Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2008 volume:14 issue:2

Article
Factors effecting locating Industrial Buildings in the Industrial Site
العوامل المؤثرة في توقيع الأبنية الصناعية ضمن الموضع الصناعي

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Abstract

Industrial building architecture of grand measures represent a reflection of industry diversity relating its items and functional vast requirements ;therefore, factories buildings should be recognized from their concept, various designs , location plus the factors effecting locating them within the location and effecting climate situations, to ensure adequacy of its their thermal performance with the minimum consumed industrial energy. To locate the industrial building and other spaces activities within the location, this requires studying the relation exchanged between the building and constructive natural components of the location (Regional Factors) and the location atmosphere circumstances (Planning Factors). All this to relate with the location climate design concept, that aims at improving the building thermal performance basically. this is represented by the principle of rationing energy consumption on the hypothetical range of the building age and providing an internal environment comfortable for occupants that are consistent with requirements of thermal, light, visual, and sound comfort of the factors space. this what the research seeks at.


Article
Experimental Study Of Fins Perforation Effect On Thermal Performance Of Helically Finned Tubes
دراسة عملية لتأثير تثقيب الزعانف على الأداء الحراري للأنابيب المزعنفة حلزونيا

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Abstract

The present research includes an experimental study for the effect of fins perforation on the performance of helically finned tubes. The experiments were made on five models of (18 mm) diameter tubes finned spirally with (12mm) high fins perforated with a circular holes , the number of holes was (3-3-6&2 hole /fin) and their diameters were (3,4,2&3mm) respectively .Each tube was tests horizontally by forcing air with(1.5-7.5 m/s) maximum velocity and Reynolds number range ( ) on the tube .The effect of number and diameter of holes were studied.The experimental results showed that the fins perforation increase the overall heat transfer coefficient for all perforated fins tubes, but the percentage increase differs from tube to another. From the comparison of overall heat transfer coefficient for perforated finned tube ((3 hole/fin), (3mm) hole diameter) with unperforated finned tube found that it is increased to (12.3%) at air velocity (4.5m/s), this percentage continue with increasing until to reach (36%) at (7.5 m/s). It is found that for two tubes with same fins dimensions and same number of holes (3 hole/fin), the tube with smaller hole (2mm) is better than that of the larger hole (3mm) by (28%) at (7.5 m/s) maximum air velocity, the increase of the number of holes from (2) to (3) for constant hole diameter (3mm) improves the overall heat transfer coefficient by (7.8%) at (7.5 m/s) maximum air velocity .So the increasing of holes number increase the overall heat transfer coefficient more than the increasing of holes diameter for constant fins surface area (for research case).


Article
ستراتجيات العمارة الشمسية

Authors: رنا مجيد --- صبا جبار
Pages: 357-377
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Abstract

The research had dealt with a study about the solar architecture, and determined the development in its forming construction strategies, by entering the intelligent technology with architectural control systems to create a comfort interior environment and gaining solar energy. The importance of the research came from being of contraction of using original design approaches which can be created solar architecture over ages ,against the appearing of wide use of intelligent technology integrated to solar architecture which is the reason of the appearance of different formal buildings types ,some designers have been effected by the contemporary technology signed to technological elements connected with building, to gain power from solar energy ,which the research consider it truth ,that have aside of credibility but it is a curtailed truth . The purpose of this research is to state a “strategy of construction forming for the solar architecture “and determine its development with integrated technology to the solar energy gaining system and control system, and study the effect of using industrial intelligent technologies to gain it automation ability in the identity of response, and personified the effect by integrated it with the whole envelope of building. While the general research problem is tended to find a knowledge to determined the effect of using solar energy in building to develop the strategies of forming construction in it, and find a knowledge to determine the effect of technology integrated to solar architecture to develop the strategies .and finally the research gained many result and reach many conclusion.

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Article
Evaluation of the Performance of Some Chemical Inhibitors on Corrosion Inhibition of Copper in Acid Media

Authors: Anees Abdullah Khadom --- Aprael S. Yaro
Pages: 2350-2362
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Abstract

The inhibition of copper corrosion by Naphthylamine (NA), Ethylenediamine (EDA), Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), Diethylenetriamine (DETA), and Phenylenediamine (PDA) in 5% HCl have been investigated by weight loss technique at different temperatures. The results were compared with Benzotriazole (BTA), the common inhibitor used for inhibition of copper corrosion in different environments. The BTA film formed on the copper surface obeys Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm. While NA, EDA, TEPA, and DETA appear to obey the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm. In the other hand, the two-adsorption isotherms were unsuitable to represent the data of PDA. Results also showed that the Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model was suitable to fit the experimental data of the most inhibitors of the present study.

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Article
Nonlinear Analysis of Renforced Fibrous Concrete Vierendeel Truss

Authors: Aalaa Whaleed Hameed --- Kalid Shaker Mahmod
Pages: 2364-2382
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Abstract

A Vierendeel truss is a hyper static frame composed of a series of rectangular or trapezoidal panels with out diagonal members. The end conections of all members are rigid and designed to take moment. In this work, the use of fiber reinforced concrete in construction of Vierendeel trusses with nonlinear material behavior is researched. The addition of randomly dispersed discrete steel fibers to concrete improves many engineering properties of the material such as fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, impact resistance and flexural strength. Several parameters that affected the behavior of the structure like fiber volume fraction, aspect ratio, and the position of the portion in structure that used fibrous concrete are studied. All these studies are hold out by developing a program, named (P3DNFEA).


Article
Analytical Solution for the Developed Hydrodynamic Pressures in Reservoirs due to Vertical Earthquakes with Sediment Effect
حل تحليلي لايجاد الضغوط الهيدرونيماكية فى خزانات السدود الناجمة عن التعجيل العمودى للهزات الارضية مع وجود الرسوبيات

Authors: Mohammad Rashid Al-Gadsawi --- Rafa Al-Suhaili
Pages: 2384-2401
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Abstract

In a typical reservoir a sediment layer of considerable depth may be deposited on the top of exposed bedrock foundation. In this research an analytical solution was proposed to solve the case of the vertical acceleration with infinite reservoir with existence of such sediment layer. The results indicate that as the depth of sediment increases, the pressure increases also. The behavior is found to be affected by the change of the degree of saturation of the sediment layer. As this degree of sediment decreases the developed Hydrodynamic pressure increase. A comparison between the case of stiff and soft foundation indicates that the pressure values are always greater for the stiff foundation.

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Article
Characteristics of Gypsies Soils Treated With Calcium Chloride Solution

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Abstract

Gypseous Soils are distributed in many regions in the world including Iraq, which cover about (31.7%) of the surface area of the country. Existence of these soils, some times with high gypsum content, caused difficult problems to the buildings and strategic projects due to dissolution and leaching of the gypsum slates by the action of water flow through the soil mass. In this study the effect of treatment with Dihydrate Calcium Chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) as water solution on compaction, compressibility, leaching, permeability and shear strength characteristics of Gypseous soil is investigated. It is found that the maximum dry unit weight increases while optimum moisture content decreases with the increase in the concentration of calcium chloride in the molding water. It is concluded that the engineering properties of the samples are highly improved when the samples are soaked in calcium chloride solution at (20%) concentration. Where, considerable reduction is observed in compressibility, collapsibility, coefficient of permeability, percentage of dissolved gypsum and leaching strain. Also, the treatment minimizes the reduction in cohesion component (c) upon soaking in water and slightly decreases the angle of internal friction (). Analysis of the tests results showed that the using of calcium chloride solution in improvement the gypseous soil is more efficient than using it in any other form (powder).

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Article
Implementation of A security Service Provider for Intranets

Authors: Wameedh N. Flayih --- Hamid M. Ali
Pages: 2416-2428
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Abstract

Among the many branches of security, authentication and confidentiality are very important to be provided. This work studies authentication focusing on the authentication systems supported by Windows 2000 family, especially Kerberos. As a result of this study, some unconvincing points are found along with others that are considered as weaknesses, such as being subject to offline dictionary attacks and the lack of perfect forward secrecy. Hence, some protocols (for authentication and key agreement) are chosen to build an authentication system that takes into consideration the observations on Windows 2000 systems. Based on this system, a security service provider is developed. The proposed provider isolates the developer from the complexity of the underlying system.


Article
Short Term Forecasting of Sulfate Concentrations in Baghdad

Authors: Shuwan J. I. Barzanjy --- Rafa H. Al-Suhaili
Pages: 2430-2441
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Abstract

Water quality control is an important protection issue. The analysis of the water quality parameters and the prediction of their changes in future, are important in the planning for water pollution control program. This analysis and prediction are the important steps and functions that the environmental engineer must perform. In this study, time series analysis was applied to model a short term forecasting for the minimum and the maximum values for both raw and produced water of Sulfate concentrations at seven water treatment plants serving Baghdad city (Karkh, Sharq Dijlah, Karama, Wathba, Qadisiya, Dora, and Rasheed). Holt-Winters' method was used for the modeling. Three years (2001-2003) were used for building the model and the year (2004) was used for the verification, to check the model acceptability. Comparisons by (t-test) and (F-test) between means and variances of the observed concentrations and these generated by the Holt-Winters' model had reflected the applicability of this model. Hence, in future for operation purposes, it can be use for forecasting Sulfate concentrations. Visual Basic Application (VBA) software was built for this short-term forecasting model. This software was built in away, which allows an automatic updating of the model parameters. Adding additional observed data usually performs the updating of such model.

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Article
Evaluation of Mathematical Techniques Used for Producing Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Authors: Afrah M. Daham --- Bashar S. Abbas --- Hussain Z. Ali
Pages: 2443-2465
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The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) considered a common tool in producing topographic maps, orthophotos and civil engineering projects besides other different engineering applications. As a result many software packages were developed and used to produce DEM from different sources like field surveys, scanned topographic maps and stereo photos exposed from air or space. This paper is devoted to evaluate the most suitable and accurate interpolation method in producing digital elevation model for the data gathered from existed topographic maps which are also compared with data gathered from field survey. Map scale (1:25000) with contour interval (50m) were chosen in the tests. The accuracy tests based on the National Mapping Accuracy Standards (NMAS) by comparing the result of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in elevations with the typical standard deviation (σz) proposed by (NMAS) which depends on the scale of maps and contour intervals. From testing four interpolation techniques ((Kriging, Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN), Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Polynomial)) it was found that kriging is the best method followed by TIN method while IDW method failed in some tests, and the polynomial model failed in all tests.


Article
Coupled Finite Element Analysis of A Dam-Reservoir System Under Dynamic Loading

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Abstract

This investigation presents a coupled analysis of a dam-reservoir problem which includes all aspects of fluid-structure interaction (class I coupling) and soil-pore fluid–structure interaction (class II coupling) under earthquake excitations using the finite element method. The analysis involves the compressibility of water, the flexibility of the dam, the earthquake excitation, the structural damping and the material nonlinearity on the response. An efficient computer program in FORTRAN is developed for this analysis from the original computer code named MIXDYN. The new software for predicting and analyzing the coupled behaviour is established using the pressure formulation for modelling of fluid and the u-p formulation for modelling of soil-pore fluid behaviours. Also, the program prepared is provided with post-processing routines to plot the original and deformed meshes of the problem. A staggered partitioned solution technique for coupled field problems is implemented and used in the computer code. This scheme is incorporated in terms of sequential execution of single-field analyzers. The Drucker Prager model is used to simulate the behaviour of the soil and concrete. Implicit-Implicit Newmark’s scheme with a predictor-corrector algorithm is employed for time integration of the equations of motion. The capability and efficiency of the model are found to be very useful when applied on a dam-reservoir system.


Article
Prediction of Turbidity in Tigris river Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Yousif M.Yousif --- Waleed M.S.Kassi --- Rafa H. Al-Suhaili
Pages: 2483-2493
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Abstract

Over the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in a new class of computational intelligence systems known as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this work, (ANNs) technique was applied in an attempt to predict the turbidity at intake of Al-Wathba water treatment plant (WTP) in Baghdad. This prediction is useful in the planning, evaluation, management, and operation of such plants, which may produce water of better quality. The available records from (1991-2000) were used for predicting turbidity in Tigris River, based on monthly maximum values of the water quality parameters near intakes of the water treatment plants. Multi-layer perceptron trainings using the back-propagation algorithm were used in this work. The feasibility of ANNs technique for modeling this water quality parameter was investigated. A number of issues in relation to ANNs construction such as the effect of ANNs geometry and internal parameters on the performance of ANNs model were investigated. It was found that ANNs have the ability to predict the Turbidity at Al-Wathba WTP with a good degree of accuracy (the coefficient of determination (R ) was 0.9687). The ANNs model developed to study the impact of the internal network parameters on model performance indicate that ANNs performance was relatively insensitive to the number of hidden layer nodes, momentum term, and learning rate.

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Article
Prediction of Zinc Consumption as Sacrificial Anode in Cathodic Protection of Steel in Sea Water Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Aprael S. Yaro
Pages: 2495-2508
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Corrosion has gained special attention due to its significance, when predicting corrosion rates. However, the complexity and variability makes it hard to model its effects. This study evaluates the usefulness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the corrosion rate as a function of several factors which have been related in previous studies to the protectiveness of low carbon steel in sea water, i.e. Temperature, Flow rate, pH, and time. Results showed that neural networks are a powerful tool and that the validity of the results is closely linked to the amount of data available and the experience and knowledge that accompany the analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed correlation has an Average Absolute Relative Error (AARE) of 0.09% and Standard Deviation (S.D) 0.46%


Article
Modelling of Iraqi Gypseous Soil Behaviour Under Stress-Flow-Dissolution Conditions

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Gypseous soils are distributed in many regions in Iraq. Therefore, it is necessary to study the geotechnical properties of such soils due to the possible large damage that may incur structures founded and constructed in or on them. The soil used in this study is from Al-Najef City, Iraq. It is poorly graded sand. It also has a gypsum content of about 28-32٪. The mineralogical and chemical properties of the soil are established at first. However, this study is concerned with the dissolution of gypsum and its effect on the soil. The importance of the progress of dissolution is verified through the study of the characteristics of the soil skeleton and the pore fluid. Three differential equations are used to study this effect, namely, continuity, equilibrium and dispersion. They are solved by using the finite element method. In addition, this work uses the hyperbolic stress-strain idealization as a constitutive relationship. Tri-axial (CD) tests are conducted to find the hyperbolic parameters. An experimental setup is modified to find the longitudinal and lateral coefficients of dispersion. One- and two-dimensional problems are solved to study the effect of dissolution. Results reveal high effects of dissolution of gypsum on the settlement, pore water pressure, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio values. Settlement increases while other parameters (E, B and υ) decrease with increasing dissolution. Furthermore, there is a vast behavioral difference between one and two dimensional problems.


Article
Preliminary Design of A multi- Stage Axial Compressor

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A numerical calculations algorithm has been developed in the present work for a thermodynamics and aerodynamic design of an axial flow compressor. The design calculations were based on thermodynamics, gas dynamic, fluid mechanics, aerodynamic and empirical relations. A two- dimensional compressible flow is assumed with constant axial and rotor blade velocities. A free –vortex swirl distributions was used in the design. These calculations include; power of the compressor, thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, stage efficiency, number of rotor and stator blades, tip and hub diameters, blade dimensions (chord, length and space) for both rotor and stator, velocity triangles before and after the rotor, Mach number, solidity, degree of reaction, flow and blade angles (blade twist) and lift and drag coefficients along the blade and lift. A repeated stage calculation is made to calculate the above parameters along compressor stages. The twist of the blades can be calculated along the blade length at any required number of sections selected by the designers to obtain smooth blade twist profile. The developed algorithm was tested on a compressor cascade series type NACA 65(12)10 with circular camber angle of (30). The results show that; the lift coefficient decreases as mean flow angle increases, the drag coefficient increases along blade length at a mean flow angle of (15), the relative Mach number increases along blade length as mean flow angle increases, the ratio of total drag coefficient to lift coefficient increases when the mean flow angle increases, the drag coefficient decreases along blade length as the solidity increases, the cascade efficiency increases as the mean flow angle increase to (45).


Article
Unsteady Hydrodynamic and Thermal Boundary Layers over A Flat plate with Uniform Injection or Suction

Authors: Ihsan Y.Hussain
Pages: 2553-2569
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A computational algorithm for calculating the unsteady compressible and turbulent hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers over a porous flat plate with uniform suction or injection is developed in the present work. The mathematical modeling involves the derivation of the governing partial differential equations of the problem. These are the continuity, the momentum, the ( ) turbulence model and the energy equations. Besides, the perfect gas law and the Sutherland's law of molecular viscosity are also used. A proper initial and boundary conditions are specified to be used in the solution of the governing equations. A numerical solution of the governing equations is made by using the control volume approach, with non-staggered grid technique and modified SIMPLE algorithm. The numerical solution is capable of calculating the velocity and temperature distributions of the calculation domain, the kinetic energy and dissipation of turbulence, the local and average skin-friction and heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number, and the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers thicknesses. All these parameters are calculated at the transient and steady states. The numerical results show that the developed algorithm is capable of calculating the flow field, properly and accurately. The results show that injection causes slight decrease in the temperature inside the thermal boundary layer, a decrease in skin – friction coefficient, a slight increase in the Nusselt number, a decrease in hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness, an increase in thermal boundary layer thickness and an increase in the time required to reach the steady state. Suction almost causes reverse effects.


Article
Numerical Study of Incompressible Flow and Heat Transfer in Non-Circular Ducts with Cusp Corners

Authors: Qassim K. Hunaehn --- Abdulkarim A. Hassan
Pages: 2571-2598
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A numerical finite-volume calculation method was used for application to fully-developed flow and heat transfer in straight ducts with 2-Cusp, 3-Cusp and 4-Cusp cross-sectional area. The method was formulated with reference to a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system which was fitted exactly into duct shape. In turbulent flow, the Reynolds stresses were calculated by using the coupled algebraic stress model of Launder and Ying (1973) with a ( ) transport model. This turbulent stress model enabled secondary flows to be included in the non-circular duct calculations. In heat transfer solution, three thermal boundary conditions were investigated.Predictions were compared with available numerical and experimental data. The turbulent flow predictions of secondary and axial velocity, wall shear stress and Nusselt number were in reasonable agreement with experiment for the fully-developed flow cases. It is concluded that, although the maximum secondary flow was found to be (1.5%-2.5%) of the mean axial flow, the absence of this flows have significant influence on the flow and heat transfer parameters. Moreover, these flows will increase when the corners of a duct become more acute. Heat transfer results showed that the peripheral temperature variation around the duct has a significant effect on the heat transfer results, and confirmed the inadequacy of the hydraulic radius concept in the cases of the very non-circular ducts when comparison is made with Blasius correlation.


Article
Design and Simulation of Power Factor Correction for AC/DC Converter

Authors: Amina Mahmoud Shaker --- Kais S. Ismail --- Ali M. Salih
Pages: 2591-2605
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One of the biggest problems in power quality aspects is the harmonic contents in the electrical system. Most of the current harmonics are due to the nonlinear operation of the power converters and arc furnaces . These harmonics cause overheating of the magnetic cores of transformers and motors beside their effect on the torque –speed of the later . These problems have lead to the creation of design standards for purpose of limiting the allowable harmonics on the power lines, and hence to improve the power factor. This paper presents two types of power factor correction (PFC) for single phase AC/DC converter, the Boost converter and the Buck- Boost converter. The output of the Boost converter is fixed (400V , 3kW) while the output of the Buck – Boost converter is variable (150-400V, 3kW-1kW) and due to the discontinuous inductor current mode operation of the Buck mode of the Buck- Boost converter an average charge current control is used in the inner current loop control. From harmonic analysis the two types of converters has less harmonics as compared with the IEC1000-3-2 standards. The Buck Boost converter eliminates the problem of high inrush input current produced by the Boost converter type.


Article
Prediction of Extraction Efficiency in Rdc Column Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Chalak S. Omar --- Adil. A. A. Al-Hemiri
Pages: 2607-2621
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An application of neural network technique was introduced in modeling extraction efficiency in RDC column, based on a data bank of around 352 data points collected in the open literature. Three models were made, using back-propagation algorithm, the extraction efficiency was found to be a function of seven dimensionless groups: Weber number (we), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). Statistical analysis showed that the proposed models have an average absolute error (AARE) and standard deviation (SD) of 12.23% and 10.61% for the first model, 5.35% and 6.21% for the second model, 8.34% and 7.59% for the third model. The developed correlations also show better prediction over a wide range of operating conditions, physical properties and column geometry.


Article
Water Purification by Electrocagulation Process

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Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water. Electrocoagulation and electroflotation are two techniques involving the electrolytic addition of coagulation metal ions directly from sacrificial electrodes by introducing an electrical current into the medium for the treatment of a wide range polluted water in an even wider range of reactor design, application of an electrical field prompts electrolysis of the water medium and generates particular quantities of hydrogen gas. The process works best with water's pH in range 7.0-7.5 and will still often work less efficiently in the range 3.5

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Article
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION PROBLEMS FOR UNBOUNDED SATURATED SOIL MEDIA

Authors: S. D. ABDUL-HAMEED --- N. B. YOUSIF
Pages: 2641-2657
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Soil in general is not a linear material, in which the relation between stress and strain is more complicated than the simple, linearly elastic relation. To make accurate deformation analysis of clay deposits, the incremental Biot's theory of consolidation is used together with elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations based on the critical state concept using the modified Cam-clay model. One and two dimensional consolidation problems were analyzed numerically by the infinite-finite elements. Results show that the proposed method can describe the effect of sample thickness on consolidation phenomena. Also the two dimensional behavior of a clay foundation during the construction of embankment was analyzed.

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Article
An Indirect Rotor-Flux-Oriented Control Of A Two-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Turki K. Hassan
Pages: 2659-2675
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A vector control is proposed for a two phase induction motor drive . The motor is driven by H-bridge current-regulated pulsewidth modulated voltage source inverter. The vector control is based upon rotor field orientation concepts that have been adopted for this type of machine. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the system operation and the MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for simulation.


Article
Estimation Of Efficiency Of Regenerated Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Waleed M. Abood --- Abbas H. Sulaymon
Pages: 2677-2683
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In this study regeneration process was carried out for exhausted activated carbon, which has been used for adsorption process of furfural from its solution by three different methods (washing with dilute alcohol ethanol 20%, washing with boiled distilled water at 100Co؛ and thermal process at (200 – 900) Co؛. The regenerated activated carbon has been reused in the column system of fixed – bed in order to estimate the adsorption quantities and comparing the value with adsorption quantity of original activated carbon under same condition (furfural with concentration 0.2 kg/m³, bed depth 5 cm, flow rate of liquid 16.16 × 10-5 m³/min and particular size of activated carbon (1.5-0.5) mm) in order to estimate the regeneration efficiency for each method which ranged (60-90)%.

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