Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:17 issue:2

Article
An Integrative of Building's Work as an Employed Systematic of the High Technology in Face The External Climatic Conditions
تكاملية عمل المبنى كمنظومة موظفة للتكنولوجيا المتقدمة في مواجهة الظروف المناخية الخارجية

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Abstract

A society development mainly depends on its capability and ability of suitability with the necessary and continuous changing for developed its response with the climatic environment surrounded, and the technology developments take place of direct influence on this understood and an imported positioned to the right direct for our buildings to be in agreement form with the surrounded climatically environment. And because of little researches which focused on the integration importance between the climatic environment and the contemporary technology to be in agreement with its surrounded actual local whereas, so the research consider to study the importance of employing the contemporary technology in construct complementary buildings to be distinguished by its high dynamic envelopes, responding to its climatic conditions embracing, subdued its general design (form and function) to work as whole unified to economize comfort for its occupants in way which save and prepare energy & it will enable us to produce harmless building to the surroundings & have the ability to face the various internal environments, beneficiary from its watering place and renewed energies to be obligation inverted on interior environment improvement of these buildings, already the research introduce Arabian and national experiments in this field for getting out these concepts and employing it in Iraqi buildings in according to our hot-arid climatic for escorting the international technology development, and then finding qualify energy buildings to give a share in conservation on Iraqi resources


Article
Neural Networks For Estimating The Ceramic Productivity Of Walls

Authors: Ali Sabri Tofan --- Sawsan Rasheed Mohammed
Pages: 200-217
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Abstract

Productivity estimating of a construction operation is an essential tool for the successful completion of the construction process. Productivity of a construction operation is defined as output of the system per unit of time. In this research Artificial Neural Networks approaches are presented. The main reason for using neural networks for construction productivity estimation is the requirement of performing complex mapping of environment and management factors to productivity. A generic description of the artificial neural networks model is provided, followed by summarized factors that affect ceramic labor productivity, then neural-network model are developed for Estimating ceramic walls productivity, the input data for the model based on experienced superintendents employed by a leading construction general contractor, test results show that the ANN approach can produce a sufficiently accurate estimate with a limited data-collection effort, and thus has the potential to provide an efficient tool for construction productivity estimation.

Keywords

NEURAL --- NETWORKS --- ESTIMATING --- CERAMIC --- PRODUCTIVITY --- WALLS


Article
Effect Of Openiings With Or Without Strenghening On Punching Shear Strength For Reinforced Concrete Flat Plates
تأثير الفتحات مع أو بدون تقويه على مقاومة القص الثاقب لبلاطات خرسانية مستوية مسلحه

Authors: Abeer H.H. Al-Shammari
Pages: 218-234
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Abstract

Reinforced concrete slabs with openings are usually designed with help of traditional rules proposed by building codes. Such methods introduce limitations concerning size, location of openings and magnitude of applied loads. Furthermore, there are some traditional approaches to strengthen reinforced concrete slabs with openings which can be either cumbersome or expensive. This paper studies variable locations of an opening with respect to a central column in reinforced concrete flat plates, and presents a good approach to strengthen this opening by using steel plates. Nine reinforced concrete flat plates are cast with dimensions (length, width and thickness) equal to (850, 470 and 50) mm) using a single concrete mix with average compressive strength (fcu) equals 30 MPa. Each slab contains a square cross-section opening (side length =75 mm) and supported by a central square cross-section column (side length =75 mm). The variables of this study are: the type of opening (with or without strengthening) and the clear distance between the opening and the column which takes the values (0.0d, 2d, 4.5d and 7d), where d is the effective depth. The specimens are tested over a simply supported span at four edges. The test results show that, the ultimate load reaches the maximum value for slab without opening while this load reaches the minimum value for slab with a non-strengthening opening and lies in the pattern of the failure zone (where the clear distance between the column and the opening equals 4.5d). When a comparison is made between the test results ,it is concluded that ;strengthening the slab opening with steel plates causes increasing in the ultimate load by (19.44 ,19.51 ,35.13 and 13.46) % for the specimens (0.0d ,2d ,4.5d and 7d ) respectively.


Article
Membranes Separation Process For Oily Wastewater Treatment
عملية الفصل بالأغشيةِ لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

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Abstract

Pilot-scale dead end microfiltration membranes were carried out to determine the feasibility of the process for treating the oily wastewater which discharge from some Iraqi factories such as power station of south of Baghdad and the general company of petrochemical industries. Polypropylene membranes (cylindrical shape) with different pore diameters (1 and 5 micron) were used to conduct the study on micromembrane process. The variables studied are oil concentration (100 – 1000 ppm), feed flow rate (20 – 40 l/h), operating temperature (31 – 50°C) and time (0 – 3 h). It was found that the flux increases with increasing feed flow rate, temperature and pore size of membrane, and decreases with increasing oil concentration and operating time. It was found also that the effect of feed oil concentration has the greatest effect on the fouling of membrane among other variables. The percent rejection of oil improved significantly with decreasing oil concentration but decreased with increasing feed temperature, pore size of membrane and operating time. Feed flow rate has slightly effect on oil rejection. The type of oil used in this work is 20W-50 gasoline and diesel engine oil. A general model of dead end filtration mode has been successfully evaluated to explain fundamental mechanisms involved in flux decline during dead end microfiltration of oily water emulsions. Analysis of the fall in flux with time for the polypropylene membrane (5 μm) indicates that intermediate and standard pore models give the best prediction for experimental behavior. Empirical correlations for the prediction of the flux and percent reject of oil were determined in this study. These equations have the correlation coefficient 98.87% and 91.49% respectively.


Article
Oily Water Treatment Using Ceramic Memberane

Authors: Sama Mohammed Abdullah
Pages: 252-264
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Abstract

This research was conducted using ceramic microfiltration membrane for treatment of oily wastewater in the pilot-scale dead-end filtration system designed in the laboratory under the influence of conditions of feed flow rate 15-35 l/h, feed temperature 32-48°C, oil feed concentration 300-1200 ppm, feed solution pH 2.6-9.8. The influence of these conditions on the permeate flux rate and oil rejection percent were investigated. Experimental results indicated that when feed flow rate increased to 35 l/h permeate flux rates increased to 100 l/m2.h and oil rejection percent decreased to 70.1%, and when feed temperature increased to 48 ºC permeate flux rate increased to 62 l/m2.h and oil rejection percent decreased to 56.44%. But when oil feed concentration increased to 1200 ppm permeate flux rate decreased to 17.2 l/m2.h and oil rejection percent increased to 99.7%. Also basic feed solution (pH=9.8) gave high permeate flux rate (44.51 l/m2.h) and low oil rejection percent (84%) in comparison with acidic feed solution (pH=2.6) which gave low permeate flux rate (26.42 l/m2.h) and high oil rejection percent (99.46%). Four classical models were investigated to flux decline and the results showed that the experimental data was consistent (R2 = 0.9883) with the complete blocking filtration model.

Keywords


Article
Robust Controller Design for Load Frequency Control in Power Systems using State-Space Approach

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Abstract

In this paper a robust governor has been designed using H∞ techniques to replace the conventional governor of the steam turbine of the power system to regulate the frequency of the power grid. The robust governor is synthesized using state-space approach with time variations, neglected dynamics, and constant main steam pressure are considered in the design process. The proposed approach ensures internal stability, satisfying both frequency and time domains requirements, and obtaining minimal performance H∞-norm of the closed-loop system in one burden. The simulations are carried out using MATLAB and the results show that the overall system output performance can be improved using the proposed H∞ robust governor


Article
Design and Evaluation of a Web Based Virtual DSP Laboratory Using GUI and HTML
تصميم وتقويم لمختبر DSP أفتراضي باستخدام صفحات الويب عن طريق GUI و HTML

Authors: Burak Abedulhadi --- Ashwaq Q. Hamid
Pages: 279-306
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Abstract

Engineering education should involve practical laboratory to support theoretical foundation and develop student skills. These hands on laboratories have some disadvantages such as expensive, supervision required, time and place restrictions. This paper presents design and evaluation of a web based virtual laboratory for teaching Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to undergraduate students in Electromechanical Engineering Department at the University of Technology. The laboratory experiments includes classification of signals, sampling theorem, Fourier series, complex Fourier series, Fourier transform, inverse Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT),convolution , Z-transform, and digital filters. Graphical User Interface (GUI) feature of MATLAB have been used to provide students with a friendly and visual approach in specifying input parameters while Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) was used to illustrate theoretical foundations. The questionnaire survey and five point Likert scale are utilized in performing evaluation. Results of this evaluation showed that the proposed virtual DSP laboratory was helped students in DSP concepts, made positive effects on students’ achievements and attitudes when compared to traditional teaching methods


Article
Estimation Of Runoff For Goizha-Dabashan Watershed With Aid Of Remote Sensing Techniques

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Abstract

Estimation of runoff volume and peak runoff is necessary for designing and operating the dams. One of the accepted models for estimating the runoff is HEC-1 model. Two methods were used in this study to estimate the runoff in Goizha-Dabashan watershed, 2.02 km2, Rational method and Soil Conservation Service curve number method (SCS-CN). Satellite image from Landsat-7 (ETM+) was used to develop land use and soil type maps. Watershed was delineated from DEM (http: //www.emrl.byu. edu/gsdu) with resolution 10 m with aid of WMS 7.1 software. Runoff coefficient was calculated by inverse the Rational equation. Manual calibration was performed until the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient gives the best results. Results showed that the runoff coefficient is 0.05 and the curve number value for conditions II and III are 75 and 80.5 respectively after calibration. Also, curve number method is better than Rational method for estimating the peak runoff discharge

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Article
Modeling A Process For The Removal Of Cadmium From Simulated Wastewaters By Electro-Deposition on Stainless Steeel Tubes Bundle

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Abstract

Electrochemical processes can provide valuable contributions to the protection of the environment through implementation of effluent treatment and production-integrated processes for the minimization of waste and toxic compounds. The performance of a novel pilot scale, batch re-cycled, flow-through cell, with stainless steel tubes bundle cathode in the removal of cadmium was investigated utilizing the potential results obtained from a batch mode. The studied electrochemical reaction was the cathodic reduction of Cd+2 using 0.5 M sodium sulphate as supporting electrolyte. The analyzed parameters were different initial Cd+2 concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300, 400 ppm) and different electrolyte flow-rates (100, 200, 250, 300, 350 L/hr), the tubes number was 920 of 0.6 cm diameters. The overall empirical mass transfer correlation was found to be: Sh = 0.051 Re^(0.859) Sc^(1/3) For 5 < Re < 20 and Sc = 649 Experimental results, analysis and correlations showed good performance of the cell and proved its adequacy in the removal of Cd+2 from simulated effluents


Article
Neural Network Application For Building Projects Cost Estimation

Authors: Ali Mohamed Humod --- Zouhair Al-Daoud
Pages: 331-339
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Abstract

This work presents a neural network based cost estimating method, developed for the generation of conceptual cost estimates for total building and electromechanical systems in building project, by using eight parameters available at the early design phase. This model establishes a methodology that can provide an economical and rapid means of cost estimating. Eighteen High rise building projects, built between 1996 and 2009 in Middle East countries used in this study. The performance of developed cost models was tested against costs incurred by projects not used in training of those models. Results show the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) are between 1.51% and 4.771% for the five networks, and the maximum/minimum deviation of the cost estimation is 10.2/0.17. These figures considered good cost estimation at the early design stage


Article
Experimental Study Of Friction Stir Spot Welding for Brass Alloy (426/1CUZN10)
دراسة تجريبية لطريقة اللحام بالاحتكاك والخلط الموقعي لسبيكة براص (246/1CuZn10)

Authors: Harith H. Abdullah --- Qasim M. Doos
Pages: 340-346
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Abstract

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a promising solid state joining process and is widely being considered for automotive industry. In this work mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded joints were investigated for ISO(426/1CuZn10) copper alloy. The effect of main welding parameters were studied including, welding tool rotational speed, preheat time (15, 30)s , plunging time (10,30)s , dwell time 10 s ,plunging depth (0.7,0.8) mm. Group of matrices of welding parameters were used to study the effect of each parameter on properties of welded joints. Series of (FSSW) experiments were conducted using manual drilling machine. Effect of welding parameters on mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated using tensile shear test. Micro-hardness test used to indicate the changes in hardness across welding region. Based on the welding experiments conducted in this study, the results show that copper alloy (426/1CuZn10) was easy weldable using (FSSW) process with maximum failure load (420 N) at (2000 rpm) rotating speed and ( 70 s) total time for (0.5 mm) sheet thickness

Keywords

Friction --- Stir --- Spot --- Welding --- Brass --- 426/1CuZn10 --- Qasim --- Doos --- Harith --- FSSW


Article
Natural Convection In Confined Cylindrical Enclosure Of Porous Media With Constant And Periodic Wall Temperature Boundary Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Mahdie Saleh --- Ihsan Y. Hussain
Pages: 347-365
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Abstract

Numerical investigations of unsteady natural convection heat transfer through a fluid-saturated porous media in inclined cylindrical enclosure are studied by solving the governing (3-D) Darcy-Boussinesq equations using finite difference method. The momentum equation of flow was solved by Relaxation method and the energy equation by using Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method. The problem is analyzed for modified Rayleigh number with range of (50-300),angles of inclination (0°,25°,45°60°90°), amplitude of sinusoidal temperature (0.2, 0.4, 0.8) and period (0.005, 0.01, 0.02). Results indicate an increase in the heat transfer with increasing of Rayleigh number, time, amplitude, angle of inclination and period. Also average and local Nusselt number were calculated and it is found that Maximum temperature and velocity occur at angle α=45 and this indicate a strong buoyancy force effect on convective flow


Article
Corrosion of Amalgams In Oral Cavity

Authors: Ghassan L.Yusif
Pages: 366-372
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Abstract

This paper is a study of the effect of natural saliva (oral cavity) and a fluoride mouthwash on dental amalgams. Two types electrodes were made the first was of a high copper amalgam while the second was made from a low copper amalgam. They were immersed in two types of electrolytes for twelve hours and the whole galvanic cell was connected to a computer via a potentiosat. Their corrosion currents, corrosion voltage and corrosion resistance was recorded and compared to find which medium that is usually has the most severe effect on the amalgams corrosion.


Article
Forced Convection Thermal Boundary Layer Development In A Porous Media Near A Wall With Variable Temperature Boundary Condition

Authors: Luma F. Ali
Pages: 373-394
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Abstract

The behavior of forced convection heat transfer characteristics through and over porous layer near a heated flat plate at variable temperature has been investigated numerically. Two cases of variable wall temperature boundary condition are studied. The first case is of linear temperature variation with position along the flat plate and the second case is of sinusoidal temperature variation with time of heating. The flow field in the porous region is governed by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer equation, the thermal field in the porous region by the energy equation and the part over the porous matrix includes flow and heat transfer equations. Solutions of the problem have been carried out using a finite difference method through the use of a stream function-vorticity transformation. The effects of various governing dimensionless parameters, Darcy number, Reynolds number, Prandtle number as well as the inertia parameter are thoroughly explored. The variation of the non-dimensional period and amplitude values of the sinusoidal temperature distinction with time was also studied. Good results were obtained and reported graphically. It was found that the local Nusselt number on the flat plate increases with the increasing of the increasing non-dimensional values of period and amplitude individually.


Article
Removal Of Phosphorus From Wastewater By Adsorption Onto Natural Iraqi Materials

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Abstract

This study focused on treating wastewater to remove phosphorus by adsorption onto natural and local materials. Burned kaolin, porcelinite, bauxite and limestone were selected to be tested as adsorption materials.The adsorption isotherms were evaluated by batch experiments, studying the effects of pH, temperature and initial phosphorus concentration. The results showed that at pH 6, temperature 20°C and 300 mg/l initial phosphorus concentration; the sorption capacity was 0.61, 9, 10 and 13 mg/g at 10 h contact time, for burned kaolin, porcelanite, limestone and bauxite respectively. As the pH increased from 2 to 10 the removal efficiency for the materials differs in behaviour. The removal efficiency increased from 40 to 90 % for limestone, and decreased from 60 to 30 % for porcelinite. As for bauxite it increased from 60 to 90 % reaching pH 6 then decreased to 30%. Burned kaolin showed the lowest adsorption capacities in these tests. The adsorption isotherms showed that the Langmuir–Freundlich model significantly correlated the experimental data for porcelinite and bauxite, whereby the Freundlich model was best for limestone. The Freundlich and Langmuir–Freundlich models both fit for Burned kaolin. The results show that it is possible to adsorb phosphate from wastewater onto natural Iraqi material and their ability could be ranged as limestone> bauxite> porcelanite> burned kaolin

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