Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2007 volume:13 issue:1

Article
العلاقة بين الطراز والحركة في العمارة واثرها في التصميم على الاعمال المعمارية المعاصرة في العراق

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Abstract

One of the basic considerations to determine specialty and identity of any architecture is its role as epistemological discipline in specific cultural structure, so the research depending on cultural history theories is able to distinguish between two types of architecture identification that, is architectural style and architectural movements by its relation to culture. The research basic focusing is on the relation between style and movement in architecture and its influence on architecture especially in Iraq. Where the last had a lot of analytical and critical studies from different points. So the research problem has concerned with the epistemological confusion in styles and movement concepts and the relation between them in addition to the lack of information that explains the influence of any of them on contemporary architectural design in Iraq. For reaching the research goal in explaining the way that architectural products would belong to architectural style or movement and its influence on contemporary design in Iraq from (1965-2005) .First the research had to extract stylistic and move mental measures architecturally, which counts as objective measures can be implemented on any historical or present stage and then implement it on Iraqi architecture in the stage (from 1965 to 2005) The research finally reached to a number of results ,the most important that is Iraqi architectural design from 1965 to 2005 is the stage where architectural thoughts was born. The research put the stage in two parts; the first one (from the sixties to the end of seventies) was able to define a general basic trend in the necessity of heritage in contemporary architecture but its experiences were a kind of continuity to modern solutions with specialty of a place, environment and culture, others built on stylistic metaphors as a way of making contemporary architecture in Iraq. The later staqe of this stage developed a consesuous experiences toward heritage and conceptual understanding of style, so it didn't have continues stylistics elements or a parallel experiences in a specific movement, but it depend on individual translation of architectural solution. The last result of the research is that between the individual way of thinking and a general theoretical solutions in which comes the joint of architectural movement that unify a common architectural terminologies between people tests and architect thoughts.


Article
الاغتراب في البيئة العمرانية

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Abstract

The Concept of Alienation has succeeded in being the main and most dealt phenomena and estate in the modern era , thus it was issued in different fields of knowledge such as Language , philosophy , Social and Psychological Sciences alongside the field of Architecture , and that caused the special pivot of the research and that was represented with ( Alienation in the Built Environment) . The Concept of Alienation consists of three main forms ( Physical/Spatial , Social and Psychological Alienation) ; The first can be defined as the rapture in the relationship between man and his surrounded built environment caused by the urban tissue disintegration, the latter effected on the built environment physical consistencies like the architectural symbols, beside it created some contradicted areas where chaotic and anonymat urban spaces were the main reasons for the lack of the social interaction and the spread of socially alienated people. The previous forms of alienation caused psychological disorder and conflict to men living within such fragmented built environment. Consequently these items were chosen for the purpose of application in the main pilot study alongside with two specified projects. The first is Hay Al-Siha in Dora area and the second is 9 Nissan in Al-Salhiya area both projects are residential areas which built in contemporary period. The main conclusion came out that the contemporary local built environment suffers from alienation crisis that appears with its three forms alternatively , depending on some secondary factors like social , economical , cultural and time factors, which is caused by innovation and renewal processes attached with rapid and sudden changes. These processes consist of discontinuity and rapture in the relationships that links its main elements like man-built environment and man-man relationship.

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Article
التشكيل الهندسي للقاعات الموسيقيه عبر العصور

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Abstract

The main title of the study is “THE GEOMETRICAL FORM IN MUSICAL HALL THROUGH THE CLASSICAL AND MODERN AGES” We live in a world full of sounds performed by human and different creatures which surround us from every direction, it’s not strange to know that acoustics has gone a long way through human experience because its related to many sides as mathematics and physics with accordance to architecture side, This side is related to the nature of space and its speech or music variation, each use has certain determiners that affect the efficiency of acoustic performance. Musical halls have a main characteristic on the design and performing level through different periods. The architectural and acoustical literature's have dealt with this type of hearing space in deter minding the geometrical role in music halls design have never been studied with connection with music properties and in comprehensive way, and for this reason it was specified as research problem (The role of the shape, dimension, rates size and relation) So there are many acoustic features in musical sound affected by acoustic space geometry (shape, dimension, rates, size, and relation) Thus the researches aim the following: Finding the geometrical evolution and induct geometric efficient through: Comparative analysis for musical spaces and halls through the classical and modern ages to discover the nature of their geometric form in a descriptive, mathematical and graphical ways and show its role in the efficiency of acoustic performance.

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Article
Effective Stress Finite Element Analysis of Pile-Soil Interaction Problems

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Abstract

The effective stress method is developed to predict the axial capacity of piles in clay. This method is based on the principle that, at failure, the available shear resistance at the pile soil interface is related to the mean normal effective stress at the pile face and the effective stress friction angle for the soil sliding on the pile material. In this paper, the coupled non-linear finite element method is used to analyze some pile-soil interaction problems. This computer program ( CRISP ) is used for this task. Eight- node isoparametric elements were used for displacements while four- node elements are used for pore pressure. Interface elements are used to simulate the interaction between the pile and the soil. The soil is assumed to follow different models, linear elastic and modified Cam-clay model. A comparison is made between the measured and predicted settlements and excess pore water pressures and good convergence was obtained in which the proposed technique used in this paper, in which the measured excess pore water pressures are considered as initial pore pressures in the computer program ( CRISP ). No load was applied on the pile. The dissipation of excess pore water was studied through carrying out consolidation analysis.


Article
Curvature Ductilityof Reinforced Concrete Beam Sections Stiffened With Steel Plates

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Abstract

This paper presents theoretical parametric study of the curvature ductility capacity for reinforced concrete beam sections stiffened with steel plates. The study considers the behavior of concrete and reinforcing steel under different strain rates. A computer program has been written to compute the curvature ductility taking into account the spalling in concrete cover. Strain rate sensitive constitutive models of steel and concrete were used for predicting the moment-curvature relationship of reinforced concrete beams at different rate of straining. The study parameters are the yield strength of main reinforcement, yield strength of transverse reinforcement, compressive strength of concrete, spacing of stirrups and steel plate thickness. The results indicated that higher strain rates improve both the curvature ductility and the moment capacity of reinforced concrete beam sections. Moreover the section curvature ductility increases as the thickness of the stiffening plates decreases.


Article
Embedded In Sandy Soils with Cavities

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Abstract

A program of laboratory testing is carried out to study the performance of laterally loaded piles embedded in soil, which contains cavities. The testing apparatus is manufactured for carrying out the tests and a simple technique was used to simulate the cavities. The program of testing consists of five groups: Group One was carried out on pile embedded in soil without cavities. The Second and Third Groups are performed on pile embedded in soil contains single cavity located in front and in touch with pile face for the Second Group and in back and in touch with pile face for the Third one. Group Four is performed on pile with the existence of two cavities located in front and in touch with pile face. Group Five is performed on pile with the existence of three cavities located in front and at a variable distance from pile face. All tests are performed on a free head pile subjected to horizontal load. The results of this study indicate that the number of cavities and their location have a combined effect on the behavior of laterally loaded pile The effect of cavities located in front of the pile is marginal at X/D > 8 where X is the spacing between cavity and pile and D is the diameter of the pile.

Keywords

Cavities --- Pile --- Lateral load --- Sand


Article
Finite element analysis of post-tensioned concrete box girders

Authors: Mohanned I. Mohammed Hussein --- Husain M. Husain
Pages: 1187-1208
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Abstract

The behavior of prestressed concrete box-girder bridges has been studied under short term loading. The 20-noded isoparametric three-dimensional brick elements have been used to model the concrete in the box-girder with its two cantilever flanges. The reinforcing bars are idealized as axial members embedded within the brick elements. The behavior of concrete in compression was simulated by an elastic-plastic work hardening model followed by a perfectly plastic response, which is terminated at the onset of crushing. In tension, a smeared crack model with fixed orthogonal cracks is used with the inclusion of models for the retained post-cracking stress and reduced shear modulus. The prestressing forces in the tendons are transformed into equivalent nodal forces and by Lin's method. The contribution of the prestressing tendon stiffness to the global stiffness matrix is considered by treating the tendon as axial member embedded within the brick element. Two types of short-term prestress losses are considered in this study. The bond-slip phenomenon at concrete-tendon is considered by reducing the tendon axial stiffness. Several examples of prestressed concrete box girders are analyzed and compared with available experimental and theoretical studies in order to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method. Good agreements between the results are obtained.

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Article
Texture synthesis by genetic algorithm

Authors: Noor Adnan Ibraheem --- Mayada F. Abdul-Halim
Pages: 1210-1219
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Abstract

One way to synthesis texture in a fast and easy way is image quilting proposed by Efros and Freeman in 2001. This research brings the adaptive search power of genetic algorithm and combines it with the concept of image quilting to propose new texture synthesis algorithm. The proposed GA is ran on many different images from standard texture sets. Visual comparison of our proposed GA with image quilting algorithm is considered. The texture results generated by the proposed GA are roughly comparable in quality to those generated from Efros and Freeman algorithm.


Article
Helical winding induction heating system

Authors: L. J. B. Qasir --- J. H. H. Alwash
Pages: 1221-1235
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Abstract

A novel method in induction heating is presented. The winding of the excitation coil is helical and of three – phase type while the charge is cylindrical. This heating system is compared with the classical induction heating system of the circular coil type with cylindrical charge and single – phase excitation. The study shows the merits of the proposed new system over the conventional one. The multi – layer theory approach is adopted for the analysis of helical winding induction heating system which is an analytical method.


Article
Treatment of Low– And Intermediate– Level Radioactive Liquid Waste from Altwatha Site Using Iraqi Zeolite

Authors: Yasamen A.Aziz --- Adnan H. Afaj --- Maysoon Jawdat Zaiter
Pages: 1237-1250
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Abstract

Ion exchange material used in this study is synthetic inorganic resin. It is Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A, which was prepared from Iraqi kaolinite. The prepared zeolite pellets were solidified by heat treatment at 600 °C for 3 hours. Nine radiochemical experiments were carried out on real (radioactive) samples. Five of these experiments were to study the uptake rate (sorption rate) of cobalt-60. The measured value for equilibrium time was one hour. The other experiments were carried out to obtain sorption isotherm using batch test. The product cobalt concentration was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as followed respectively: x/m = 1.25 Ce / (1+6*10^4 Ce) x/m = 8*10^-4 Ce^0.4 Gamma spectrometry analysis system of Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector coupled with a multichannel analyzer, was used for the measurements of radioactivity of the samples pre- and after treatment with zeolite. In general the experimental results have shown an efficient performance of the Iraqi zeolite to remove different cobalt concentration from low- and intermediate- level radioactive liquid waste.


Article
Non-Isothermal Modeling Of Soil Vapor Extraction System Including Soil Temperature Effect

Authors: Talib R. Abbas --- Rafa'a H. Al-Suhaili
Pages: 1253-1265
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Abstract

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a proven effective in-situ technology for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the subsurface. SVE process is highly sensitive to temperature. Studying annual soil temperature variation with depth declares that there is a considerable temperature variation in the upper few meters that may affect the overall efficiency of SVE process. A numerical model was developed to aid in investigation of field-scale soil vapor extraction process. The model is three-dimensional, time dependent that simulates nonisothermal vapor flow and transport of multicomponent mixtures in soil and keeps track of the distribution of each compound in the other three immobile phases (NAPL, aqueous, and sorbed). Rate limited interphase mass transfer with linear driving force expressions were used to model volatilization of oil into gas phase. A local equilibrium partitioning was assumed between gas, water, and solid phase. The model equations were discretized using a standard Galerkin finite element method and solved using set iterative solution algorithm. Simulation of hypothetical field-scale problems was done. The physical domain described a three-dimensional system with flow to a single extraction well. A hypothetical soil temperature variation with depth was incorporated with the model. The result of these simulations showed that this temperature variation has a considerable effect on system efficiency and may play a role in optimum system configuration.


Article
Dewaxing of Distilate Oil Fraction (400 – 500 ºC) Using Urea

Authors: Safaa R.Yasin --- Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohammed
Pages: 1268-1281
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De-waxing of lubricating oil distillate (400-500 ºC) by using urea was investigated in the present study. Lubricating oil distillate produced by vacuum distillation and refined by furfural extraction was taken from Al-Daura refinery. This oil distillate has a pour point of 34 ºC. Two solvents were used to dilute the oil distillate, these are methyl isobutyl ketone and methylene chloride. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins in the presence of methyl isobutyl ketone were studied in details, these are solvent to oil volume ratio within the range of 0 to 2, mixer speed 0 to 2000 rpm, urea to wax weight ratio 0 to 6.3, time of adduction 0 to 71 min and temperature 30-70 ºC). Pour point of de-waxed oil and yield of wax produced were determined to show the effect of these operating conditions. The most favorable operating conditions were solvent to oil volume ratio of 1, mixer speed of 1500 rpm, urea to wax weight ratio of 5, time of adduction of 13 min and temperature of 30-52 ºC.


Article
Study of the Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Dissimilar Welds

Authors: Sami A. Nawi --- Kasim A. Khalaf --- Muna K. Abbas
Pages: 1283-1294
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Abstract

In this research dissimilar welds were made of low carbon steel (A516) and austenitic stainless steel (316L) by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and with different electrodes (E7018) , (E6013) , (E309L) and (E308L). The sheet thickness (6 mm), welding current (120 A), voltage (78V), polarity (DCRP) and electrode diameter (3.25 mm) were remained constant. Many tests were carried out, mechanical tests included tensile test, bending and microhardness also made , and metallurgical inspections included microstructure, delta- ferrite phase and x- ray diffraction analysis. It was found from tensile and bending tests results that the electrode (E309L) was the most convenient for dissimilar welds of base metal (C.St. A516) and (St. St. 316L). Hardness tests showed that the highest hardness value appears in (HAZ) and there are two peaks of maximum hardness, each peak value in each (HAZ) for both dissimilar metals, the peak values are not equal and the higher value appears in the zone, where the electrode differ from the base metal, i. e. when the electrode is used (E6013) the higher value appeared in the (HAZ) which is near the stainless steel (316L), and when the electrode (E309L) is used, the higher value appeared in (HAZ) near the low carbon steel (A516) .The tests demonstrated that the delta ferrite phase was about 3-10% near stainless steel and for all used electrodes.


Article
Operating Characteristics of Porous Floating – Ring Journal Bearings Operating With An Improved Boundary Conditions

Authors: Lekaa' Hameed --- Alaa' M. Hussan --- Basim A. Abass
Pages: 1296-1311
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Abstract

The static characteristics of porous floating ring journal bearing under hydrodynamic lubrication condition when operating with an improved boundary conditions are theoretically analyzed. An isothermal finite bearing theory was adopted during this analysis. The effect of different parameters, namely, permeability, geometrical dimensions of the ring and the bearing are considered. It was assumed that oil is supplied through the outside diameter of the bearing under low supply pressure. The angular extent of the oil – film formed in journal – ring and ring – bearing oil films was obtained by applying the integral momentum equation at the leading edge of the oil – film to define the beginning of the oil extent. While, the continuity of flow across the trailing edge was used to define the end of the oil extent. Numerical results show that the bearing performance affected by different parameters namely, permeability, eccentricity ratios of inner and outer oil – film, the clearance ratios, and the radii ratios.


Article
Evaluation of Temperature Distribution and Fluid Flow In Fusion Welding Processes

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A theoretical study of heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena in welding process has been carried out in the present work. The study involved the numerical solution of the transient Navier-Stokes and Energy equations of the weld pool region by using Finite Difference Method. The electromagnetic force field and buoyancy were included in the formulation The stream-vorticity formulation was used in the mathematical model. The numerical solution is capable of calculating the vorticity, stream function, velocity, temperature, and the interface movement of the weld pool in Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The model can be used to solve the Gas Tungesten Arc Welding (GTAW) problem. A numerical calculations algorithm was developed to carry out the numerical solution. The numerical results showed that the finger penetration phenomena occurs in the Gas Metal Arc weld is adequately explained through the application of the model. It is found that the frequency of spray transfer is a dominant factor in addition to shape of the weld pool geometry. A verification of numerical results was made through a comparison with a previous work, the agreement was good, confirming the capability and reliability of the proposed numerical algorithm in calculating fluid flow and heat transfer in Gas Metal Arc weld pools.


Article
Flow Computation through the Passage Bounded By the Dish and Supports of the Awacs

Authors: Shwan F. Mahmood --- Ihsan Y. Hussien
Pages: 1331-1352
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A numerical method has been introduced to predict the flow through a complex geometry bounded by the fuselage, airfoil supports and rotating dish of the AWACS. The finite volume computational approach is used to carry out all computations with staggered grid arrangement. The (k-) turbulence model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow. The solution algorithm is based on the technique of automatic numerical grid generation of curvilinear coordinate system having coordinate lines coincident with the boundary counters regardless of its shape. A general coordinate transformation is used to represent complex geometries accurately and the grid is generated using a system of elliptic partial differential equations technique. The extension of the SIMPLE algorithm for compressible flow is used to obtain the required solution.. The results obtained in the present work show that the moving boundary (the rotating dish) has small effects on the free stream and the effects vanish after short distance away from the lower surface of the rotating dish along the span distance. The results of the proposed numerical method show good agreement with available results obtained in literatures.

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