Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2009 volume:15 issue:3

Article
Visual Perception of Interior Spaces in Paediatric Hospitals
الادراك البصري للفضاء الداخلي في مستشفيات الاطفال

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Abstract

Children represent an important category in any society being the most important basis of its structure.Thence the society is utterly responsible for providing children with the healthiest services. Architects, planners, psychologists and sociologists have taken into account major considerations when designing the interior spaces in health institutions to help reinforce a curing environment. This is hoped to decrease pain, fear and anxiety, which in turn would enhance the feeling of security and safety in the child and fasten his cure and decrease the period of his stay in the hospital. Stimuli play a significant role in designing the interior space of paediatric hospitals as they have a direct influence on the senses and would create the required psychological environment for medical treatment. The use of various sensory stimuli especially visual ones (light, color, artworks, signs, natural scenes …etc) would create a love relation between the child & the place and encourage movement, playing and imagination. In addition it would create a pleasant and secure environment for children to feel secure and forget their fears and pain. The problem, the research will tackle, is limited to the scientific need to explore the role that visual stimuli play in the perception of the interior environment in paediatric hospitals. The research seeks to discover the influence of the visual stimuli to create an ideal architectural design for the future building of paediatric hospitals. Assuming that visual perception would have apositive, psychological effect on sick children which is hoped to accelerate healing. To achieve the aim of the study, a theoretical framework has been set up first and then applied to selected architectural environments in order to verify the hypothesis adopted in this research and to infer the influence of the visual stimuli hoping to get an ideal architectural design for the future building of paediatric hospitals. The final conclusion reveal the importance of the role played by the visual stimuli: color, natural light and natural scenery as well as the presence of signs in the hospital corridors which have an effect on helping children find their way and reducing fear.The final conclusion also emphasize the importance of the role played by the surrounding environment in the treatment area, to help sick children endure pressure resulted from pain. And create a suitable place where the mind, body and spirit incooperate with the hospitals environment.

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Article
Optimum Sit Selection of Services by means buffer zones techniques (Study of secondary school distribution for Al_Dorraa sector)
الأمثلية في توقيع الخدمات باستخدام تقنيات مناطق التأثير (دراسة في توزيع مدارس التعليم الثانوي لقطاع الدورة)

Authors: فراس ثامر حمودي
Pages: 745-763
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Abstract

Optimization in the distribution of services is one of the fundamental requirements for the urban and regional planners, so that the researchers interested to find many instruments to help them to achieve perfect allocation of services on the city. Many of difficulties for urban and regional planner's tasks were reduced by using of geographic information system, especially for spatial distribution of services or other things of urban and regional planning elements. Through exact allocated for geographic site and achievement of many requirements of the planner works in a rapid way and for diverse data and locations in the same time. Buffering so-called (zone of influence ) one of the important tool in the geographic information system , this research came to present some of common method of buffering structure in the field of urban and regional planning use the distribution of secondary school in one of the Baghdad sector.

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Article
Nonlinear Analyses of Composite Preflex Steel Beams Encased in Concrete

Authors: Yousif S. Jafar --- Raad K. Al-Azawi
Pages: 3868 -3890
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Abstract

In the present study, a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis has been used to predict the load-deflection and moment-rotation behaviors of composite encased beams consisting of preflex steel sections using the finite element computer program (ANSYS V. 10). Composite encased beams are analyzed and a comparison is made with available experimental moment-rotation curves, good agreement with the experimental results is observed. Camber of steel section is introduced on the steel section of the composite beams encased in concrete. It is found that using of preflex section can increase the ultimate load capacity of the composite encased beam by relatively (15%) and also it is found that rotations are nearly (65% to 80%) the rotations of the same beam without preflex steel section. Parametric studies have been carried out to study the increasing of the moment-carrying capacity due to the use of encased concrete for the laminated partially encased beams; meanwhile the slip along the composite partially encased beams length is studied. The strain distributions along the steel section and encased concrete depth are also examined. Poisson’s ratio of concrete, the effect of cambering of steel-section and the effect of mesh refinement are also investigated.


Article
Experimental Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Beams Strengthened or Repaired with CFRP
التحري العملي لعتبات الانثناء الخرسانية المسلحة المقواة أو المعاد تصليحها بال CFRP

Authors: DAWLAT D. ALI --- Nazar K. Al-Oukaili --- Husain M. Husain
Pages: 3891 -3906
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Abstract

Fiber reinforced polymers are typically comprised of high strength fibers (e.g. carbon and glass) impregnated with an epoxy (often termed the matrix). Experimental investigations of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams, strengthened or repaired by CFRP for flexural case have been presented in this paper. The experimental program consisted of 14 test beams. The study took into account strengthened and repaired cases in using CFRP; therefore, similar beams were used once for strengthening and once for repairing to make a comparison between them. All beams had been tested in a simply supported span and subjected to two-point loading while the main variable is the quantity, distribution and location of CFRP. The beams included additional anchorage at the ends of the main CFRP sheet reinforcement to prevent end separation of CFRP sheet. The results of experiments show that the use of CFRP as external strengthening has significant enhancement on ultimate load, crack pattern and deflection. It is observed that the use of external CFRP in strengthening or repairing beams could enhance the ultimate load capacity up to 160% over the capacity of the identical reference (untreated) beam.


Article
Moidiefied Version of Adjusted Step Size LMS Algorithm (MASSLMS) for Adaptive Linear FIR Equalizer
نسخة معدلة من خوارزمية اقل معدل للتربيع ذات معامل الخطوة المتغيرة زمنيا لمنظومة المكافىء الخطية

Authors: Thamer M. Jamel
Pages: 3907 -3918
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Abstract

In this paper a Modified version of Adjusted Step Size Least Mean Square algorithm (MASSLMS) is proposed which overcome and avoid one of the drawback of the standard LMS and our previous proposed algorithm Adjusted Step Size Least Mean Square algorithm (ASSLMS). This drawback is the requirement of a statistical knowledge of the input signal prior to the starting training of the algorithm which is necessary to determine the fixed value of the maximum step size (i.e. the upper bound value) in the initialization stage of the ASSLMS algorithm. In this proposed algorithm an appropriate time varying value of the maximum step size was calculated based on inversely proportional of the instantaneous energy of the input signal vector. Then this time varying upper bound value of the step size is used to guarantee the stability of adjusted step size of the algorithm which is a recursively adjusted based on rough estimate of the performance surface gradient square . The proposed algorithm does not need trial and error for choosing the value of the maximum step size (µMAX) compared with ASSLMS and standard LMS algorithms. The proposed algorithm shows through computer simulation results faster and low level of miss-adjustment in the steady state compared with LMS and ASSLMS for three different types of channel in adaptive linear equalizer system.


Article
Hydroisomerization of n-Alkane over Zeoilte Supported Catalyst

Authors: Mohamed Kamel --- Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohamed
Pages: 3919-3940
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Abstract

The conversion of nC5-nC7 over 0.32wt%Pt/HY-Zeolite catalyst was studied with temperature range 240-270ºC, liquid hourly space velocity range 1-3h-1, hydrogen to n-alkane mole ratio 8-24 and atmospheric total pressure. The effect of the PH2, PnC5, PnC6, and PnC7 orders on the overall reaction rate was studied. For nC7, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.998 and -0.948 while with respect to nC7 varied between 0.154 and 0.156. For nC6, the reaction order varied between -0.811 and -0.808 while with respect to nC6 varied between 0.332 and 0.337. For nC5, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.652 and -0.620 while the reaction order with respect to nC5 was varied between 0.336 and 0.339. The values of apparent activation energy were obtained and found to be varied between 110 and 111 kJ/mol for nC7, 120 to 122 kJ/mol for nC6, and 145 to 148 kJ/mol for nC5.

Keywords

Isomerization --- HY-Zeolite --- Heptane --- Hexane --- Pentane


Article
Hydrogenation of D-Glucose to D-Mannitol using Raney Nickel Catalyst

Authors: Muthanna J. Ahmed
Pages: 3941-3953
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Abstract

Hydrogenation of D-glucose in the presence of Raney nickel as a catalyst was employed for the preparation of D-mannitol. The effects of the reaction time (15-115 min), reaction temperature (15-65 oC), and catalyst to D-glucose ratio (3-11 %) on the yield of D-mannitol were studied. The experimental design of Box-Wilson method was adopted to find a useful relationship between the effecting variables and the D-mannitol yield. The experimental data collected by this design was successively fitted to a second order polynomial mathematical model. The analysis of variance shows that the reaction time had the greatest effect on the yield of D-mannitol among other variables. An optimum operating conditions of 115 min reaction time, 50 ˚C reaction temperature, and 3 % catalyst to D-glucose ratio gave 14.01 % D-mannitol yield, 81.34 % D-sorbitol yield, and 94.9 % D-glucose conversion. D-Mannitol of purity 99.7 % was obtained after its separation from D-sorbitol, the second product of the hydrogenation process, using the fractional crystallization method.


Article
A Developed Modified OSAP Controller with Repetitive Control Action for UPS

Authors: Sameer A. Abdel Razzak --- Azzam A. Marouf
Pages: 3954-3972
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Abstract

In this work, a developed modified one sampling ahead preview (OSAP) controller with repetitive control action for single – phase voltage source PWM inverters used in (UPS) systems is proposed. The proposed technique minimizes largely the plant modeling errors resulted from simplification made to obtain a linear discrete - time plant model. In addition, due to the repetitive control action, this digital control scheme can minimize the steady-state error and periodic distortions caused by nonlinear cyclic loads. Hence, the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) will be reduced. This technique utilizes a switching frequency greater than the sampling frequency, yielding additional minimization in the plant modeling errors. As the sampling frequency is less than the switching frequency, it is possible to implement this controller on a low speed microcontroller. Plant model and theoretical analysis of the control scheme are discussed. Simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed approach under different load conditions.


Article
Allocation of Generation Plants That Gives Minimum Losses for Iraqi Super Grid Network
تحديد مواقع إنشاء محطات التوليد التي تعطي اقل خسائر في القدرة لشبكة الضغط الفائق العراقية

Authors: Samir S. Mustafa --- Afanin A. Abood
Pages: 3973-3984
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Abstract

The main goal of this work is to determine optimal location for placing generating plants in the Iraqi National Super Grid which gives minimum total losses in the system. A package build under Matlab was used to allocate optimal placement of generating sets, calculating active and reactive power for these generators, .calculating system minimum losses, and determine the effect of varying the output of the generators used on losses reduction.


Article
Reclamation and Reuse of Textile Dyehouse Wastewater by Elctrocoagulation Process

Authors: Hussain M. Flayeh
Pages: 3985-3998
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Abstract

The present study investigates the removal of the textile dyehouse wastewater [azo dye para red(reactive dye)and M-5R200%(disperse oranges dye)] by Electrocaogulation process. The effect of nature of the anode, current density, initial pH, rate of stirring and concentration of dyes on the removal efficiency were tested. The experimental results showed that the color of dyes in the aqueous solution was effectively removed when aluminum was used as anodes and the current density 25mA/cm2 , initial pH (3-9),stirring rate 200rpm, and the concentration of dyes was less than 100mg/l. When the concentration of reactive dye exceeded 300mg/l iron was a more suitable anode than aluminum. For the electrocaogulation of disperse dye in aqueous solution aluminum as anode was more suitable than iron when the concentration exceeded 300mg/l. The removal efficiency of reactive dye was increased to 90% when using iron as anode and the removal efficiency of disperse dye 96% when aluminum was used as anode at different running time (10-30) minute.

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Article
Water Quality of Al-Hammar Marsh South Iraq

Authors: Tariq J.Kadhem Al-Mosewi
Pages: 3999-4008
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Abstract

Water quality plays an important role in the restoration of marshes south Iraq, hence, in this paper water samples were taken from different sites in Hammar marsh in south of Iraq to know the variation of some water parameters with the distance along Hammar marsh. The water samples will submit to chemical and physical analyses. Ten water samples were analysis to discuss the results of these parameters and give reasons for changing these parameters with the location along the Hammar marsh. It was found that the concentrations of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) with the acceptable range for drinking and agriculture uses, DO concentrations did not decreased less than 6 mg/l. The analyses showed that high concentrations of The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) at the beginning and end of the marsh, the analyses showed a decrease in these parameters at the middle of the marsh. The analyses showed low concentrations of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) along the Al-Hammar marsh, the concentration of TSS strongly depends on the velocity of water in marsh which is considered low at the study region. As well as the analyses showed that the Mg concentration increased above 125 mg/l level, this level may cause diarrhea. It was also found that the concentrations of sulphates exceed allowable limits of WHO standards for drinking water (400 mg/l), these concentrations of SO4 came from severally burned of organic matter in soils after drainage period.

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Article
Difference Between of PWM Strategies for Inverter Fed Induction Motor

Authors: محمد حسين
Pages: 4009-4024
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Abstract

Several sophisticated or "optimum" modulation strategies have been suggested for voltage source pulse with modulated (PWM) inverters for ac motor control. These modulation strategies may suppress specific low – order harmonics or minimize total harmonic. The effectiveness of these (PWM) techniques in minimizing harmonic and reducing torque pulsation is investigated analytically, and their performance is compared with that of the usual sinusoidal or sub-harmonic PWM approach. The influence of skin effect on motor (I2R copper losses) is taken into consideration, and harmonic core losses are compared. Peak current is also an important factor in inverter design, and the various modulation strategies are again compared on this basis. Fourier analysis techniques are used in order to allow skin effect phenomena to be taken into consideration and performance criteria are developed to allow comparisons of waveform quality with respect of harmonic copper and iron losses.

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Article
Entropy Method as Criteria for Analysis a Steam Power Plant

Authors: Moayed Razoki Hasan
Pages: 4025-4040
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Abstract

In this paper a theoretical analysis of South Baghdad and Dura power plant is carried out according to second law of thermodynamic depending on entropy (irreversibility coefficient or lost work) method instead of exergy (availability) method. In the used entropy method. The power plant is divided into main blocks ( boiler, turbine, condenser, and feed water heater and pumps ). The irreversibility losses and coefficient for each block are calculated and then the overall irreversibility and thermal efficiency of the plant are calculated. The results of this work are compared with previous results, that depending on exergy method. The comparison of results show that both methods give approximately the same results since both of them rely the 2nd law of thermodynamic. Entropy method is simple and intellectually and intuitively satisfying and giving direct relationship between components losses of power plant and its overall efficiency.


Article
Panel Method Caculations of Wing - Tail Interference Effects

Authors: Maki H. Majeed
Pages: 4041-4056
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Abstract

A low-order panel method was used to predict the flow characteristics between two sets of wings representing wing and tail. Constant source and doublet singularities with Drichlet boundary condition are used on the body surfaces. Distance and setting angle changes of the tail are studied to predict the air flow characteristics. Since the flow is incompressible non-viscous (potential flow), the results obtained contain a large physical evidence and may give a good design tool for aircraft stability consideration. A FORTRAN program was built to calculate the flow characteristics and then validated with published data. Highly acceptable results are obtained as compared with these data, so that; the program can be used for discussing the design or control parameters of such aerodynamical problems.


Article
Review an Improvement on Technical Operation in Drinking Water System for Water Supply Station

Authors: Iman Q. Alsaffar
Pages: 4057-4074
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Abstract

Water plays a strategic role in the development of many facilities in our country. Still, the biggest construction projects in the world take place in Iraq with the creation of the most ambitious architectural centers. Great water production plants and distribution networks are constructed and management of available water resources is an important issue. This paper includes the identification of the hazards and introduction of control points that serve to minimize these potential hazards that providing more effect control for drinking water quality. We can conclude that end-product testing is a reactive rather than preventive way to demonstrate confidence in good and safe drinking water. This justifies the need for the formulation of a new approach in drinking water Quality Control QC based on understanding of system defense reduces for contamination and on preventive means and actions necessary to guarantee the safety of the water supplied to the consumer. Water safety plan WSP is a concept for risk assessment and risk management throughout the water cycle from the catchments to the point of consumption. This work outline and presents an overview of the first year occurrences in the developing and implementing a WSP in the multi- municipal water supply system for a city area of Baghdad. Since key personnel had contributed to the assessment of hazards and evaluation of corrective actions for control points, a greater understanding of water QC and improvements on technical operation and performance have been register, demonstrating good value for the methodology.


Article
Heat and Mass Transfer During Air Drying of Sweet Potato

Authors: Shaimaa Mohammed Ameen --- Manal H. AL-Hafidh
Pages: 4075-4086
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Abstract

This study included the convective air drying of a single sweet potato sample which is taken as an ellipsoid with (40mm) in the longitudinal direction and (20mm) in the thickness direction. Convective heat and mass transfer takes place between the sample surface and its drying environment; while, unsteady heat conduction and moisture diffusion take place within the drying body without phase change for liquid (evaporation occurs at the surface only). The numerical solution of the mass, energy conservation equations was used; by applying the finite difference technique after using the body fitted coordinate system with grid generation techniques. A set of empirical correlations have been employed to determine the product properties and the important affecting factors on the drying process were studied. The results showed that the product temperature is increased and its moisture content is decreased with time and the increase in air velocity caused an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and as a result moisture content will decrease and this accelerates the drying process. The numerical results were compared with experimental results and showed good agreement.


Article
Experimental and Finite Element Investigation on the Load – Slip Behavior of Composite Push Out Segments Using Various Shear Connectors
التحري التجريبي وبالعناصر المحددة لسلوك الحمل - الانزلاق للقطع المركبة ذوات الأنواع المختلفة من روابط القص

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Abstract

The study described herein deals with experimental and finite element modeling of a variety of composite steel-concrete column segments using shear connectors of different shapes and sizes to provide resistance to slip at steel – concrete interfaces. Hence , it represents a qualitative transition in the experimental and analytical investigations on shear connectors effectivity at steel – concrete interfaces , as most studies in the field of shear connectors were devoted to composite beam and slab – systems . Three types of shear connectors – with four concrete grades for each type – were used in fabricating composite specimens . The twelve composite prototypes were subjected to push – out test individually to examine their behavior by measuring the slip values for each load incremental till failure , thus determining the resistance extent of each connectors type and specifying the failure mode at interface . A nonlinear three – dimensional finite element analysis have been carried out on twelve composite column segments using ANSYS computer program (5 th version , 2002) to investigate their behavior and predict their load – slip relationships , equivalent stress distributions and concrete cracking patterns . The defined numerical modeling included using the eight node isoparametric brick element with smeared reinforcement (SOLID 65) and the eight node isoparametric steel brick element (SOLID45) , to model the reinforced concrete medium and the steel section and shear connectors , respectively , considering perfect bond between concrete and steel reinforcing bars . Nonlinear properties including cracking and crushing of concrete , yielding of steel section and reinforcement , and nonlinear bond – slip at interface were also considered . Comparison of the experimental and theoretical results has shown good agreement that verifies the accuracy of the finite element model based on the smeared crack model of concrete . Results have detected the development of the relative movement (slip) be at all ranges of the load-slip relationship at interface even with using effective shear connection and /or high quality concrete. The headed studs have revealed the highest slip resistance and ultimate load over the channel and the L-shaped studs . The high strength concrete has also revealed the same superiority over the other three tested types of concrete .

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