Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:4 issue:4

Article
Embryonic Development of Eye Lens in Mosquito fish Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard, 1853)
التكوين الجنيني لعدسة عين سمكة البعوض Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard, 1853)

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Abstract

The embryonic development of the Mosquito fish(Gambusia affinis) eye lens was investigated using light microscopy .The results indicated that the embryonic development of the lens does not correspond to that of the non spherical lenses of terrestrial vertebrates .This study showed that a very small cavity in the lens vesicle appears during development ,but it differs from that of the mammalian lens. The most important aspect in this study is that ,the posterior edge of the simple cuboidal epithelium which covers the anterior half of the surface of the lens is situated well beyond the equatorial region of the lens .As a result , the germinal and transitional zones became closer to the posterior pole rather than the anterior pole of the lens. This might be an important factor in causing the lens to be spherical rather than being biconvex.

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Article
Morphological study of sex organs and pollen grain of chosen wild species from Solanaceae family in Iraq
دراسة مظهرية لأعضاء التكاثر وحبات اللقاح لأنواع برية مختارة من العائلة الباذنجانية Solanaceae في العراق

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Abstract

In this study four species from Solanaceae family was conducted. These four species belong to four different genera (Solanum L. ، Physalis L. ،Withania Pauq. ، Lycium L.) The study included morphological characters of sex organs and their pollen grains for these Iraqi wild plants.The results showed that the position of epipetalous stamens , the shape of anther, their dimensions ,and the length of filaments are important taxonomical characters .On the others hand the shape of their ovaries and stigmas are also important characters in distinguish between these four species .Pollen grains are similar in their general shapes and polarities, they have three germinal furrows and germinal apertures, so they are minor in distinguish between these four species.

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Article
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Sterility, Sexual Competitiveness and Mating Ability of Carob Moth Ephestia calidella (Guen.)Irradiated as Pupae
تاثير الاشعاع على العقم والتنافس الجنسي والقابلية التزاوجية لحشرة عثة الخروب Ephestia calidella (Guen.) المشععة في الدور العذري

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Abstract

When mature pupae (2 days before eclosion) of Ephestia calidella (Guen.) were irradiated with the doses of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy, the males had a high level of sterility which was 92% at 300 Gy, but it was not significantly different from those treated with 200 and 400 Gy respectively. Furthermore,a high level of sterility (100%) was obtained for female pupae treated with 400 Gy. Meanwhile, when both males and females irradiated as pupae (2 days before eclosion) with 200, 300 and 400 Gy showed a high level of sterility which was 94.4, 98.2 and 99.6%, respectively. It is evident that females were less radio-resistant than males. When males from irradiated pupae at different doses added to untreated adult at ratio of (3:1:1) irradiated males :unirradiated males: unirradiated females the percentage of egg hatch decreased from 76.4% in the control to 36.3% at the dose of 400 Gy. However, sexual competitiveness value and inseminate female irradiated as pupae reduced with increasing doses.

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Article
Effect of Pupal Exposure of Raisin Moth ,Ephestia figulilella (Gregson),(Lepidoptera:pyralidae) to High Temperature on Certain Biological Parameters of the Adult
تاثير تعريض عذارى عثة الكشمش Ephestia figulilella (Gregson)(Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) لدرجات حرارة مرتفعة في بعض المقاييس الحياتية للحشرة

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Abstract

The pupal stage of Ephestia figulilella was exposed to temperature of 40 ,45 and 50 ºC for different period (1,3 and 6 hrs) besides the control which exposed to 28 ºC .The effects of these temperature degrees were determined on some biological aspects of produced adult . Results showed that there is increasing in the percentage of dry dead pupa and malformed adults as the temperature and duration of exposure to it increased . Furthermore ,the mean number of eggs / female and the age percent of egg hatch for the following mating : ( exposed female × normal male , normal female × exposed male and exposed female × exposed male ) were also effected when adults exposed to these temperature as pupae .

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Article
Effect of some agronomic technical in morphologe traits, yield compound and oil of rape seed c.v. pactol
تأثير بعض التقانات الزراعية في الصفات المورفولوجية والحاصل ومكوناته ونسبة الزيت في بذور السلجم صنف Pactol

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Abstract

A field trial was conducted at Abu-Ghraib research station , Baghdad , Iraq , during the autumn season of 2006. The objectives were to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and planting space on the performance of rape seed. A split-plot in a randomized complete of block design with three replications were used. Five levels of nitrogen fertilizer ( 120,160,200,240,280 Kg / ha ) were assigned to main plots, where as planting space in sub-plots. The result obtained confirmed that 280,240 kg / ha nitrogen maximized seed yield 1.830 , 1.773 ton/ha, oil yield,0.843,0.824 ton/ha .Results showed that planting space 30 cm produced the highest seed yield 1.90 ton / ha and oil yield , 0.884 ton / ha . Interactions between nitrogen fertilizer and planting space were also detected plants gave the highest seed yield 2.253 ton / ha and oil yield 1.045 ton /ha that 280kg/ha nitrogen ,30cm planting space and produced more oil content 48.54 % that 120 kg / ha nitrogen compared with high nitrogen fertilizer levels .

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Article
Study of efficiency of crude extract of local Horsetail Equiaetum arvense L. in blood coagulation
دراسة فعالية المستخلصات الخام لنبات ذنب الخيل المحليEquisetum arvense L. في عملية تخثر الدم

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Abstract

This study has been performed on the vegetative parts of the local Horsetail Equisetum arvense L.,which grow naturally in Haj Umran , north of Iraq , included some heamatological tests coccerning blood coagulation by using different concentration of both water and ethanolic extracts in vitro and in vivo . The results revealed that water extract of (25 and 50) mg/ml decreased clotting time in vitro, but higher concentration (100) mg/ml had reverse effect ( stoped coagulation) , Also the low concentration of crude extracts (water and ethanolic) were very efficient to decrease clotting time, and increase platelet count in vivo. But higher concentration (100) mg/ml increased the clotting time with decrease in platelet count .

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Article
Role of single and mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia ficaria in utilization of petroleum wastes of Dora- refineries.
دور المزارع المفردة والمختلطة لبكتريا Serratia ficaria , Pseudomonas aeruginosa في استهلاك المخلفات النفطية المطروحة من مصفى الدورة

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Abstract

The ability of single and mixed bacterial culture to utilize Dora-refineries petroleum wastes was compared. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia ficaria mixed culture consumed the wastes better than the single bacterial cultures. The highest log. number of viable cells in mixed culture was 6.842 , while in single bacterial cultures it was 6.683 and 5.631, respectively. after 3 days in API medium containing the refinery wastes. The effect of some environmental conditions on the degradation of petroleum wastes was studied included aeration , NaCl concentration , pH and temperature. The growth of bacteria in the agitated culture was higher than stagnant culture the log. of cell no. was 6.021 in the first culture. The highest log. of cell no. stagnant culture was 5.771. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AA22 and Serratia ficaria AA39 were able to grow in medium containing 5 , 7 % NaCl , they favorite pH 7. The mixed culture of the two bacteria grew well of 45 oC.

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Article
The follow up of experimentally infected hamsters with Leishmania tropica immunized with different vaccines
متابعة تقدم الخمج التجريبي باللشمانيا الجلديه في حيوانات الهامستر المُمَنعه بلقاحات مختلفه

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Abstract

Some parameters for advancement of Leishmania tropica infection were examined in three groups of golden hamsters, Group (1) inoculated with autoclaved killed Leishmania tropica , Group (2) inoculated with BCG vaccine alone while Group (3) Inoculated with mixed vaccine (autoclaved killed Leishmania with BCG). The follow up of experimentally infected animals with virulent isolation of Leishmania tropica was done for 90 days, the animals inoculated with mixed vaccine (autoclaved killed Leishmania with BCG) showed the minimum average in each of foot pad thickness (2.3 ± 0.05) mm after (60) days of infection, spleen enlargement (1.13±0.38) after (45) days of infection, spleen length (23.9±0.08) mm after (30) days of infection, liver weight(3.8±0.52) gm after (90) days of infection and estimated number of parasites in the spleen (0.91±0.04) million parasites after (30) days of infection. In conclusion, the mixed vaccine was effective to protect animals against subsequent infections which may cause lesions, and minimized the number of parasites in spleen for (90) days after infection.

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Article
Evaluation of humoral immunity in Golden Hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani
تقييم الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية في الهامستر الذهبي المخمج تجريبيا باللشمانيا الاحشائية

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Abstract

This study has evaluated the humoral immune response in Golden Hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani along (4) times of follow up (15, 30, 60, 90) days after infection. Indirect haemagglutination test was used to determine the antibody titer through the various stages of the study. Also the progress of the infection was studied depending on some of the visceral changes caused by the parasite, like weight of liver, length & weight of spleen & the count of Leishmania parasites in spleen were measured. Results has shown that there was an increase in antibody titer & the maximum value was recorded at the 4th day of follow up (90 days after infection) as well as that there was an increase in the length of the spleen, weight of liver & spleen comparing with the control animals, also the count of the parasites in the spleen was increasing gradually through the 4 times of follow up.

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Article
The Effect of Preservation on the Shelf Life of Laboratory Processed Biscuit
تأثير المواد الحافظـة في مدة صلاحية البسكت المختبري

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Abstract

This study has been conducted to investigate the influence of preservatives(sodium propionate and potassium sorbate) at different levels to extend the storage life of laboratory processed biscuit.The results have shown that When%0.10 sodium propionate was added bacteria and fungi was not found for three months while found in the fourth month of storage.However bacteria and mold didnot grow until the sixth month of storage as %0.20 and %0.30 concentration was used. On the other side as %0.03 potassium sorbate was used,the growth of bacteria was cheched for 3 months and 4 months for molds..When %0.06 potassium sorbate was used no growth of bacterial or mold was found until the sixth month of storage . Three types of bacteria have been appeared in processed biscuit, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Esherichia coli. In different percentage. and two genera of mold have been found with different rates ,they were Aspergillus and Penicillium. The sensory evaluation of processed biscuit stored for 6 months showed that treatment with %0.30 sodium propionate and %0.10 potassium sorbate were superior as compared to control, they obtained the highest over all acceptance which valued 4.9, 4.7 respectively, while the control treatment obtained 4.1 .

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Article
New Method for the On-Line Determination of Molybdenum Via New Microphotometric Home Mode Instrument, Using Hight Emitting Diode as a Variable Intensity Radiant Source with a Miniture Photosilicone Diode Detector for System: Molybdenum(VI)-Hydrogen Peroxide-Ammonium Solution
طريقة جديدة للتقدير الاني للموليبدينوم من خلال فوتوميتر دقيق جديد مصنع محلياً باستعمال ثنائي وصلة باعث للضوء كمصدر تشعيع مع متحسس ثنائي وصلة فوتوسيليكوني لنظام: محلول الامونيا-بيروكسيد الهيدروجين-موليبدينوم(VI)

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Abstract

This research work aims to the determination of molybdenum (VI) ion via the formation of peroxy molybdenum compounds which has red-brown colour with absorbance wave length at 455nm for the system of ammonia solution-hydrogen peroxide-molybdenum (VI) using a completely newly developed microphotometer based on the ON-Line measurement. Variation of responses expressed in millivolt. A correlation coefficient of 0.9925 for the range of 2.5-150 g.ml-1 with percentage linearity of 98.50%. A detection limit of 0.25 g.ml-1 was obtained. All physical and chemical variable were optimized interferences of cation and anion were studied classical method of measurement were done and compared well with newly on-line measurements. Application for the use of developed method on alloy samples, using standard addition method and agreed quite wall.

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Article
STUDY OF TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THE HARDNESS FOR EPOXY RESIN AND UNSATURATED POLYESTER
دراسة تأثير درجة الحرارة على الصلادة(BH)لراتنج الايبوكسي و البولي أستر غير المشبع

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Abstract

This search aim to measure Hardness for Epoxy resin and for unsaturated Polyester resin as base materials for composite Hybrid and the materials used is Hybrid fiber Carbon-Kevlar. The Hand Lay-up method was used to manufacture plates of Epoxy resin (EP) and unsaturated Polyester EP,UPE backed by Hybrid fiber (Carbon-Kevlar) and with small volume fraction 5,10 and 15 for every there are Layer of fibers (1,2 and 3). The hardness test was count for material EP, UPE resin and there composites and that we notice that the Hardness (HB) decreased with increase of temperatures.

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Article
Spectral study to determine type of oil products and the mixing rates between them
دراسة طيفية لمعرفة نوعية المشتقات النفطية ونسب الخلط فيما بينها

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Abstract

In this paper we have measured the spectral absorption for some oil products and there mixtures within range (300-700nm). These products are (gas oil, kerosene, gasoline). The mixing ration includes the values (0:10,2:10,4:10,6:10,8:10,10:10). From the absorption spectrum with wave length we can determine the location and value of absorption peaks. Then we compare between mixed and unmixed Iraqi oil products. We were able also to determine the quantity mixture from the location and absorption values. We found that there are interactions between some materials produce another type with different properties subsequently it will give negative result when it used in oil machines. The density of the other kind of products was changed during the mixing process only.We have explained the results according to the spectral absorption of the oil products.

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Article
Role of peptidoglycan in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus saprophyticus in mice
دور الببتيدوكلايكان في امراضية Staphylococcus saprophyticus في الفئران

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Abstract

The pathogenicity of S. saprophyticus was studied in mice. A group of white mice were injected transurethrally using a catheter with S. saprophyticus S67 cell suspension in a concentration reached 109 CFU/ml. concomitantly, the role of its peptidoglycan in the pathogenicity was studied by injecting another group of mice with 0.3 mg/0.2 ml of partially purified S. saprophyticus S67 peptidoglycan extract. After autopsy, kidneys and urinary bladder showed several histopathological changes both in cells and peptidoglycan injected mice, included: hydropic degeneration, glomerulus shrinkage, congestion of renal vessels, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and dekeratinization in urinary bladder.

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Article
Preparation and Evaluation of PolyVinyl Alcohol Derivative as Antimicrobial and Antifungal Agents
تحضير و تقييم مشتقات البولي فنيل الكحول كمضادات للبكتريا و الفطريات

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Abstract

Polyvinal alcohol was Cynoethylated , complex compound with Iodin in presence of Cu++ ions were preparated and their ultra violet (U.V) and infra red( IR) spectra were investigated. The prepared derivative and complexes were evaluated as antibacterial and antifungal agents following the standard dilution method. MIC(minimum inhibitory concentration) for each polymer using ten types of gram + ve and gram _ ve bacteria were determinated in addition to three types of fungi. The results obtainded showed that MIC, s were around 0.0011 × 103 molar for different polymetric derivatives tried.

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Article
Serum Protein Profile Of Iraqi Hydatidosis Patients with Different Sites of Infection
صورة بروتينات مصل المرضى العراقيين المصابين بالاكياس المائية في مواقع مختلفة من الجسم

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Blood samples of One hundred and twenty patients from different hospitals in Baghdad infected with hydatidosis in different sites of the body (Liver, Lung, multiorgans and kidney) were collected for this study. On the other hand, 30 healthy individuals were included as a control group. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of this disease on the serum protein profile of the patients using electrophoresis. The results revealed four different protein banding patterns with difference in number of bands and their molecular weights in comparison to the control group, and these differences depended on the site of infection. However the data showed a presence of the same band in all patients with different site of infection.

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Article
Hyperprolactenemia in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematusus
زيادة هرمون الحليب عند النساء المصابات بداء الذئب الاحمراري

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Abstract

Recent accumulated evidences suggest that prolactin is an important immunomodulator and may have a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of hyperprolactinemia in women with SLE and to evaluate its correlation with disease flares. Serum prolactin levels were measured in 62 women with SLE and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients and control groups prolactin levels were determined by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The prolactin level was found to be higher than normal rang in (40.3%) of SLE patients in active stage versus only (8.06%) of the same SLE patients but in the inactive stage and in (4%) of control group, the elevation was ranging between mild (72%), medium (20%) and high (8%). The study concludes that patients who having a flare - up had a trend to higher mean of prolactin (mild and medium) levels than inactive stage patients.

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Article
THIAMINE – INDUCED FORMATION OF THE MONOPYRROLE MOIETY OF PRODIGIOSIN
حث الثايمين على تكوين صبغة البرودبجيوسين عن طريق شطر اصرة احادي البرولين

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Thiamine stimulates the production of a red pigment , which is chromatographically and spectrophotometrically identical to prodigiosin , by growing cultures of serratia marcescens mutant 9-3-3 . this mutant is blocked in the formation of 2- methyl -3- amyl pyrorol( MAP),the monopyrrole moiety of prodigiosin , but accumulates 4-methoxy-2, 2-bipyrrole -5- carboxaldehyde (MBC) and can couple this compound with( MAP) to form prodigiosin . Addition of thiamine caused production of( MAP) , and as little as 0.02 mg of thiamine / ml in peptone- glycerol medium stimulated production of measurable amounts of prodigiosin. Phosphate saltes and another type of peptone decreased the thiamine- induced formation of prodigiosin ,yeast extract and glycerol enhanced formation of this substance. Thiamine also enhanced production of prodigiosin by wiled – type Strain Nima of S. marcescens . The pyrimidine moiety of thiamine was also 10% as effective as the vitamin ; the thiazol moiety only 4% , and the two moieties together , 25% . Thiamine did not stimulate production of prodigiosin biosynthesis as strain 9-3-3 . This is not surprising since strain 9-3-3 originated as a result of two mutational events one event may involve thiamine directly , and the other may involve the biosynthesis of( MAP).

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Article
Synthesis of Novel N-Substituted Dimethylmaleimidyl Esters and Their Applications as Plasticizers for Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
تحضير استرات N- معوض ثنائي مثيل مالي ايميديل جديدة وتطبيقها كملدنات لبولي (كلوريد الفاينيل)

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Three N-(hydroxylphenyl) dimethylmaleimides were directly prepared in good yields (81-86)% from the reaction of dimethylmaleic anhydride with amino phenols. The prepared imides were esterified to the corresponding benzoates, methacrylates and cinnamates via their reaction with different acid chlorides in the presence of triethylamine. The prepared esters were tested as plasticizers for PVC via preparing of thirty six samples of PVC with the prepared esters in certain weight ratio followed by recording their softening points. Comparison the results with the universal plasticizers for PVC (DOP) and (DBP) indicated that the prepared esters in general have high plasticizing efficiency.

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Article
â- structure properties ofZn-Phthalocyanine organic semi-conductor
دراسة الخواص التركيبية للفثالوسيانين -خارصين كشبه موصل عضوي

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The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of Znpc molecule with (flow of Ar) and Znpc molecule with (grow in N2) showed two peaks at (8.5and 9.5 Kv) referring to orbital transition ) Kα-shell & Kβ-shell) respectively. The study of x-ray diffraction (XRD) where it was observed good growth of the crystal structure as a needle by the sublimation technique with a β-phase of (monoclinic structure ) . Using Bragg equation the value of the interdistance of the crystalline plane (d-value) were calculated. We noticed good similarity with like once in the American Standards for Testing Material (ASTM) .Powder Diffraction File (PDF) Program was used to ensure the information obtained from (ASTM) . The output of (PDF) was compared with celn program, where the value of angle(2θ( , crystal axis (a,b,c) and axial angles (α,β,γ) were calculated. The partical grain size of H2PC was between (27-35)nm, while for ZnPC was between (17-50)nm by applying of Schreer equation. The results are in a good agreement with c-size program. The morphology was distinguished by optical microscope of (200X) magnification for a tini-fiber like a (whisker needle type) with blue color, porous nature and short term structure. The diameter of the fiber H2PC and ZnPC were (20 and 16μm) respectively.

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Article
Influence of Laser Irradiation Times on Properties of Porous Silicon
تأثير أزمنة تشعيع الليزر على خواص السليكون المسامي

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Porous silicon (P-Si) has been produced in this work by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching process. The irradiation has been achieved using diode laser of (2 W) power and 810 nm wavelength. The influence of various irradiation times on the properties of P-Si material such as P-Si layer thickness, surface aspect, pore diameter and the thickness of walls between pores as well as porosity and etching rate was investigated by depending on the scanning electron micrograph (SEM) technique and gravimetric measurements.


Article
The Effect Of Thickness on The Optical Properties Of ZnS
تأثير السمك على الخصائص البصرية لمادة ZnS

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Zinc sulfide(ZnS) thin films of different thickness were deposited on corning glass with the substrate kept at room temperature and high vacuum using thermal evaporation technique.the film properties investigated include their absorbance/transmittance/reflectance spectra,band gap,refractive index,extinction coefficient,complex dielectric constant and thickness.The films were found to exhibt high transmittance(59-98%) ,low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible/near infrared region up to 900 nm..However, the absorbance of the films were found to be high in the ultra violet region with peak around 360 nm.The thickness(using optical interference fringes method) of various films thichness(100,200,300,and 400) nm.The band gap measured was found to be in the range (3.52 -3.78 )eV.

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Article
Particle size effect on XRF measurements of Copper and Zinc particles suspended in hydrocarbon materials
تأثير حجم الجسيمات على قياسات تألق الأشعة السينية لمساحيق من النحاس و الزنك عالقة في المواد الهيدروكاربونية

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Copper and Zinc powders with different particle sizes were subjected to sieving of range (20-100μm) and He-Ne laser system to determine the particle size . 1wt% from each powders was blended carefully with 99wt% from Iraqi oil . Microscopic examination were carried for all samples to reveal the particle size distribution . XRF intensity measurements were conducted for all suspended samples , and the relation between XRF intensity and the particle size was found .

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Article
Approximated Methods for Linear Delay Differential Equations Using Weighted Residual Methods
الحلول التقريبية للمعادلات التفاضلية التباطؤية الخطية باستخدام طرق البواقي الموزونة

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The main work of this paper is devoted to a new technique of constructing approximated solutions for linear delay differential equations using the basis functions power series functions with the aid of Weighted residual methods (collocations method, Galerkin’s method and least square method).


Article
Heun Method Using to Solve System of NonLinear Functional Differential Equations
أستخدام طريقة هون لحل منظومة معادلات الدوال التفاضلية غير الخطية

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In this paper Heun method has been used to find numerical solution for first order nonlinear functional differential equation. Moreover, this method has been modified in order to treat system of nonlinear functional differential equations .two numerical examples are given for conciliated the results of this method.


Article
Bilinear System Identification Using Subspace Method
تشخيص الأنظمة الخطية الثنائية بإستخدام طريقة مصفوفات التباعد

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In this paper, a subspace identification method for bilinear systems is used . Wherein a " three-block " and " four-block " subspace algorithms are used. In this algorithms the input signal to the system does not have to be white . Simulation of these algorithms shows that the " four-block " gives fast convergence and the dimensions of the matrices involved are significantly smaller so that the computational complexity is lower as a comparison with " three-block " algorithm .

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