problems which hamper teachers and educators alike when using the internet for educational purposes.It discusses the benefits of the internet as a source of information or publication and as a communicative tool.Arandom sample of (30) teachers working at schools in Baghdad / Second Risafa,was selected.Three of the sample members use the internet for student project plans via internet centers, whereas 16 of them use it for chatting, emailing and research purposes.The rest of the sample have limited knowledge of the internet. The researcher used the interviewing method to gather data from the sample members.The method involved eleven questions which required their replies.The repeated distribution and the percentage were employed to analyze the collected data.Among the conclusions arrived at is that the difficulties confronted by the teachers are their computer and internet illiteracy, particularly in teaching sciences, lack of internet and computer training courses,unavailability of computers, shortage of computer and internet guides and manuals which,even when available,do not match the ongoing progress,lack of technical support,continuing power failure, high cost of computers and internet access systems, anxiety and fear of misusing the internet, which led to negative orientation in internet use,fear of accessing non-educational sites,fear of losing focus when browsing the web, in addition to the teachers’ lack of knowledge of other languages such as the English. The study makes the following recommendations.It recommends that the Ministry of Education should provide computers which are connected to the internet.Computer and internet training courses must also be held to provide teachers with the skills they need to use the internet in teaching science.There should also be curricula prepared which include the use computers and the internet in most subjects, particularly science.Material and technical support should also be provided for schools.

Keywords


Article
Preparation of some azo compounds by diazotization and coupling of 2- amino -5 – thiol -1,3,4- thiadizaole
تحضير بعض مركبات الازو بواسطة ازوته وازدواج 2- امينو -5- ثايول -1 ، 3 ، 4 – ثايادايازول

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

2- amino -5- thiol-1,3,4- thiadiazole (S1) was prepared by cyclic locking of thiosemicarbazide in the presence of anhydrous sodium carbonate and CS2. diazotization of (S1) compound gave diazonium salt (S2) that reacts with different activated aromatic compounds to get the following azo compounds ,2 [(4- aminophenyl) diazenyl ] 1,3,4- thiazdiazole-5- thiol (S3) ,2-[4-amino- 1-naphthyl diazenyl] -1,3,4 – thiazdiazole-5-thiol (S4) , 3-amino-4-[(5- mercapto -1,3,4- thiadiazole -2-yl) diazenyl ] phenol(S5) ,1-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl) diazenyl] -2-naphthol (S6) , 5-{[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl] diazenyl}-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2- thiol(S7) ,5-{[4-(diethylamino) phenyl] diazenyl}-1,3,4- thiadiazole-2- thiol(S8) ,2- amino-5-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl) diazenyl] phenol(S9) . All the prepared azo compounds have been characterized and identified through the study of their some physical, chemical and spectrometrical (U.V.I.R) properties.

Keywords


Article
Synthesis & Characterization of Oxazinan and 5-oxa-7-aza-spiro[2,5] octane from reaction of Dibenzylidene with malonic anhydride and 5-oxa-spiro[2,3] hexane-4,6-dione.
تحضير ودراسة الصفات الفيزياوية لبعض مركبات الاوكسازينانات 5- اوكسو- 7- آزا-سبيرو ] 2و5 [ اوكتان من تفاعل ثنائي بنزليدين مع انهيدريد المالونيك و5- أوكسا- سبيرو ] 2و3 [ هكسان -4و6-دايون

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Di Benzylidenes were prepared by condensation of 1,2-diamino benzene with o- hydroxy benzaldehyde. These dibenzylidenes when treated with one equivalent of malonic anhydride or 5-oxo-spiro[2,3]hexane-4,6-dione in dry benzene give 6-membered heterocyclic ring system of 3-{2-[(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-phenyl}-2-(2-hydroxy –phenyl)-[1,3]oxazinane-4,6-diones ( 1-3) or 7-{2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-phenyl}-6-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-oxa-7-aza-spiro[2.5]octane-4,8-diones ( 7- 9 ) But when two equivalents of malonic anhydride or 5-oxo-spiro[2,3]hexane-4,6-dione were used and under sam conditions compounds (4-6 , 10-12 ) were obtained .

Keywords


Article
A study of adsorption in aqueous solution of p,o,m- hlorophenol on Iraqi siliceouns rocks powder
دراسة قابلية الأمتزاز لمركبات كلوروفينول من محاليلها المائية على سطح مسحوق الصخور السليسية العراقية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Adsorption of Chlorophenol compounds in aqueous solution on Iraqi siliceouns rocks powder have been investigated. UV technique has been used to determine the adsorption isotherms. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms obeyed Freundlich adsorption equation. The adsorption was endothermic process, increasing temperature leads to increasing adsorption. H, S, G were calculated. The results showed that the adsorption increases with increasing acidity of solutions.

Keywords


Article
Effect of (1,4) phenylenediamine on the corrosion of lead in 1M hydrochloric acid solution
تأثير إضافة 1،4- فنيل ثنائي أمين على سرعة تآكل الرصاص في محلول حامض الهيدروكلوريك 1 مولاري

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The accelerating effect of 1,4- phenylenediamine (PDA) additions in 1M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature rang (20-60) C° has been studied by weight losses measurement during ranging time (1-260) h and by following the pb2+ concentration in solution after several times by using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) . The volume of hydrogen gas involving was followed also in presence and absence of (PDA) in the corrosive solution .Accelerating enhanced by adding (NaCl , NaBr , NaI ) was also investigated.

Keywords


Article
The frequency of IgM-anti HAV in the sera of patients with hepatitis in Iraq
تكرار اضداد صنف ميو لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط أ في المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب الكبد في العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Three hundred and fifty five patients with hepatitis were investigated in this study all cases gave negative result with HBs Ag , IgM-anti HCV , IgM-anti HEV, IgM-anti HDV and anti-HIV tests . The frequency of IgM-anti HAV was 113 and the percentage was 32 % in all ages but when these patients divided into five groups dependent on ages. The highest percentage of IgM-anti HAV was (45%) in age <10 and the percentage declined with age increase till to 9% in age >41 year.

Keywords


Article
A study of some atomic properties for He-like selected ions
دراسة بعض الصفات الذرية للايونات الشبيهة للهليوم

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The atomic properties have been studied for He-like ions (He atom, Li+, Be2+ and B3+ions). These properties included, the atomic form factor f(S), electron density at the nucleus , nuclear magnetic shielding constant and diamagnetic susceptibility ,which are very important in the study of physical properties of the atoms and ions. For these purpose two types of the wave functions applied are used, the Hartree-Fock (HF) waves function (uncorrelated) and the Configuration interaction (CI) wave function (correlated). All the results and the behaviors obtained in this work have been discussed, interpreted and compared with those previously obtained.

Keywords


Article
Study of Density Distribution in Entrained Plasma
دراسة توزيع الكثافة داخل البلازما

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the effect of a pencil electron beam propagating inside the plasma region determining the hydrodynamic densities distribution with the aid of numerical analysis finite deference method (FDM).The plasma is generated and trapped by annular electron beams of fixed electron density 1x1014 m-3. The result of the study shows that the hydrodynamic density behaves as the increase in pencil electron beam. The hydrodynamic density ratio goes to more than double as the increase in pencil electron beam density to 1x1018 m-3.

Keywords


Article
Influence of the annealing time on the structural properties for Flash evaporated InSb films
تأثير زمن التَلْدين على الخصائص التركيبية لأغشيةِ InSb المحضرة بطريقة التبخير ألوميضي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Indium Antimonide (InSb) thin films were grown onto well cleaned glass substrates at substrate temperatures (473 K) by flash evaporation. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the polycrystalline of the films and the films show preferential orientation along the (111) plane .The particle size increases with the increase of annealing time .The transmission spectra of prepared samples were found to be in the range (400-5000 cm-1 ) from FTIR study . This indicates that the crystallinity is improved in the films deposited at higher annealing time.

Keywords


Article
Fuzzy Subspaces For Fuzzy space of Orderings
الفضاءات الجزئية الضبابية من الفضاءات الضبابية الترتيب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to define fuzzy subspaces for fuzzy space of orderings and we prove some results about this definition in which it leads to a lot of new results on fuzzy space of orderings. Also we define the sum and product over such spaces such that: If f = < a1,…,an > and g = < b1,…bm>, their sum and product are f + g = < a1…,an, b1, …, bm> and f × g =. for all a1,…,an,b1,…,bm  G

Keywords


Article
Block Method for SolvingState-Space Equations of Linear Continuous-Time Control Systems
طـريـقة البلـوك لحـل معـادلات فضـاء الحالـة لأنـظمة السـيطرة الخطية المستمرة الزمن

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper presents a newly developed method with new algorithms to find the numerical solution of nth-order state-space equations (SSE) of linear continuous-time control system by using block method. The algorithms have been written in Matlab language. The state-space equation is the modern representation to the analysis of continuous-time system. It was treated numerically to the single-input-single-output (SISO) systems as well as multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems by using fourth-order-six-steps block method. We show that it is possible to find the output values of the state-space method using block method. Comparison between the numerical and exact results has been given for some numerical examples for solving different types of state-space equations using block method for conciliated the accuracy of the results of this method.


Article
Improving Fractal Image Compression Scheme through Quantization Operation
تحسين ضغط الصور باستخدام الكسوريات عن طريق عملية التكميم

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

We explore the transform coefficients of fractal and exploit new method to improve the compression capabilities of these schemes. In most of the standard encoder/ decoder systems the quantization/ de-quantization managed as a separate step, here we introduce new way (method) to work (managed) simultaneously. Additional compression is achieved by this method with high image quality as you will see later.

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: