Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2006 volume:12 issue:3

Article
Developing an Integrated Management System for Test of Mosaic Tails with Expert System Implentation
تطوير قاعدة معلومات لنظام خبير لمعرفة مدى صلاحية البلاط الأسمنتي (الكاشي) للاستعمال

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Abstract

This Paper aims an identifying the tests of mosaic tiles and incorporated it into management systems, to assist, authors of system that has mosaic tiles is technically accepted (accept lie). This paper presents the important tests taken from the British specifications adding to it other tests which might be necessary to complement the test of the tile that has been technically accepted. The results that were depended on were numbers which might be nearer to reality respecting the used tiles whose results were taken from: 1- The tests that were performed in the lab of testing constructional material/College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad. 2- The test that were performed in the National Center of Constructional Labs. 3- Depending on previous Researches in this field. According to the information, the results of the test and the number of the used tiles in Iraq were established. Then the theoretical information of the research and the lab's result were taken and a management system was made for an information basis of one of the expert systems. Through inputting data by the user of the program to this system, the range of fitness of using the tile could be known.

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Article
The Effect of Domes Geometry Formation on Acoustic Performance in Mosques (Hypotheses imagination)
أثر التشكـــيل الهندســــي للقباب على كفاءة الأداء الصوتي في المساجد ( تصور افتراضي )

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Abstract

The research explain The effect of domes geometry formation (size, shape,..) on acoustic performance, that for importance of this element in designing aspect specially in Islamic architecture and in the mosques building. The research follow sound reflection diagrams to obtain graphic forms that explain the affection of various geometry formation on acoustic performance , after analyze the graphic forms the final conclusions are introduced to obtain a primary vision about a capability of dome and who deal with it.


Article
Dynamic Soil - Structure Response Analysis of an Iraqi Soil Based on Geophysical Testing

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Abstract

In this paper, soil – pore fluid behavior of a silo under an earthquake loading is investigated. To predict the response of the silo with the soil surrounding it, ‘the linear-elastic constitutive model’ is adopted with soil properties; shear modulus and damping ratio; are strains and cycle independent. A computer program using dynamic stiffness matrix analyses (DSMA) for predicting and analyzing the model was established using FORTRAN coding. The program is based on geophysical values (such as primary velocity (vp), shear velocity (vs), modulus of elasticity (E), mass density (ρ), shear modulus (G),….etc). The values were obtained from field test results for the soil under a silo located in Kirkuk, Iraq. To check and compare the obtained results, the computer program (MSC/NASTRAN) is used also for predicting and analyzing the same problem. This second program uses input values such as shear modulus (G), modulus of elasticity (E), mass density (ρ) and damping ratio (ζ) obtained from conventional laboratory tests. From the two aforementioned analyses, comparisons between the results of the relevant two programs are made. Though program “MSC/NASTRAN” visualizes a realistic behavior of the silo under dynamic loading, due to full response results are expressed for each node, the dynamic stiffness matrix analyses program (DSMA) gives only the maximum value for the horizontal and vertical displacements at that node. Despite of that, program DSMA relies on realistic values of geophysical tests obtained from the field directly. As a conclusion from this study, the soil-structure interaction zone for the silo at Kirkuk under investigation using both analyses show excellent agreement between the results. The agreement in this study turns out to be more than 95% close between the two algorithms. The easiness through which geophysical field tests are conducted, the simplicity of carrying out the required calculations and the reliability of the results makes the dynamic stiffness matrix analysis method (DSMA) highly recommended. It can give an excellent directive about the response of structures resting on soils and subjected to dynamic loads.


Article
Characteristics of Gypseous Soils Treated with Calcium Chloride Solution

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Abstract

Gypseous Soils are distributed in many regions in the world including Iraq, which cover about (31.7%) of the surface area of the country. Existence of these soils, some times with high gypsum content, caused difficult problems to the buildings and strategic projects due to dissolution and leaching of the gypsum slates by the action of water flow through the soil mass. In this study the effect of treatment with Dihydrate Calcium Chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) as water solution on compaction, compressibility, leaching, permeability and shear strength characteristics of Gypseous soil is investigated. It is found that the maximum dry unit weight increases while optimum moisture content decreases with the increase in the concentration of calcium chloride in the molding water. It is concluded that the engineering properties of the samples are highly improved when the samples are soaked in calcium chloride solution at (20%) concentration. Where, considerable reduction is observed in compressibility, collapsibility, coefficient of permeability, percentage of dissolved gypsum and leaching strain. Also, the treatment minimizes the reduction in cohesion component (c) upon soaking in water and slightly decreases the angle of internal friction (). Analysis of the tests results showed that the using of calcium chloride solution in improvement the gypseous soil is more efficient than using it in any other form (powder).

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Article
Improvement of Traffic Capacity for AL - Motanabi Aquare in Kut City

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Abstract

The concept of capacity and level of service are the control points of the analysis of intersections and must be fully considered to evaluate the overall operation of the intersections. The objectives of the present study include the analysis, evaluation and improvement of the operation for AL-Motanabi square in Kut city and to present a best proposal to enhance the performance from the capacity point of view. To achieve these objectives, the estimated distribution of the traffic data in different direction that required for the traffic and geometrical analysis were gathered manually, while SIDRA traffic program is used for the requirements of traffic analysis process. It has been concluded that, two layer flyover is the best proposal to improve the operation ability of AL-Motanabi square.


Article
Evaluation of Collapsibility of Gypseous Soils in Iraq

Authors: Shewnim N. Seleam
Pages: 712-726
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Abstract

Gypseous soils can be found in arid and semi arid region. In civil engineering it can be defined that a soil is a gypseous soil when it has gypsum content enough to change the properties of this soil. Collapsibility of these soils was found to be of major importance. The collapsibility of the soil can be estimated from the term "Collapse Potential (CP)" which can be obtained from two types of tests performed in the oedometer device; (1) Single Collapse Test (SCT) and (2) Double Oedometer Test (DOT). In this study, an analysis of the results obtained by 7 researchers in Iraq was performed. The data collected included basic properties for each sample in addition to the results of the two collapsibility tests. A total of 50 samples were analyzed and it was noticed that 33 % of the investigated soils have a CP less than 1% which are considered as "No Trouble" soils and about 60% have a CP ranging between 1 and 5 which are considered as "moderate trouble" soils. The factors affecting collapsibility were studied and it appeared that the initial water content, void ratio and total unit weight are the major factors while the gypsum content and plasticity index seem to have lesser effect. Three proposed equations are introduced to estimate CP at 200 kPa as obtained from (SCT) from other parameters. These equations are: (1) CP from (DOT) (2) CP from different soaking pressures and (3) CP from basic soil properties (initial water content, void ratio and gypsum content). These equations have a regression (R-squared) ranging between 0.7 and 0.85.

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Article
Mechanical Vibration Control using Variable Stiffness Actuator

Authors: Yarub Omer Naji --- Bahaa Ibraheem Kazem
Pages: 728-740
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Abstract

Active control strategy had been used for controlling the vibration response, with considering the simplification in the design and keep away from complexity and high cost in order to extend the actual application of the active control systems. The control program is responsible for identifying the acquired data and make comparisons and decisions required for increase or decrease the actuator stiffness, by instructing the control signal to open the inlet or the exhaust valve respectively. The PC sound card has been used as a Data Acquisition Card. The proposed control strategy had been simulated and tested to control the vibration response of a single degree of freedom spring-mass-damper system excited harmonically at a fixed frequency and with variations of different system parameters (mass, damping constant, and excitation force). Two testing cases are used to investigate the ability of using the proposed actuator and the control strategy in the vibration control field.


Article
Prediction of Three Dimensiomal Natural Convection from a Horzontal Isothermal Square Plante

Authors: Ayad K. Hassan
Pages: 742-755
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Abstract

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal square plate, with upper and lower heated surfaces is present. The transient Navier–Stokes and energy equations were solved by using finite deference method (F.D.M). The complete Navier–Stokes equations are transformed and expressed in terms of vorticity–vector potential and solved using an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method for the parabolic portion of the problem, and Successive Over–Relaxation (SOR) method for the elliptic portion .A computer program in (FORTRAN 77) was built to carry out the solution. The numerical results were obtained for laminar flow range of Grashof number up to (10^5) in up ward–facing and downward–facing with Prandtl number of (0.72). The results of local Nusselt number have maximum values at the outer edge of plate for two cases upward and downward facing heating. The comparison of the results of average Nusselt number with numerical data for downward facing and experimental data for upward facing shows acceptable agreement. It may be noted that the present data are generally different with experimental data, since the available data are extrapolated to high Grashof number. Thus the deviation may be large with present data.


Article
Optimization of Thermal Layout Design of Electronic Equipments on the Printed Circuit Board

Authors: Hayder Shakir Abdulla --- Ihsan Y. Hussain
Pages: 757-775
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Abstract

A thermal layout modeling and optimization routine for a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) has been made in the present work. The thermal model includes the modeling of electronic components based on thermal resistances and the PCB as a flat plate with multiple heat sources. Isothermal and Isoflux natural convection heat transfer for horizontal and vertical PCB thermal modeling. The numerical solution method for the 2-dimensional thermal model is the superposition method for the adiabatic PCB edges. The optimization meshing model was constructed based on the Complex Method. The numerical Complex Method has been improved to a new optimization method named as "Dual Complex Method", which minimize the objective function to give the optimal step sizes in X and Y -directions. The optimization thermal layout model was constructed to accommodate the numerical SUMT mathematical optimization method. Optimization results show that in free convection, and for the optimum total heat loss objective function, the larger dimension of the PCB must be oriented horizontally rather than vertically, and the electronic components or sub-assemblies of large power should be placed near the top of the PCB. In the case of horizontal upset-down in natural convection, the components of large power must be placed near the center of the PCB.


Article
Self Organiozing Fuzzy Controller for a Non - Linear Time Varying System

Authors: Omar W. Abdul-Wahab
Pages: 777-785
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Abstract

This paper proposes a self organizing fuzzy controller as an enhancement level of the fuzzy controller. The adjustment mechanism provides explicit adaptation to tune and update the position of the output membership functions of the fuzzy controller. Simulation results show that this controller is capable of controlling a non-linear time varying system so that the performance of the system improves so as to reach the desired state in a less number of samples.

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Article
Modeling Seepage Control in Hydraulic Structures

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Abstract

This paper brings together random field generation and finite element technique to model steady state seepage through two dimensional soil domain in which the hydraulic conductivity is randomly distributed in space. The analysis treats the hydraulic conductivity as a spatially random property with specified mean, variance and spatial correlation length. The results of the combined model used in an optimization procedure to obtain the optimum dimension of the hydraulic structure seepage control techniques.

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Article
Analysis of Continuous Composite Concrete - Steel Girders with Partial Interaction

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Abstract

In the present study, a general nonlinear one-dimensional finite element beam model is developed for the analysis of composite beams. The proposed model is based on the partial interaction theory of composite beams where the flexibility of shear connectors is allowed. By using a layered approach for the composite beam cross-section and including the material nonlinear behavior of concrete, steel, shear connector and reinforcing steel, the proposed method of analysis is capable of predicting the response of composite beams throughout the elastic, inelastic and ultimate load ranges in one complete analysis. Numerical case studies are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the present method. The results are compared with experimental and analytical or numerical results obtained by other investigators. Also the results are compared with ANSYS package results. The maximum differences in deflection and slip for the examples considered are 12% and 14% respectively when compared with ANSYS and 5% and 11% when compared with experimental work. Accordingly, the proposed nonlinear finite element model represents an efficient and simple tool for the full range analysis of composite beams.


Article
Well Preformance Analysis Based on Flow Calculations and IPR

Authors: Dhefaf J. S. Ottba --- Mohammed S. Al-Jawad
Pages: 822-841
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Abstract

A study has been done to analyze the total production system by developing a computer model. Every component of the production system has been programmed individually and then linked in the composite production system computer program. These components are; reservoir component, vertical component, surface choke component and finally horizontal component. Each of the previous components are developed using various equations or models to determine the pressure loss thorough that component. In the current study the Wiggins method has been used to calculate the IPR curves. The vertical and horizontal components are developed using the unified mechanistic model of Gomez. Lage mechanistic model has been used to calculate the pressure losses through annulus. Perkins mechanistic model is used to calculate the pressure loss through surface chokes. A filed example problem is presented to analyze the production system. This example has been used to determine the optimum system design which maximizes production rate for a set of condition.


Article
Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Tigris River Pollution

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Abstract

Al-Saidiya PN pumping station raw sewage discharges forms the major pollution source to Tigris river between Al-Jadirriya and Al-Dora bridges, its main importance comes from its location upstream to Al-Dora water treatment plant. In an attempt to evaluate the environmental effects on water quality within the river reach under study, special emphasis was put on evaluating the environmental impact of Al-Saidiya (PN) pumping station wastewater discharges on downstream intakes of water supply, using parameters Oil & Grease, DO, BOD and Coliform & Feacal coliform, in addition to SO4, Cl & EC distributions in three dimensions. It was found that most pollutants concentrations at Al-Dora WTP range within the permissible level for Iraqi raw waters; with the exceptions of Coliform and Feacal Coliform that are highly above the limits; SO4 and BOD showed some high values. Concentrations of pollutants NH3, SO¬4, BOD, Coliform and Feacal Coliform showed higher values at Al-Dora WTP site compared to Al-Qadissiya and Al-Rasheed WTPs sites. Oil & Grease high concentrations measured at Al-Saidiya pumping station showed that it should not be allowed to discharge directly to the river. Another importance of this location comes from the river hydraulic characteristics represented by the sharp U-shape bend that enhances the transversal mixing process, and hence facilitates the pollutants distribution, through the secondary currents and spiral flow.

Keywords

River --- pollution --- sewage --- bend --- coliform --- oil & grease.


Article
The Effect of Longitudinal Vibration on Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Tube

Authors: Ali Mohsen Rishem --- Manal H. AL-Hafidh
Pages: 863-879
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Abstract

The effect of longitudinal vibration on the laminar forced convection heat transfer in a horizontal tube was studied in the present work. The flow investigated is an internal, laminar, incompressible, developing, steady and oscillatory flow. The vibration vector was parallel to the fluid flow direction. The boundary layer was studied in the entrance region for Prandtl numbers greater than one and the hydrodynamic boundary layer grows faster than thermal boundary layer. The governing equations which used were momentum equation in the axial direction, continuity and energy equation. The finite difference technique was introduced to transform the partial differential equations into algebraic equations and the later equations were solved using the upwind scheme. The vibrational Reynolds number used as indication to the vibration and vibrational velocity which is used as boundary condition. The effect of vibration on laminar forced convection heat transfer is to increase the local and average Nusselt number when the vibrational Reynolds number increases; therefore, heat transfer coefficient increases too. Correlations for local Nusselt number with vibration concluded for constant wall temperature and constant heat flux.


Article
A Modified Method for Determination of Scale Factor of the Projected Ceodesic

Authors: Hussein Alwan Mahdi
Pages: 882-895
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Abstract

Conformal projection is one of the most important aspects that geodesy dealing with. The determination of the scale factors in the meridian, the parallel and projected geodesic directions are the final result of the conformal projection. Methods for determining the scale factors in the meridian and the parallel directions have a quite sufficient accuracy. While methods for determining the projected geodesic have different accuracy and computation complicity. This research adopts a modified method for computing the exact value of scale factor in geodesic direction. In this method the scale factor is obtained by determining the true and projected distances of the geodetic line. In the traditional methods for determining the projected distance it is usual to use the 1/3 Simpson's rule in the computations while the modified method the 3/8 Simpson's rule is used. Computations and mathematical tests were carried out to obtain the scale factors using the traditional methods and comparison was made with modified method. By applying the developed method and the traditional methods to calculate the scale factor, it was found that the modified method is more accurate and the projected distances can be obtained exactly.

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