Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:4 issue:3

Article
The study of some physical and chemical characteristics in drinking water treatment plant of Jurf Al- Sakar subdestric in Babylon governorate, Iraq
دراسة بعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية لمياه محطة اسالة ناحية جرف الصخر في محافظة بابل –العراق

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Abstract

Some physical and chemical characteristics of Jurf Al- Sakar drinking water plant in Babylon governorate have been studied. Seven locations for this plant were selected. These were the drinking water treatment plant source on Euphrates River before entering the plant, precipitation, filtration and collection tanks, and also after leaving the plant at distances of one meter, 4 and 8 km. The samples were collected bimonthly from October, 2002 to August, 2003. Some results match with the national and international standard characters while the other characters (Turbidity, total hardness, calcium, nitrate, phosphate and the biological oxygen demand values) were not match. The present study showed that drinking water treatment plant is undrinkable, as well as, the chlorine is not used in the plant, during study period

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Article
Effect of High Temperatures on Biological Performance ofTrogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)
تأثير درجات الحرارة العالية في الأداء الحياتي لخنفساء الحبوب الشعرية

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Abstract

The effect of three high temperatures for five exposure periods on the developments of larvae, pupae and adults of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) and their biological performance were investigated. The results revealed that the percent of mortality was increased as the temperature and the exposure period increased, e. g. exposing last instar larvae to 45°C for 6 hrs caused 100% death of this stage, while exposing adults (1-3) days old to the same temperature and exposure time resulted in that these adults did not able to survive more than 24 hrs.; in addition, the results showed that the ability of reproduction of adults was depended on the temperature, duration of exposure and the sex.


Article
EFFECT OF SALINE WATER AND POTASH FERTILIZER ON PROLINE CONTENT AND WATER POTENTAL IN PISUM SATIVUM L. (VAR.SENADOR CAMBADOS)
اثر التسميد البوتاسي ومياه المالحة في كمية البرولين والجهد المائي لاوراق البزالياPisum sativum L. (Var.Senador Cambados)

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Abstract

Filed experiment was conducted to test the effect of saline water and potassium fertilizers rate on proline and water potential of Pisum sativum L. (Var.Senador Cambados ) leaves . Treatments of the experiment included two levels of water salinity( 2, 7 dSm-1) as a main plot and fertilizer rates as a sub plot. Results indicated that irrigation of plant with saline water 7 dSm-1 and fertilization 150 kg/donum increased proline accumulation and water potential 0.31 mmol/g,-17.00 bar at 9 AM morning and 0.62 mmol/g , -21.00 bar at 3 PM afternoon ,Irrigating plant with a 2 dSm-1 and fertilization 300 kg/donum decreased proline accumulation and water potential of leaves 0.22 mmol/g, -16.00 bar at 9 AM and 0.43 mmol/g,-18.00 bar at 3 PM . Irrigation plants with saline water 7 dSm-1 and fertilizer with 150 kg/ Donum K2SO4 increased Root/Shoot to 0.89 ,while 0.41 after irrigation with 2 dSm-1 saline water and fertilization with 300 kg/ Donum K2SO4 . The Na/K ratio increased to 0.53 under 7 dSm-1 of irrigation water and 150 kg/Donum fertilization and decreased to 0.1 under 2 dSm-1 irrigation water and fertilized 300 kg/ Donum . The results lead to the conclusion that potassium fertilization may reduce the inhibitory effect of increasing salinity of irrigation water on pea.

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Article
Bioaccmulation of Some Heavy Metals in Aquatic Plant Myriophyllum verticilatum
التراكم الحيوي لبعض العناصر الثقيلة في النبات المائي Myriophyllum verticilatum

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Abstract

The present study was invistigated to show the bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) by use Aquatic plant Myriophyllum verticilatum growing in Euphrates river between Spring 2004 to Winter 2005, and these heavy maters was studied in Dissolved and particulat phase of water and exchangable and residual phase of sediment. Heavy metals accumulated according the system water-sediment-aquatic plant, and recorded bioaccumulation factor 1.010, 0.005, 0.009, 0.011, 0.012, 0.010, 0.010, 0.010, 0.011, respectively.

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Article
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of four Wheats Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes
تاثير اشعة كاما في الكالس المستحث وامكانية اخلاف نباتات منه لأربعة تراكيبوراثية من الحنطة Triticum aestivum L

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Abstract

The effect of gamma radiation at the doses (0 , 5 , 10 or 15 ) Gray on the callus of four Triticum aestivum immature embryos genotypes (AL-Hashmiya , AL-Noor AL-Zahraa and AL-Mellad ) were studied . The fresh and dry weight for callus and shoot tips beside numbers and lengths of the shoots were used as indicators after 8 weeks . Results revealed that (AL-Noor and AL-Zahraa ) was superior by giving highest fresh and dry weight reached 274.2 and 269.2 mg and 26 and 24.3 mg respectively as compared with AL-Hashmiya and AL-Mellad. Moreover, the control treatment and the dose 10 Gray gave highest fresh weight reached 277.4 and 259.1 mg while the dry weight was highest in the control treatment and the dose 5 Gray. addition 10 Gray dose was superior to give highest rate for the number , length , fresh and dry weight of shoots reached 9.7 shoots , 3.6 cm length , 410.2 and 47.9 mg on respectively.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS ON IMPROVING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CORN COBS AND WILD REED
تأثير المعاملة الكيميائية والبايولوجية في تحسين القيمة الغذائية لكوالح الذرة الصفراء والقصب البري

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Abstract

This study was conducted in Animal Resources Department , College of Agriculture to estimate the effect of chemical and biological treatments to improve the nutritive value of poor quality roughages ( corn cobs and wild reed ) . The feeds were treated chemically with 4% NaoH solution ,whereas Aspergillus niger was used to ferment corn cobs and wild reed samples . The chemical analysis showed that protein percentages of corn cobs and wild reed was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 6.05% to 10.51% and 17.70% and from 3.10 %to 6.50% and 9.96% for both chemical and biological treatments respectively. The crude fiber percentages decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 29.19% and 26.10% to 23.60% and 20.10% for chemical treatment and was 20.20% and 14.50% after biological treatment for both corn cobs and wild reed respectively . In Vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility was increased significantly ( p<0.05) by using both treatments . The results of this study indicated an improvement in the nutritive value for corn cobs and wild reed when treated chemically with 4% NaOH and biologically with Aspergillus niger .

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Article
The Effect of Eruca sativa extract on Gram Posative and Negative Bacteria
فعالية مستخلص نبات الجرجيرEruca sativa كمضاد لبكتريا الموجبة والسالبة لصبغة كرام

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Abstract

The antibacterial effect of (Eruca sativa) extract was evaluated by an in vitro study testing the growth of various Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative bacteria . The bactericidal activity of this extract was analyzed by serial dilution in tubes. This study,found that Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive bacteria susceptible to very low eruca concentrations. On the other hand, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria, the minimal bactericidal concentration of Gram-positive bacteria was 5 mg ml-1 but minimal bactericidal concentration of Gram-negative bacteria was 10 mg ml-1 that mean duble inhibation concentration of Gram-positive bacteria . this study suggest that Eruca sativa leaves have inhibation effect on Gram-Posative and Gram-Negative bacteria and Eruca sativa was natural material with little side effect.

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Article
The Effect of Germination on Chemical Constituents of Broad Beans and Chickpeas Seeds
تأثير الإنبات في المكونات الكيميائية لبذور الباقلاء والحمص

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Abstract

This study was carried out to find out the effect of germination of broad beans and chickpeas seeds for different periods on their antinutritional factors content ( Trypsin inhibitor and Phytic acid ) and the chemical constituents of germination seeds compared with the control samples (ungerminated seeds) . The results indicated asignificant increase (P<0.05) in crude protein content as germination period proceeded.The highest values of 28.0% and 24.0% were reached on the sixth and fourth day for germinated broad beans and chickpeas respectively, The intial values were 25.6% and 23.5% for control samples, respectively. The content of raffinose,stachyose and verbascose were reduced as germination period proceeded, Stachyose and verbascose were depleted on the fourth and sixth day of germination for broad beans and chickpeas,respectivley, while both raffinose and stachyosewere completely depleted on the fourth day and verbascose on the sixth day of germination for chickpeas,respectively. Both trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid content of germinated seeds were reduced as germination period proceeded.The highest loss of inhibition activity was on the tenth and sixth day for broad beans and chickpeas and amounted to 13.95% and 26.09%, respectively. The drop in phytic acid reached a peck value of 31.6% and 32.0% on the sixth and fourth day for germinated broad beans and chickpeas, respectively.

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Article
Study the Effect of solvent on the Optical Properties Performance of active polymeric laser media
دراسة تأثير المذيب على خصائص الوسط الليزري اللدائني الفعّال

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Abstract

The paper include studies the effect of solvent of dye doped in polymeric laser sample which manufactured in primo press way, which is used as an active (R6G) tunable dye lasers. The remarks show that, when the viscosity of the solvent (from Pure Water to Ethanol), for the same concentration and thickness of the performance polymeric sample is increased, the absorption spectrum is shifts towards the long wave length (red shift), & towards short wave length (blue shift) for fluorescence spectrum, also increased the quantum fluorescence yield. The best result we obtained for the quantum fluorescence yield is (0.882) with thickness (0.25mm) in Ethanol solvent in concentration (2*10-3mole/liter), while when we used the Pure Water as a solvent, we found that the best quantum fluorescence yield is (0.72) at the same thickness & concentration of the sample.

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Article
Evaluation of the one electron expectation values for different wave function of Be atom
حساب القيمة المتوقعة لتواجد الالكترون المفرد للدوال الموحية المختلفة لذرة البيريليوم Be

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to evaluate the one- electron expectation value from the radial electronic density function D(r1) for different wave function for the 2S state of Be atom . The wave function used were published in 1960,1974and 1993, respectavily. Using Hartree-Fock wave function as a Slater determinant has used the partitioning technique for the analysis open shell system of Be (1s22s2) state, the analyze Be atom for six-pairs electronic wave function , tow of these are for intra-shells (K,L) and the rest for inter-shells(KL) . The results are obtained numerically by using computer programs (Mathcad).

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Article
Effect of Adding (Binder-Plastisizer-Lubricat) on the Physical Properties of Kaolin
تأثير الإضافات ( الرابطة – الملدنة – المزيته) على الخصائص الفيزياوية للكاؤولين

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Abstract

The study concern with the preparation of three type of mixtures; which are prepared from different percentage of polyvenil Butyral, Di-n-butyl phathalate and paraffin wax pastillated. The solvent used is Xylolzul analyses. After washing, Drying and milling the kaolin Dukhla, as a matrix in this study, and by using sieving Tech. The range of particle size used is less than and less than as a mesh batch. The added percentage from prepared mixture were 5% and 10% to 95% and 90% of the matrix respectively. Then disk samples were prepared by using a compaction pressure with heating. After cooling and drying the samples were undergo heat treatment in the range of (1250 – 1350) oC. The measurement of shrinkage and Dielectric properties shows that the satisfied data to be compatible with the industrial properties were for 5% (75%B + 15%P + 10%L) added to 5% to 95% of Kaolin (Particle size less than ); which was fired at 1300oC.

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Article
Preparation Adhesive Material Reinforced of Graphite Particles and Study Electrical and Mechanical and Thermal Properties
تحضير مادة لاصقة مدعمة بدقائق الكرافيت ودراسة خواصها الميكانيكية والكهربائية والحرارية

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Abstract

The physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties containing (Viscosity, curing, adhesion force, Tensile strength, Lap shear strength, Resistively, Electrical conductivity and flammability) of adhesive material that prepared from Nitrocellulose reinforced with graphite particles and aluminum streat. A comparison is made between the properties of adhesive material with varying percentage of graphite powder (0%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%) to find out the effect of reinforcement on the adhesive material. The ability of property an electrical was studied through the measurement of conductivity a function of temperature varying. The results of comparison have clearly shown that the increasing of content of the filler material (graphite weight) after limit ratio determined (32%) in material prepare lead to yielding the (CN) material to concept of granular agglomeration. The mechanical properties decrease when graphite weight ratio increases. Electrical conductivity and flammability increases with graphite weight percentage increases, while the electrical conductivity decreases with increases of temperature. The adherent topography of some physically tested Specimens was studied using optical microscopy.

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Article
Synthesis of some Schiff's bases derivatives from aminoazo compounds
تحضير بعض قواعد شف من مركبات الازو امين

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Abstract

Reaction of,2- [( 4- amio phenyl ) diazenyl] 1,3,4- thiadiazole -5- thiol (S1) with p- chlorobenzeldehyde,3,4 – dimethoxy benzaldehyde and pyrrol-2- carbonxaldehyde gave -5- [{4-(4-chlorobenzylidene amino) phenyl} diezenyl]-1,3,4- thiadiazole-2- thiol (S2),5-[{ 4-[(3,4- dimethoxybenzyldene )amino phenyl ] diazenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-thiol,(S3) and -5- [4-(1,H – pyrrol -2- yl- methylene)amino phenyl] diazenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazole-2- thiol (S4) respectively as schiff's bases compounds. On the same route-2-[(4-amino-1- naphthyl ) diazenyl] -1,3,4- thiadiazole -5- thiol (S5) reacts with –p- chloro benzaldehyde and –m- nitrobenzaldehyde to give the follwing schiff's bases -5-[{ 4-(4- chloro benzylidene ) amino -1- naphthyl} diazenyl] -1,3,4- thiadiazole -2- thiol (S6) and -5- ({ 4- [3- nitrobenzylidene) amino] -1- naphthyl({ diazenyl) -1,3,4 – thiadiazole-2- thiol (S7). Sn2 reaction was carried out by the reaction of compound (S6,S7) with bromo ethyl acetate to get ethyl[5{4-(4- chlorobenzylidene amino)-1- naphthyl} diazenyl] -1- 1,3,4- thiadiazole-2- yl- thio] acetate (S8) and ethyl [5-{4- (2- nitrobenzylidene amino)-1- naphthyl diazenyl] -1,3,4- thiadiazole -2-yl-acetate (S9).(Fig.1).

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Article
Interactions of some metal ions with Nitrogenous bases present in Nucleotides
تداخلات بعض الايونات الفلزية مع القواعد النتروجينية الموجودة في النيوكليتيدات

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Abstract

Acidity constants at 30co and 0.125 ionic strength have been determined for the Nitrogous bases of nucleic acid; cytocine, uarcil and thymine, and found to be 3.55 x10-19 , 1.44 x10 -19 and 7.24 x10 -20 respectively. Stability constants of these bases with Thorium and uranyl ions have been determined. Results showed that metal ions Thorium and uranyl ions behave as hard acids and the nitrogenum bases behave as Hard bases according to Pearson's definition .Hardness – softness parameters for these ligands were calculated ,stability constants of complexes with metal ions could be arranged as follows :- Cytosine > Uracil > Thymine .

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Article
Catalyzed and Promoted Direct Reaction of Ethyl Chloride with Silicon Using Stirred-Bed Reactor
التفاعل المباشر المحفز والمرقى لكلوريد الاثيل مع السليكون باستخدام مفاعل الفرشة الثابتة

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In this paper a stirred-bed performed of the copper catalyzed synthesis of ethylchlorosilanes from silicon and ethyl chloride was described. A Si-catalyst mixture prepared by reaction of CuCl and Si was employed. The compositions of products were mainly ethyltrichlorosilane, diethyldichlorosilane, and ethyldichlorosilane and mainly depended on the extent of Cu in the mixture and the reaction temperature. A promoting effect on the extent of adsorption was observed on the addition of certain additives. The kinetic data revealed the direct depended of the reaction rate on C2H5Cl pressure.


Article
Synthesis of New Amide and ThioUrease Compounds.
تحضير وتشخيص مركبات بعض الاميدات والثايويوريز الجديدة

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The reaction of some new Schiff bases ( 2-[(2-Amino – ethylimino)-methyl]-R , 2-({2-[(R-benzylidene)-amino]-ethylimino}-methyl)-R with Benzoyl chloride or Acetyl chloride were carried out. Subsequent reactions of these products N-(2-Amino-ethyl)-N-[Chloro-(R) –methyl]-benzamide or N-(2-{Ř-[chloro-(R) –methyl]-amino}-ethyl)-N-[chloro-(R) –methyl]- benzamide with thiourea afforded thioureas compounds. The synthesized compounds were confirmed by their IR,UV,spectra and C.H.N. analysis.

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Article
II-Preparation and characterization Schiff baseDerivatives with some transition metal complexes
II- تحضير ودراسة معقدات بعض العناصر الانتقالية لبعض مشتقات قواعد شف

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This research consists of the synthesis of some Schiff bases as ligands, the following type of ligands: (2-hydroxy-benzylidene)- thiourea = (L1) (2-hydroxy-benzylidene)- urea = (L2) The complexation of these ligands with some transition metal ions (Zn+2, Cd+2, Hg+2) was prepared. The Schiff bases with their corresponding prepared transition metal complexes have been characterized on the bases of their (C.H.N) elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS, atomic absorption, the molar conductivity measurement and melting point. The structural geometries of complexes were suggested in solid state.

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Article
Some Immunologic Evaluations of Toxoplasmosis in Iraqi Aborted Females
بعض التقييمات المناعية لداء المقوسات في عراقيات مجهضات

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Forty-eight aborted women (Iraqi Arab Muslims) at the first trimester with a serological evidence of toxoplasmosis were investigated. Two age- and ethnic-matched control groups were included: 40 aborted women due to accidental events (Control I), and 40 unmarried (virgin) women (Control II). The subjects were evaluated for the following parameters: HLA-class I antigens (A, B and Cw), blood groups, total and differential counts of leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+ and CD20+ cells), phagocytosis of heat-killed yeast (phagocytic index and NBT index), and total serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and complement components (C3 and C4). The HLA-A2 and -Cw8 antigens were significantly increased in the patients, while A3 antigen was significantly decreased. Blood group phenotypes in patients and controls also showed significant variations. The total and differential counts of leukocytes showed no significant differences between patients and controls, with the exception of lymphocytes, which showed a significant decreased count in the patients compared to control II. However, the lymphocyte subpopulations showed a significant increased percentage in patients. The phagocytic index was approximated in patients and controls, while NBT index was significantly decreased. Total serum level of IgG was significantly increased in the patients, while IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels did not maintain such variation.

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Article
The Limnological Effects of River Lesser-Zab on Tigris River, Iraq
التأثيرات اللمنولوجية لنهر الزاب الأسفل في نهر دجلة-العراق

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The present study included the physico-chemical parameters of Lesser-Zab river and its effects on Tigris river. Monthly water samples were taken from the two rivers during January to October 1999.There were no signifcant difference in water temperatures. Both rivers were fresh to oligohalin, alkaline and very hard. Close values were determined in total suspended solids in both rivers with little increasing during rainfall period and high discharge. Water was well areated and over saturation was recorded in several occasions. Dissolved oxygen values of Tigris river were influenced by Lesser-Zab. Cations were more dominant than anions in both rivers. In Lesser-Zab, the anions were increased during spring season and declined in summer which their values influenced in Tigris river. The concentration of plant nutrients (NO2,NO3,PO4 and SiO2) were fluctuated during the study period in Lesser-Zab and their effects were cleared on Tigris river.N:P ratio values were indicated the deficiency of nitrogen in both rivers.

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Article
The Kinetic responses and foraging behavior of Drosophila melanogaster larvae
الأستجابات الحركية وسلوك التغذي ليرقات ذبابة الفاكهة Drosophila melanogaster

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Abstract

Adaptive responses in larval behavior may be of two kinds: Taxis: This involves a change in direction relative to source of a stimulus. Kinesis: Kinesis has no directional component, but involves change in the rate of performance in response to a stimulus. Drosophila larvae exhibited flexible behavioral responses associated with food acquisition and selection for different environmental conditions. In this investigation, we are concerned explosively with kinetic responses to food viability. Third instar larvae were subjected to test for thirty minutes in each of the following conditions i) in distilled water, ii) in Ringer's solution, iii) in glucose solution and on live yeast suspension. In each case the larva was in a thin layer of solution, or suspension over agar gel. On non – nutritive substrates, such as distilled water the predominant behavior is locomotion accompanied by exploratory movements foraging for food. When food is encountered the predominant behavior shifts from locomotion to feeding by sustained rhythmic scooping with the mouth hooks. Locomotore activity remains constant on yeast but immediately rises on transfer to Ringer's solution over the observation period. This is orthokinesis. On transfer to glucose solution larvae again show the instant rise in locomotion, but remains at a constant level with no evidence of an orthokinetic response. Feeding activity rate remains constant on yeast whereas in Ringer's solution we observe another kinetic response, for which we propose the term fagokinesis. This response is not observed when larvae were transferred to glucose solution.

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Article
Theoretical Investigations of Vibrational – Rotational Energy of some Hydrogen Halide Molecules
دراسة نظرية للطاقة الدورانية – الاهتزازية لبعض جزيئات هاليدات الهيدروجين

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A theoretical study by using computer model is presented to study the energy characteristics of the vibrational – rotational levels as a function of the vibrational and rotational quantum number, respectively. The calculations were based on the basis of a multilevel model taking into account the non-equilibrium population of the rotational levels. The computational investigation has been performed to examine the vibrational-rotational characteristics of some hydrogen halides chemical laser molecules. This program takes into account the various molecules of chemical lasers such as, Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), Deuterium Fluoride (DF), Hydrogen Chloride (HCl), and Deuterium Chloride (DCl). The practical difficulties associated with this type of lasers suggested that alternative route might be quite useful. Thus particular attention was paid to the development of computer program to investigate various energy characteristics. Comparison of the calculated results for different molecules shows that the highest values for the HF molecule probably due to their higher constants in comparison with the other molecules.

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Article
Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Particle size Effect of Iron , Cobalt ,and Nickel Powders Suspended in Al Dura oil on XRF Intensities
التقييم النظري والعملي لتأثير حجم الجسيمات لمساحيق من الحديد والكوبلت والنيكل عالقة في الزيت الدورة على شدة تألق الأشعة السينية .

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Abstract

Iron , Cobalt , and Nickel powders with different particle sizes were subjected to sieving and He-Ne laser system to determine the particle size . 1wt% from each powders was blended carefully with 99wt% from Iraqi oil . Microscopic examination were carried for all samples to reveal the particle size distribution . A Siemens type SRS sequential wavelength dispersive(WDS) X-ray spectrometer was used to analyze all samples , and the XRF intensity were determined experimentally and theoretically for all suspended samples , Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results were found .

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Article
ON G-OPEN SET
حول المجموعات المفتوحة- G

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A new class of generalized open sets in a topological space, called G-open sets, is introduced and studied. This class contains all semi-open, preopen, b-open and semi-preopen sets. It is proved that the topology generated by G-open sets contains the topology generated by preopen,b-open and semi-preopen sets respectively.

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Article
Oscillation of Nonlinear First Order Neutral Differential Equations
تذبذب المعادلات التفاضلية المحايدة غير الخطية ذات الرتبة الأولى

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In this paper, the author established some new integral conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of nonlinear first order neutral delay differential equations. Examples are inserted to illustrate the results.

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Article
On Solution of Min-Max Composition Fuzzy Relational Equation
حل المعادلات الضبابية من النوع اقل – اعظم تركيب

Authors: N.M. Niama نغم موسى نعمة
Pages: 491-500
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In this paper, Min-Max composition fuzzy relation equation are studied. This study is a generalization of the works of Ohsato and Sekigushi. The conditions for the existence of solutions are studied, then the resolution of equations is discussed.

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Article
Generating a Strong Key for a Stream Cipher Systems Based on Permutation Networks
توليد مفتاح قوي لأنظمة التشفير الانسيابي يعتمد على شبكات التبديل

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The choice of binary Pseudonoise (PN) sequences with specific properties, having long period high complexity, randomness, minimum cross and auto- correlation which are essential for some communication systems. In this research a nonlinear PN generator is introduced . It consists of a combination of basic components like Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR), β-element which is a type of RxR crossbar switches. The period and complexity of a sequence which are generated by the proposed generator are computed and the randomness properties of these sequences are measured by well-known randomness tests.

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