Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2006 volume:12 issue:4

Article
The Effect of Contemporary Science Philosophy on Architecture
اثر فلسفة العلم المعاصرة على العمارة

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Abstract

The research tries to investigate the effects of Contemporary Science Philosophy on Architecture. The research depends on contemporary Science Philosophy of K.Popper and T.Kuhn. The procedures of the research contain the construction of comprehensive theoretical framework that includes the influence of contemporary of Philosophy of Science on Architecture in the following level which contains the general thought position, which includes (The position of Psychological Theory, knowledge Theory, the society, the history and the position of Architecture views). The conclusions of the research focus on the theoretical framework that depends on the previous views of K.Popper and T.Kuhn which reflected on Architectural views.


Article
Theoretical Simulation Of Stress-Strain Relations For Some Iraqiclays Using The Endochronic Model

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Abstract

A constitutive law can be defined as a mathematical functional relation between physical quantities such as stress and strain and may take other factors like time, temperature and additional material properties into account. In this paper, the endochronic model is used to predict the stress-strain relations of two Iraqi clays. This model is a viscoplastic one but without introducing a yield surface. It encompasses material behavior such that the current stress state is a function of strain history through a time scale called “intrinsic time” which is not the absolute time but a material property. The simulation showed that the model overestimates the strains for all cases studied. This may be attributed to the material parameters which require a parametric study to determine their actual values for Iraqi clays.


Article
Optimum Satellite Launcher Trajectory Guided With Proportional Navigation Plus Gravity Compensation Guidance

Authors: Waleed Kh. Al-Ashtari
Pages: 916-928
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Abstract

The optimum trajectory of a single or multi-stage satellite launcher guided with proportional navigation guidance (PNG) is addressed. The PNG is extended to compensate for the gravity effect. For the trajectory optimization problem, the launcher is modeled as a mass point flying around the center of the Earth. To provide a completely valid analysis, all known influences on the launcher trajectory have been considered; Empirical equations have been used in order to model the Earth standard atmosphere in SI units. A computer program had been constructed in order to simulate the trajectory of such launcher from the available initial conditions. Pegasus launcher is used as a hypothetical example. The simulator results show that the proportional navigation plus gravity compensation guidance gives fairly accurate results.


Article
An Approach In Improving The Properties Of Sand Dunes

Authors: Saad F.I. AL-Abdullah
Pages: 930-939
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Abstract

An experimental study to improve sand dunes to gain economic construction of highway using these locally available materials. The study was divided into two approaches; the first was by using different bituminous binder proportions from (2) to (10) percent, while the second was to use fine metals as reinforcement. The results show an increase in the degree of improvement as reinforcement layers and silt contents were increased. Also it was found that 8% 0f asphalt cement increase the stabilization of sand dunes.

Keywords

Sand Dunes --- Local --- Reinforcement --- Asphalt --- Triaxial


Article
Prediction Of The Efficiency Of Sieve Tray Using Air-Water System

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Abstract

This investigation deals with the effect of weir height, liquid and gas flow rate on tray efficiency. The tests were carried out on a single pass cross flow tray of air-water system of 0.3 m diameter for clear liquid height over sieve tray with weir height 3, 4 and 5 cm. Point efficiency values were found to be in the same range for different weir height, but it improves slightly with weir height. And the average values of point efficiency were 83 % for 3 cm weir height, 85 % for 4 cm weir height and 89 % for 5 cm weir height. While, point efficiency of 90 % was obtained for 5 cm weir height and liquid flow rate ranging between 5.8 to 7.32 m3/s. In the range of clear liquid height over hole diameter ( hL/dH) between 2 to 10, increasing the Reynolds number ranging between 2.0*105 to 1.6*106 for gas phase increases point efficiency. Prediction of Murphree (Tray) efficiency using Lopez and Castells (1999) equation shows that the ratio of EMV/Ep is equal to 1, due to low value of calculated Peclet number (degree of liquid mixing), which ranged between 0.07 to 1.5.


Article
Effects Of Non-Linear Magnetic Charge on Induction Furnace Operation During The Heating Cycle

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Abstract

This research studying the electromagnetic behavior of the induction furnace when its core is a magnetic material taking into consideration the effect of the non-linear dependence of the magnetic flux induced in it due to the applied magnetizing force. Since the magnetic characteristics are severely affected by temperature rise in a non-linear way, so as the specific electric resistance of the charge material, this work deals with studying the effect of temperature on the non-linear characteristics of a magnetic core simultaneously with that on the specific electric resistance to show the electromagnetic behavior of the furnace during heating operation. The distribution of the current density, flux density and the magnetizing force at different temperatures inside the furnace and on the charge surfaces are determined for different temperatures. Also the flux distribution is plotted at these cases. This study will be the base for future work on the electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis for the induction furnace.

Keywords


Article
Evolutionary Algorithms For Transferring Properties Between Images Part I: Grayscale Image Colorization
الخوارزميات التطورية لنقل الصفات بين الصور الجزء الأول: تلوين الصور الرمادية

Authors: Aminna Dahim Aboud --- Bara'a Ali Attea
Pages: 975-982
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Abstract

In this paper, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) for “colorizing” grayscale images is introduced by evolving color patch transfer process between a source colored image and a target grayscale image. As the general problem of inverting a gray palette to a color palette is a severely under-constrained, ambiguous problem and has no exact, objective solution, human labor and costly semantic knowledge are required. The presented EA attempts to minimize the amount of human work by automatically choosing colored patches from the source image and applying their colors to the grayscale patches of the target image. Furthermore, the best patch matching over all EA parent individuals are recombined in a single multi-sexual recombination scheme to form a single offspring individual. Mutation, on the other hand, forms all other EA individuals. The simple technique of the proposed EA can be successfully and efficiently applied to a variety of images.


Article
Study Of Performance Of S.I.E. Fueled With Supplementary Hydrogen To Gasoline

Authors: Miqdam T. Chaichan
Pages: 983-996
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Abstract

This paper includes study of performance of single cylinder, 4-stroke spark ignition engine Ricardo E6, with variable compression ratio, spark timing and equivalence ratio, fueled with supplementary hydrogen to gasoline. The speed of 25 rps and higher useful compression ratio were chosen in studying the effect of wide range of equivalence ratios and spark timing. The results showed that HUCR for mixture of two fuels was (9:1). The brake power when operated with gasoline was higher than when it was fueled with hydrogen alone, but when mixing two fuels the brake power increased and became higher than that when working with gasoline to a certain limit (the hydrogen volumetric ratio in the mixture reached 80%), after this limit the brake power reduced by increasing hydrogen volumetric ratio. The equivalence ratio at which the brake power reach its highest value was between (Ø=1-1.1) when mixing the two fuels. The results showed that the engine can work with very lean equivalence ratios with supplementary hydrogen, the indicated thermal efficiency increased also, and the brake specific fuel consumption reduced when hydrogen volumetric ratio increased.


Article
Effect Of Compaction On The Behaviour Of Kirkuk Gypseous Soil

Authors: Yousif Jawad --- Moahammed Abdul Jabbar
Pages: 998-1018
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Abstract

The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effect of compaction on the behavior of gypseous soil. A testing program carried out to study the geotechnical properties and the behavior of gypseous soil (gypsum content χ = 37% & 56%) taken from Kirkuk city. The tests include classification tests, chemical tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, compaction characteristics, compressibility & collapsibility, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) & shear strength tests.The effect of dry unit weight, water content, compactive efforts, relative compaction & soaking on the engineering properties of the soil tested are included in the program. All tests were carried out using Standard and Modified Proctor. Based on the results, several conclusions have been obtained. The soil compacted at the dry side of optimum tends to collapse upon soaking while the soil compacted at the wet side of optimum tends to swell . The percent of swelling for soil with χ =37% is more than that with χ =56%. Through the observation of shear strength test results, for the two compactive efforts and the two types of gypseous soil,the cohesion(c) increases with decreasing gypsum contents.The angle of internal friction (φ) decreases with increasing moulding water content and increases with increasing gypsum contents.The soaked CBR values increase with increasing compactive efforts and gypsum content.


Article
Friction And Worn Surface Topographical Features of As-Cast, Modified And Homogenized Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

Authors: Akeel Dhahir Subhi
Pages: 1020-1029
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Abstract

The coefficient of friction was experimentally calculated for aluminum-silicon alloys by connecting a strain gauge to the arm of pin-on-disc wear machine in order to take microstrain readings from the strain-meter. As-cast and modified aluminum-silicon alloys were thermally homogenized for long periods of time (1-40hr) in order to study the effect of homogenization on friction. Scanning electron microscopy was successfully used to build up the mechanism of surface damage during sliding. The results showed that the coefficient of friction was increased with increasing bearing pressure for as-cast, modified and homogenized aluminum-silicon alloys. Thermal homogenization led clearly to remarkable changes in the frictional behavior of as-cast and modified aluminum-silicon alloys. Many mechanisms were responsible for aluminum-silicon alloys surface damage during sliding.


Article
Curvature Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beam Sections Stiffened With Steel Plates

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Abstract

This paper presents theoretical parametric study of the curvature ductility capacity for reinforced concrete beam sections stiffened with steel plates. The study considers the behavior of concrete and reinforcing steel under different strain rates. A computer program has been written to compute the curvature ductility taking into account the spalling in concrete cover. Strain rate sensitive constitutive models of steel and concrete were used for predicting the moment-curvature relationship of reinforced concrete beams at different rate of straining. The study parameters are the yield strength of main reinforcement, yield strength of transverse reinforcement, compressive strength of concrete, spacing of stirrups and steel plate thickness. The results indicated that higher strain rates improve both the curvature ductility and the moment capacity of reinforced concrete beam sections. Moreover the section curvature ductility increases as the thickness of the stiffening plates decreases.


Article
Stability Issues of Welded Pipe Containing Pulsatile Flows

Authors: Nabeel K. Abid Al-Sahib
Pages: 1048-1061
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This paper deals with the dynamics and stability behavior of a welded pipe containing flowing fluid having a small harmonic component superposed. The equation of motion was derived to represent the motion of a welded pipe conveying a pulsatile flow using a tensioned Euler- Bernoulli beam theory. The finite element analysis was used to simulate the harmonic motion of a welded pipe conveying fluid. It was shown that welded pipes with clamped-clamped and clamped-pinned supports are subject to a multitude of parametric instabilities in all their modes. Stability maps are presented for parametric instabilities of welded pipe with clamped-clamped and clamped-pinned ends. It is found that the extent of the instability regions increases with flow velocity for clamped-clamped and clamped-pinned welded pipes. The most important consideration from a practical point of view is to avoid the onset of parametric resonance.


Article
Design And Implementation Of A Transparent Secure Lan

Authors: Firas R. Barjas --- Sufyan T. Faraj
Pages: 1063-1076
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Abstract

Many attacks may be carried out against communications in Local Area Networks (LANs). However, these attacks can be prevented, or detected, by providing confidentiality, authentication, and data integrity security services to the exchanged data. This paper introduces a security system that protects a LAN from security attacks. On each host in the protected LAN, the security system transparently intercepts each outbound IP (Internet Protocol) packet, and inserts a crypto header between the packet IP header and payload. This header is used to detect any modification to the content of the packet in transit, and to detect replayed packets. Then, the system encrypts the IP packet payload and some fields of the inserted crypto header. On the other hand, the system transparently intercepts each inbound IP packet, decrypts its encrypted portions, and then uses its crypto header to authenticate the packet. If the packet is properly authenticated, the system indicates it to upper protocols. To be transparent to applications, the security system part that processes inbound and outbound IP packets was implemented as a NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) intermediate driver that resides between the LLC (Logical Link Control) and MAC (Medium Access Control) data link sublayers.


Article
Stratified Water-Oil-Gas Flow Through Horizontal Pipes
الجريان الطباقي للماء والنفط والغاز خلال الانابيب الافقية

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Abstract

Stratified three-phase flow through horizontal pipe has been studied experimentally. The fluids used in the system are water, kerosene, and air. A closed loop flow system, which composed of 0.051 m inside diameter and 4 m length test pipe, is designed with facilities for measuring flow rate, pressure drop and thickness of each phase. The effects of gas, liquid flow rates and water liquid ratio (WLR) have been experimentally observed. It was found that liquid (water, and oil) thickness decreased when the gas flow rate is increased with constant liquid flow rate, and increased when the liquid flow rate is increased at constant gas flow rate. Pressure drop increased when the gas and/or liquid flow rate is increased. Three equations have been formulated, using the experimental data of the present work, to predict liquid, water thickness and system pressure drop in stratified three-phase flow in horizontal pipe. High correlation coefficients are obtained for these equations. The experimental results are compared with the results obtained from three-phase model of Taital, Barnea, & Brill (1995). The comparison showed that the predicted data which obtained from three-phase flow model Taital et al. (1995) is in good agreement with experimental data.

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Article
Deflection Of Straight And Cambered Beams Measured During Fourteen Hours Per Day

Authors: Kanaan Sliwo Youkhanna Athuraia
Pages: 1103-1110
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Abstract

Straight and camber beams in portal frames [Footings + Columns + Beams] were studied. Deflection for period of fourteen hours in a day was measured for ten days. Peak value of deflection within a day is predicted for each one of the beams under a sustained load uniformly distributed. It is suggested that the load test is to be performed during critical period, within a day, that gives peak deflection.

Keywords

camber --- deflection --- load test --- peak --- straight.


Article
Experiments on Biomass Transport Inside upflow Sludge Blanket Reactors Intermittently Fed

Authors: Mohanad Jasim Mohammed
Pages: 1112-1120
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Abstract

This work describes the experimental activities developed to study the biomass transport phenomena occurring in upflow anaerobic reactor influencing the biomass washout. The experimental investigations have been carried out on pilot UASB fed with the aim to determine the height to which washout is affected by: daily flow distribution; upflow velocity; concentration and sedimentation properties of the biomass. The experiments had shown a considerable influence on the biomass behavior of the time interval between two successive feeds of the reactor. It was found that, if this period is more than 1 hr larger losses of the biomass into the effluent were obtained, independent of the upflow velocity. Shorter time periods give rise to a regular sludge expansion of the interface even with very high upflow velocities (up to 4 m/hr), and accordingly exhibit limited sludge washout.


Article
An Improved Newton Method For Radial Distribution System Load Analysis

Authors: Hassan A. Kubba
Pages: 1122-1135
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Abstract

This paper presents a modified Newton method of load flow analysis for radial distribution systems. It is derived with the Jacobian matrix is in UDUT form, where U is a constant upper triangular matrix depending solely on system topology and D is a block diagonal matrix. With this formulation, the conventional steps of forming the Jacobian matrix, LU factorization and forward/back substitution are replaced by back/forward sweeps on radial feeders with equivalent impedances. The method has advantages over Newton’ s method in terms of speed of solution (no. of iterations), and reliability of convergence by inserting a minimization technique (Cubic Interpolation Technique). The algorithm exhibits a control of the convergence. As such the method converges for cases when conventional Newton’ s method and some other popular methods diverge. Two large distribution systems of 490 nodes and 722 nodes with different r/x ratio in line impedance are used to examine the performance of the method. These tests have shown that the proposed method is as robust and efficient as the forward/back sweep method. The proposed method can be extended to the solution of three phase unbalanced representation.

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