Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:1

Article
Improving the Properties of Gypsum By Using Additives
تحسين خواص الجص بإستخدام المضافات

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Abstract

Gypsum Plaster is an important building materials, and because of the availabilty of its raw materials. In this research the effect of various additives on the properties of plaster was studied , like Polyvinyl Acetate, Furfural, Fumed Silica at different rate of addition and two types of fibers, Carbon Fiber and Polypropylene Fiber to the plaster at a different volumetric rate. It was found that after analysis of the results the use of Furfural as an additive to plaster by 2.5% is the optimum ratio of addition to that it improved the flexural Strength by 3.18%. When using Polyvinyl Acetate it was found that the ratio of the additive 2% is the optimum ratio of addition to the plaster, because it improved the value of the flexural strength by a rate of 3.44% of the value of standards fraction of the mixture of reference. It was noted that the optimum ratio for the addition of Fumed Silica to the plaster is the ratio of 1%, because this ratio of addition increases the flexural strength by 15.26%. For the addition of Carbon Fiber to the plaster it was found that the volumetric ratio of the additive 0.5% is the percentage of perfect accessory after taking into account cost and quality which gives an increase in Flexural Strength by rate of 41.43% .When using Polypropylene Fiber it was found that the optimum percentage ratio of addition 1.5%, where this ratio increases flexural strength by a rate of 23.67% . When using the mixture (PVCF), which contains 2% of Poly vinyl Acetate and 0.5% as a volumetric rate of the carbon fiber to the plaster, increases the value of Flexural Strength by a rate 62.92%. After analyzing the results for all mixtures it was found that the mixture (PVCF) is the best one to satisfy the aim of the research which is to get the best structural properties specially flexural strength for gypsum beams.


Article
Damage Detection and Assessment of Stiffness and Mass Matrices in Curved Simply Supported Beam Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Aveen A. Abdulkareem --- Nabil Hassan Hadi
Pages: 1-19
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Abstract

In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to detect damage in curved beam model, stiffness as well as mass matrices of the curved beam elements is formulated using Hamilton's principle. Each node of the curved beam element possesses seven degrees of freedom including the warping degree of freedom. The curved beam element had been derived based on the Kang and Yoo’s thin-walled curved beam theory. The identification of damage is formulated as an optimization problem, binary and continuous genetic algorithms(BGA, CGA) are used to detect and locate the damage using two objective functions (change in natural frequencies, Modal Assurance Criterion MAC). The results show the objective function based on change in natural frequency is the best objective and no error was recorded in prediction of location and small error in detecting damage value. Also the result show that the genetic algorithm method are efficient indicating and quantifying single and multiple damage with high precision, and the prediction error for the CGA are less than corresponding value for the BGA.


Article
Effect of Change in the Coefficient of Permeability on Consolidation Characteristics of Clays

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Abstract

The settlement rate and pore water pressure dissipation rate are mainly controlled by the permeability of soil. Both laboratory and field tests show that the permeability is varied during the loading and consolidation process. It is known that consolidation process is accompanied by decrease in void ratio which leads to decrease in the coefficient of permeability. The importance of the decrease of the coefficient of permeability on the time rate of settlement and pore water pressure needs to be investigated. This paper takes into account the change in coefficient of permeability during consolidation and studies its effect on consolidation characteristics of a clay layer. The finite element method is used in the analysis and the package Geo-Slope is adopted through coupling the programs SIGMA/W and SEEP/W. The relationship between the applied pressure and permeability was determined experimentally for three samples. It was concluded that the effect of permeability is clear at later times of consolidation due to decrease in void ratio and hence slower dissipation of pore water pressure. Taking into account variable permeability leads to longer times of consolidation. At later times (after 400 days), the excess pore water pressure predicted for the case of variable permeability is greater than conventional case by about (10 – 12) %.


Article
Adsorption Study of Hydrodesulphurization Catalyst

Authors: Tariq M.Naife
Pages: 38-50
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Abstract

Physical and chemical adsorption analyses were carried out by nitrogen gas using ASTM apparatus at 77 K and hydrogen gas using volumetric apparatus at room temperature respectively. These analyses were used for determination the effect of coke deposition and poisoning metal on surface area, pore size distribution and metal surface area of fresh and spent hydrodesulphurization catalyst Co-MoAl2O3 . Samples of catalyst (fresh and spent) used in this study are taken from AL-Dura refinery. The results of physical adsorption shows that surface area of spent catalyst reduced to third compare with fresh catalyst and these catalysts exhibit behavior of type four according to BET classification ,so, the pores of these samples are cylindrical, and the pores of fresh catalyst suffers during the hydrodesulphurization . The result of chemical adsorption shows that the metal surface area of fresh catalyst is 50.72 m2/g while it reduced to 39.04 m2/g for spent catalyst.


Article
Adaptive Cyclic Prefix Length for Convoluitional Code OFDM System in Frequency Selective Channel

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Abstract

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of recent years multicarrier modulation used in order to combat the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) introduced by frequency selective mobile radio channel. The circular extension of the data symbol, commonly referred to as cyclic prefix is one of the key elements in an OFDM transmission scheme. This paper study The influence of the cyclic prefix duration on the BER performance of an OFDM-VCPL (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - Variable Cyclic Prefix Length) system and the conventional OFDM system with frame 64-QAM modulation is evaluated by means of computer simulation in a multipath fading channel. The adaptation of CP is done with respect to the delay spread estimation of the channel.

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Article
Removal of Phenolic Compunds from Aqueous Solutions by Adsoption onto Activted Carbons Prepared from Date Stones By Chemical Activation With FeCl3

Authors: Samar K. Dhidan
Pages: 63-77
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Abstract

Activated carbon prepared from date stones by chemical activation with ferric chloride (FAC) was used an adsorbent to remove phenolic compounds such as phenol (Ph) and p-nitro phenol (PNPh) from aqueous solutions. The influence of process variables represented by solution pH value (2-12), adsorbent to adsorbate weight ratio (0.2-1.8), and contact time (30-150 min) on removal percentage and adsorbed amount of Ph and PNPh onto FAC was studied. For PNPh adsorption,( 97.43 %) maximum removal percentage and (48.71 mg/g) adsorbed amount was achieved at (5) solution pH,( 1) adsorbent to adsorbate weight ratio, and (90 min) contact time. While for Ph adsorption, at (4) solution pH, (1.4) absorbent to adsorbate weight ratio, and (120 min) contact time gave maximum removal percentage( 86.55 %) and (43.27 mg/g) adsorbed amount. Equilibrium adsorption data of PNPh and Ph onto FAC were well represented by Langmuir isotherm model, showing maximum adsorbed amounts of (185.84 mg/g) and (159.27 mg/g) for PNPh and Ph, respectively.


Article
3-D Object Recognition using Multi-Wavelet and Neural Network

Authors: Zainab Ibrahim Abood --- Tariq Zeyad Ismail
Pages: 78-94
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Abstract

This search has introduced the techniques of multi-wavelet transform and neural network for recognition 3-D object from 2-D image using patches. The proposed techniques were tested on database of different patches features and the high energy subband of discrete multi-wavelet transform DMWT (gp) of the patches. The test set has two groups, group (1) which contains images, their (gp) patches and patches features of the same images as a part of that in the data set beside other images, (gp) patches and features, and group (2) which contains the (gp) patches and patches features the same as a part of that in the database but after modification such as rotation, scaling and translation. Recognition by back propagation (BP) neural network as compared with matching by minimum distance, gave (94%) and (83%) score by using group (1), (gp) and features respectively, which is much better than the minimum distance. Recognition using (gp) neural network (NN) gave a (94%) and (72%) score by using group (2), (gp) and features respectively, while the minimum distance gave (11%) and (33%) scores. Time consumption through the recognition process using (NN) with (gp) is less than that minimum distance


Article
Analytical Solution of Unsaturated Soil Water Flow from a Point Source

Authors: Sabah M. Hussain --- Safa N. Hamad --- Maysoon B. Abid
Pages: 95-106
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Abstract

Water flow into unsaturated porous media is governed by the Richards’ partial differential equation expressing the mass conservation and Darcy’s laws. The Richards’ equation may be written in three forms, where the dependent variable is pressure head or moisture content, and the constitutive relationships between water content and pressure head allow for conversion of one form into the other. In the present paper, the “moisture-based" form of Richards’ equation is linearized by applying Kirchhoff’s transformation, which combines the soil water diffusivity and soil water content. Then the similarity method is used to obtain the analytical solution of wetting front position. This exact solution is obtained by means of Lie’s method of infinitesimal transformation groups. The predicted results of the analytical solution agreed well with available results of experiments and numerical solutions.


Article
Variation Of Some Water Quality Parameters Of Huwaiza Marsh In Southern Iraq

Authors: Tariq J.Kadhem Al-Musawi
Pages: 107-120
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Abstract

Huwaiza marsh is considered the largest marsh in the southern part of Iraq. It is located between 31° and 31.75° latitude and extends over the Iraqi-Iranian border; but the largest part lies in Iraq. It is located to the east of Tigris River in Messan and Basra governorates. In this research, the variation of some water quality parameters at different locations of Huwaiza marsh were studied to find out its efficacy in the treatment of the contamination coming from the wastewater outfall of Kahlaa brokendown sewage treatment plant which lies on the Kahlaa River. This rive is the main feeder of Huwaiza marsh. Ten water quality sampling locations were chosen in this marsh. The water samples were taken during 2009 for three months; January, April and August representing winter, spring and summer respectively. The results of water quality analyses showed that Kahlaa untreated sewage had a negative impact on the water quality of Huwazia marsh; especially in its upstream region. Analyses of water samples taken from the middle and downstream end of the marsh showed that the marsh water is safe for fishing and swimming in these regions.


Article
Double Diffusive Free Convection in a Packed Bed Square Enclosure by Using Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium (LTNE) Model

Authors: Ahmed N. Mehdy
Pages: 121-136
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Abstract

In the present study, free convection heat and mass transfer of fluid in a square packed bed enclosure is numerically investigated. For the considered geometrical shape, the left vertical wall of enclosure was assumed to be kept at high temperature and concentration while the opposite wall was kept at low temperature and concentration with insulating both the top and bottom walls of enclosure. The Brinkman–Forchheimer extended Darcy model was used to solve the momentum equations, while the energy equations for fluid and solid phases were solved by using the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. Computations are performed for a range of the Darcy number from 10-5 to 10-1, the porosity from 0.5 to 0.9, and buoyancy ratio from -15 to 15. The results showed that both the buoyancy ratio and the packed bed characteristics have significant effect on each one of the flow field, heat transfer and mass transfer.

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