Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:17 issue:1

Article
FILTRATION MODELING USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN)

Authors: Awatif Soaded Alsaqqar
Pages: 1-11
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Abstract

In this research Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique was applied to study the filtration process in water treatment. Eight models have been developed and tested using data from a pilot filtration plant, working under different process design criteria; influent turbidity, bed depth, grain size, filtration rate and running time (length of the filtration run), recording effluent turbidity and head losses. The ANN models were constructed for the prediction of different performance criteria in the filtration process: effluent turbidity, head losses and running time. The results indicate that it is quite possible to use artificial neural networks in predicting effluent turbidity, head losses and running time in the filtration process, with a good degree of accuracy reaching 97.26, 95.92 and 86.43% respectively. These ANN models could be used as a support for workers in operating the filters in water treatment plants and to improve water treatment process. With the use of ANN, water systems will get more efficient, so reducing operation cost and improving the quality of the water produced.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR A NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER FROM AN ISOTHERMAL HEATED RECTANGULAR PLATE
دراسة عملية لانتقال الحرارة بالحمل الحر لصفيحة مستطيلة الشكل مسخنة بثبوت درجة الحرارة

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Abstract

An experimental investigation to know the effect of inclination angle (Φ), perforation ratio (m) and heating level on the rate of heat transfer by natural convection from isothermal rectangular flat plate (with and without rectangular hole) with extension surface. The experiments covered the laminar region with a range of Rayleigh number of order of 106. The experimental study included the manufacturing of four rectangular models of aluminum (125mm) length,(64mm) width and (10mm) thickness and perforation ratio (m=0.0,0.2&0.28) respectively with heater for each model, and manufacturing a device allow fine movement of the thermocouple in three dimensions above the models surface with a capability of inclination the models up to (180°) with horizon Practical Experiments achieved by using local measure method for finding the temperature gradient, thermal boundary layer thickness (δ) using thermocouples .The experiment has been done with variable inclination angle from horizon (0°, 30°, 90°, 145°&180°) and four heating level (Tw=50, 70, 90&110°C) in range of Grashof number (1.632×106≤ GrLo ≤5.973×106) for each model. The results show that the boundary layer thickness (δ) decrease while the temperature gradient increase when Grashof number and perforation ratio (m) increase. The boundary layer thickness (δ) for incline position facing upward is more than facing downward while the temperature gradient is less. The average Nusselt number increases with the increase of inclination of plates facing upward to reach to the higher average Nusselt number at vertical position then decreases with increase of inclination of plates. Also Average Nusselt number value increases with increase of perforation ratio and Grashof Number.


Article
ANALYSIS OF GEOTEXTILE EMBANKMENT BY ANSYS

Authors: Zainab Ahmed Alkaissi
Pages: 12-26
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Abstract

The major objectives of this research are to analyze the behavior of road embankments reinforced with geotextiles constructed on soft soil and describe the finite element analysis by using ANSYS program ver. (5.4). The ANSYS finite element program helps in analyzing the stability of geo- structure (embankment) in varied application of geotextiles reinforcement to enhance the best design for embankment. The results of analysis indicate that one of the primary function of geotextiles reinforcement was to reduce the horizontal displacement significantly. With the inclusions of reinforcement, the horizontal displacement reduced by about (81%), while the vertical displacement reduced by (32%). The effect of geotextiles stiffness modulus on horizontal and displacement is quite significant even a very high modulus of geotextile will have relatively little effect on vertical displacement. Also it is observed from the obtained results that the maximum displacement occurred at the toe of embankment for both horizontal and vertical movement, then decrease gradually to a negligible value for the layer reinforced case. Also the reinforcement reduces the shear stress developed in the foundation soil.


Article
THE SOCIETY IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURE
اثر المجتمع على العمارة (دراسة تحليلية لتأثير الظواهر الاجتماعية على تحويرات الدور السكنية الحديثة في بغداد)

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Abstract

Designed spaces are usually left unobserved for academic purposes, after they have been brought to physical form, thus there is no broad knowledge base as to how the end user interacts with these spaces depending on certain functional needs and wants. It has been discovered through observation that the vast majority of designed spaces -even smaller scale ones- are very likely to endure alterations. Hence it has proven easier to follow up with and record these architectural alterations within residential projects where living spaces can be changed due to simple and less complex family decisions. Previous readings of social and sociological type literature with relation to family forms and nature have revealed that there are clear limitations to knowledge involving the effects of society on architectural changes due to the absence of detailed information concerning the impact of social phenomenon on alterations in the architecture of modern Baghdad homes during the past five decades]. Baghdad is perhaps the foremost city in Iraq that has been affected by social changes, firstly, due to it’s being the [political and economical] capital of the country and therefore the first in line to absorb changes as opposed to other governorates. Secondly, these alterations in architecture are much clearer in Baghdad due to major political and economical changes which have been witnessed during these past fifty years, changes which have in turn affected the city's social contexts, thus leading to architectural alterations. Based on the abovementioned reasons, this research aims to prove the existence of a social impact on architectural alteration by: • Clarifying indications of changes within society in general. • Clarifying indications of changes within architecture in general. • Finding the link between both, the architectural and social phenomenon and their directions. • Showing evidence of changes within Iraqi society in general and within the Iraqi family specifically. • Showing evidence of changes within Iraqi architecture in general and within Baghdad houses specifically. • Clarifying the impact of family social changes on the practical manner of living and the designed spaces of residential houses. The research begins with the exploration of previous related studies of the main variables: (Society and architecture) and the link between them. After consuming the problem and expressing its aims, the thesis heads towards the exploration of the main aspects: Society, by studying social phenomenon and architecture, by studying its contents and process of change. After the comparison of these two variables, the thesis comes to a sub-conclusion that architectural phenomenon is part of social phenomenon, which leads us to the main discussion of the research, a study of the main events that have affected Iraqi society and the nature of the Iraqi individual, focusing on changes within the Iraqi family as the main unit of society as a whole. The investigation then moves on to changes in the ideas of the Baghdad house. Points should be taken during the course of the study with regards to the elements which represent the main changes in these houses, namely: rearrangement of spaces, adding/subtracting areas, renewals and the moving. The theoretical frame work ends with a case study of 42 residential units in Baghdad and aspects of their social elements (independent factor) and the architectural changes (dependant factor), thus bringing the thesis to its conclusion. This research does not attempt to provide a description of these houses based upon a certain period of time, but rather why they have come to be the way they appear and the social aspects affecting their appearance.

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Article
MIXED CONVECTION PHENOMINA AFFECTED BY RADIATION IN A HORIZONTAL RECTANGULAR DUCT WITH COCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC CIRCULAR CORE

Authors: Raed Gatie Sayhood --- Manal H. AL-Hafidh
Pages: 27-45
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Abstract

The numerical investigation has been performed to study the radiation affected steady state laminar mixed convection induced by a hot inner varied positions circular core in a horizontal rectangular channel for a fully developed flow. To examine the effects of thermal radiation on thermo fluid dynamics behavior in the eccentric geometry channel, the generalized body fitted co-ordinate system is introduced while the finite difference method is used for solving the radiative transport equation. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations. These equations are normalized and solved using the Vorticity-Stream function. After validating numerical results for the case without radiation, the detailed radiation effect is discussed. From the parametric study, the Nusselt number (Nu) distributions in steady state were obtained for Aspect Ratio AR (0.55-1) and Geometry Ratio GR (0.1-0.9). The fluid Prandtl number is 0.7, Rayleigh number (0 ≤ Ra ≤ 104), Reynolds number Re (1-2000), Optical Thickness (0 ≤ t ≤ 10), Conduction-Radiation parameter (0 ≤ N ≤ 100) for the range of parameters considered. It is indicated in the results that heat transfer from the surface of the circular core exceeds that of the rectangle duct and when circular core is lower than the center of the channel, the rate of heat transfer decreased. The correlation equations are concluded to describe the radiation effect.


Article
BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BEAMS REINFORCED IN SHEAR WITH CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER

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Abstract

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) were widely used in strengthening reinforced concrete members in the last few years, these fibers consist mainly of high strength fibers which increase the member capacity in addition to changing the mode of failure of the reinforced concrete beams. Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried to find the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by CFRP in shear and bending. The experimental work included testing of 12 beams divided into 4 groups; each group contains 3 beams. The following parameters were taken into consideration: - Concrete crushing strength. - CFRP strengthening location (shear strengthening and both shear and flexure strengthening). Reinforced beams were simply supported subjected to two point loads. Each group consists of three beams; the first beam without CFRP, the second one, is strengthened with CFRP in shear and the third is strengthened with CFRP in both flexure and shear. Four groups with different crushing strength of (12, 20, 30 and 39 MPa). The CFRP sheets are attached externally. It was found that in beam with low crushing strength loads transfer to the CFRP at early stages while in those of high crushing strength, CFRP contribution only starts when full strength of the beam is fulfilled. A full bond between CFRP sheets and the concrete is assumed in the theoretical analysis. Comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results revealed the validity of the numerical analysis and the developed methods such that there was a difference of 13% in the ultimate strength for the tested and analyzed beams.


Article
THE EFFECTS OF BLOOD REHEOLOGICAL ON THE FLOW THROUGH AN AXISYMMETRIC ARTERIAL STENOSIS

Authors: Jafar M. Hassan
Pages: 62-79
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Abstract

The prediction of the blood flow through an axisymmetric arterial stenosis is one of the most important aspects to be considered during the Atherosclrosis. Since the blood is specified as a non-Newtonian flow, therefore the effect of fluid types and effect of rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluid on the degree of stenosis have been studied. The motion equations are written in vorticity-stream function formulation and solved numerically. A comparison is made between a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid for blood flow at different velocities, viscosity and Reynolds number were solved also. It is found that the properties of blood must be at a certain range to preventing atheroscirasis.

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Article
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRIP FOOTING RESTING ON GIBSON-TYPE SOIL BY USING MATLAB

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This research presents a method of using MATLAB in analyzing a nonhomogeneous soil (Gibson-type) by estimating the displacements and stresses under the strip footing during applied incremental loading sequences. This paper presents a two-dimensional finite element method. In this method, the soil is divided into a number of triangle elements. A model soil (Gibson-type) with linearly increasing modulus of elasticity with depth is presented. The influences of modulus of elasticity, incremental loading, width of footing, and depth of footing are considered in this paper. The results are compared with authors' conclusions of previous studies.


Article
HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF THIOPHENE OVER CO-MO/AL2O3 CATALYST USING FIXED- AND FLUIDIZED-BED REACTORS

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The present work reports a direct experimental comparison of the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene over Co-Mo/Al2O3 in fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors under the same conditions. An experimental pilot plant scale was constructed in the laboratories of chemical engineering department, Baghdad University; fixed-bed unit (2.54 cm diameter, and 60cm length) and fluidized-bed unit (diameter of 2.54 cm and 40 cm long with a separation zone of 30 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter). The affecting variables studied in the two systems were reaction temperature of (308 – 460) oC, Liquid hourly space velocity of (2 – 5) hr-1, and catalyst particle size of (0.075-0.5) mm. It was found in both operations that the conversion increases with increasing of reaction temperature, slightly decreases with increasing of liquid hourly space velocity and not affected by particle size. Also a kinetic analysis was performed for thiophene hydrodesulfurization reaction in fixed bed reactor and the results indicate that the reaction kinetics are not affected by pore and film diffusion limitations. The results of the comparison between the two reactors indicate that a low conversion was obtained in a fluidized bed than in fixed bed over the range of conditions studied. The lower conversion can be attributed to the gas that bypasses the bed in the form of bubbles or channels.


Article
TREATMENT OF A HIGH STRENGTH ACIDIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL WASTEWATER USING EXPANDED BED ADSORBER

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Treatment of a high strength acidic industrial wastewater was attempted by activated carbon adsorption to evaluate the feasibility of yielding effluents of reusable qualities. The experimental methods which were employed in this investigation included batch and column studies. The former was used to evaluate the rate and equilibrium of carbon adsorption, while the latter was used to determine treatment efficiencies and performance characteristics. Fixed bed and expanded bed adsorbers were constructed in the column studies. In this study, the adsorption behavior of acetic acid onto activated carbon was examined as a function of the concentration of the adsorbate, contact time and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption data was modeled with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The amount of acetic acid adsorbed increased with the decrease in initial concentration of acetic acid and increased with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dose. The effects of various important and influencing parameters such as flow rate, bed height, inlet adsorbate concentration on breakthrough curve are studied in details in the column studies.


Article
LOW COST AUTOMATIC SUN PATH TRACKING SYSTEM

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Solar tracking systems used are to increase the efficiency of the solar cells have attracted the attention of researchers recently due to the fact that the attention has been directed to the renewable energy sources. Solar tracking systems are of two types, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and sun path tracking. Both types are studied briefly in this paper and a simple low cost sun path tracking system is designed using simple commercially available component. Measurements have been made for comparison between fixed and tracking system. The results have shown that the tracking system is effective in the sense of relatively high output power increase and low cost


Article
PHYSICAL MODEL OF KEROSENE PLUME MIGRATION IN AN UNSATURATED ZONE OF THE SANDY SOIL
موديل فيزيائي لحركة كتلة النفط الأبيض في المنطقة غير المشبعة من التربة الرملية

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Physical model tests were simulated non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) spill in two-dimensional domain above the water table. Four laboratory experiments were carried out in the sand-filled tank. The evolution of the plume was observed through the transparent side of this tank and the contaminant front was traced at appropriate intervals. The materials used in these experiments were Al-Najaf sand as a porous medium and kerosene as contaminant. The results of the experiments showed that after kerosene spreading comes to a halt (ceased) in the homogeneous sand, the bulk of this contaminant is contained within a pancake-shaped lens situated on top of the capillary fringe.

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Article
TWO-PARAMETER GAMMA DISTRIBUTION AND LOG NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FOR DERIVATION OF SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH

Authors: Mohammed Rashid Dhahir
Pages: 142-149
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Most available methods for unit hydrographs (SUH) derivation involve manual, subjective fitting of a hydrograph through a few data points. The use of probability distributions for the derivation of synthetic hydrographs had received much attention because of its similarity with unit hydrograph properties. In this paper, the use of two flexible probability distributions is presented. For each distribution the unknown parameters were derived in terms of the time to peak(tp), and the peak discharge(Qp). A simple Matlab program is prepared for calculating these parameters and their validity was checked using comparison with field data. Application to field data shows that the gamma and lognormal distributions had fit well.

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Article
ORGANOCLAY FOR ADSORPTION OF BINARY SYSTEM OF POLLUTANTS FROM WASTEWATER

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single and binary competitive sorption of phenol and p-nitrophenol onto clay modified with quaternary ammonium (Hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium) was investigated to obtain the adsorption isotherms constants for each solutes. The modified clay was prepared from blending of local bentonite with quaternary ammonium. The organoclay was characterized by cation exchange capacity. and surface area. The results show that paranitrophenol is being adsorbed faster than phenol. The experimental data for each solute was fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm model for single solute and with the combination of Freundlich- Langmuier model for binary system.


Article
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS

Authors: Montadher A. Muhammed
Pages: 159-172
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A numerical method (F.E.)was derived for incompressible viscoelastic materials, the aging and environmental phenomena especially the temperature effect was considered in this method. A treatment of incompressibility was made for all permissible values of poisons ratio. A mechanical model represents the incompressible viscoelastic materials and so the properties can be derived using the Laplace transformations technique .A comparison was made with the other methods interested with viscoelastic materials by applying the method on a cylinder of viscoelastic material surrounding by a steel casing and subjected to a constant internal pressure, as well as a comparison with another viscoelastic method and for Asphalt Concrete problem exposed to constant pressure (vehicles load) was done. The obtained results was very convenient, as well as, a large time steps can be taken than others methods.


Article
RADAR PARAMETER GENERATION TO IDENTIFY THE TARGET

Authors: F. D. Umara --- A. K. Sharief --- W. A. Mahmoud
Pages: 173-185
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Due to the popularity of radar, receivers often “hear” a great number of other transmitters in addition to their own return merely in noise. The dealing with the problem of identifying and/or separating a sum of tens of such pulse trains from a number of different sources are often received on the one communication channel. It is then of interest to identify which pulses are from which source, based on the assumption that the different sources have different characteristics. This search deals with a graphical user interface (GUI) to generate the radar pulse in order to use the required radar signal in any specified location.


Article
CONSTRUCTION DELAY ANALYSIS USING DAILY WINDOWS TECHNIQUE

Authors: Salsabeel S. Jafar --- Sawsan Rasheed Mohammed
Pages: 186-199
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Delays occur commonly in construction projects. Assessing the impact of delay is sometimes a contentious issue. Several delay analysis methods are available but no one method can be universally used over another in all situations. The selection of the proper analysis method depends upon a variety of factors including information available, time of analysis, capabilities of the methodology, and time, funds and effort allocated to the analysis. This paper presents computerized schedule analysis programmed that use daily windows analysis method as it recognized one of the most credible methods, and it is one of the few techniques much more likely to be accepted by courts than any other method. A simple case study has been implemented to demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of the proposed delay analysis model. The results of the study indicate that the outcomes of delay analyses are often not predictable that each method may yield different results. The study also revealed that depending on the time and resources available, and the accessibility of project control documentation, one method may be more practical or cost-effective.

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