Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:17 issue:3

Article
Parameters of Safe Environment in High Density Residential Complexes in City Centers
محددات البيئة الآمنة للمجمعات السكنية عالية الكثافة لمراكز المدن

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Abstract

Crime is considered one of the important phenomena which was studied on the world level. The interested (planners and architects) tried hard on this phenomenon to establish security. The study of city centers is very important especially those of high population density because of the effect of this phenomenon on human behavior and his sense of security. The research is diagnosed as special cognitive problem dealing with ingenerality of scientific knowledge about the parameters of safe environment in high density residential complexes in city centers and the effect of crime phenomenon in its different types and the absence of a clear image of what the housing environment had to be in order to be more safe and secure for living. As a result the aim of this research is specified as an attempt to establish general knowledge over planning, designing and social indicators to attain safe environment. The research used the terms (territoriality, surveillance, privacy and social interaction) as supports in investigation of the solution to the research problem enlightened by a hypothetical image that the level of the residents' sense of security in residential complexes increases with the increase in organization at the planning , designing levels within the social parameters. Accordingly, a theoretical base on (crime) phenomenon is established through defining the main concepts, patterns, factors and theories related to it. The results of the research, in its theoretical aspect, led to clear mechanism in achieving the safety phenomenon. This mechanism is formed by applying the planning and designing indicators within the social limitations in high density residential complexes in city centers in order to innovate solutions to attain " Safe Environments"


Article
The Geotechnical Maps for the Soil of The Governorates Baghdad, Diyala, Wasit and Babylon
الخرائط الجيوتكنيكية لتربة محافظات بغداد وديالى وواسط وبابل

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Abstract

This study dealt with the geotechnical properties of soil of the governorates ( Baghdad, Diyala, Wasit And Babylon), depending on the induction & comparison & analysis of soil properties .The study involved collecting data, tabulating the information & analyzing them, then maps were drawn for each property at depths ( "1, 3, 5, 7….15" m). The selected properties were Atterberg limits ( liquid limit & plasticity index ), dry unit weight, initial void ratio, fine particle percent, strength of soil in term of ( number of blows in S.P.T and unconfined compressive strength ), compression index, organic matter percent, sulphate content, Water table level was also taking into account for Baghdad city. With the aid of computer program, ( 138 ) geotechnical maps was drawn , (64) of them were devoted for the study case area with scale of (1 : 1500000) & ( 74 ) maps were drawn for Baghdad city

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Article
Romantic Thought in Architecture
الفكر الرومانسي في العمارة

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Abstract

The contemporary world had seen lately, series of disputes, crisis and wars, in addition to the drastic life, and the technological hastening. Therefore, the romanticism must be brought back to reactivate the life once again, because the romanticism: represents the internal world of human and the hidden emotional life, and it is the origin of human aspiration, in his attempt to satisfy the superior patterns. This research is interested in studying the romantic thought and its effect in architecture. Due to the fact that most of the studies and literary thesis had dealt with the concept of romanticism as a trend subtended the classicism and as one of the architectural trends that appeared in the nineteen century, and these studies ignored the idea of romanticism continuity through the eras. Therefore, the main problem of this research represented in: the absence of accurate understanding of the nature of the romantic thought in architecture, and sustaining in architecture and specially the contemporary architecture. Therefore the aim of this research is to demonstrate the various aspects of the romanticism in architecture and the contemporary architectural movements, exploring the role that this thought play in the defining features of architecture and its various movements. To fulfill this request, it required building the theoretical framework for the research, and concluded the components of the romanticism, and to apply them on the selected sample to verify its credibility, and then to apply them on contemporary architectural projects.

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Article
Mechanisms of Achieving the Social Sustainability in the Traditional Urban Structure
آليات تحقيق الاستدامة الاجتماعية في البنية الحضرية التقليدية (حالة دراسية في مركز مدينة الكاظمية التقليدية)

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Abstract

Sustainability as a concept has become one of the basic terms which should be taken in concsideration in urban design and urban planning .There is an deficiency in knowledge covering the importance of the social approach and its mechanisims to achieve a contemporary urban structure . Therefore, the main goal of the research is to detect the elements of social sustainability in the traditional urban structure, using the indicators derived from the theoretical argument to analyze the traditional features of Al Kadhimiya City as a case study. The research hypothesis is: (The traditional urban structure embraces the elements of social sustainability , Traditional Islamic architecture for example is a sustainable architecture because it has adopted the intellectual aspects of Islam and reflected the cultural, civil and economic aspectes of Arab Islamic communities. The research has examined a number of components of social sustainability: (sustainability of kinship system - sustainability of the waqf system - sustainability of the religious factor). Thereby it has determined the conceptual framework for research in three axes. First axis clarify the concept of social sustainability and disclosure of components in the traditional urban structure. The second axis at the general framework of indicators and mechanisms for achieving social sustainability in the traditional urban structure, third axis (the study of applied) and analyze the results of the application.


Article
Behaviour of Fire Exposed Reinforced Concrete Columns
تصرف الأعمدة الخرسانية المسلحة المعرضة للنار

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Abstract

This research is devoted to investigate the behaviour and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns exposed to fire flame. The experimental program consisted of casting and testing of 128 column specimens divided into two series A and B with target compressive strength (30 and 40 MPa) and named series A and B respectively. Each series was divided into three main groups loaded eccentrically with eccentricities 30mm and 80mm. It was found that the predicted load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns by three codes (ACI-318/08, BS-8110/97 and Canadian/84), was unconservative after burning. The BS Code equation was found to predict load capacity after exposure to high fire temperature levels better than other codes. Load-deflection curves indicate deleterious response to the fire exposure. Also, it was noticed that the maximum crack width increases with increasing fire temperature and amount of spacing between lateral steel ties.

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Article
Estimation Of Relationship Between Coefficient Of Consolidation And Liquid Limit Of Middle And South Iraqi Soils

Authors: Abbas F. Al- Ameri --- Asma Y. Al- Tae′e
Pages: 430-440
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Abstract

In this paper, a relationship between the liquid limit and the coefficient of consolidation of Iraqi soils are studied. The samples of soil used in study are undisturbed silty clay. These samples are taken from different locations and depths of Middle and South of Iraq by cooperation with Consulting Engineering Bureau-University of Baghdad- College of Engineering. The depth reached about 20 meters. The experimental work is made to calculate the liquid limit and the coefficient of consolidation. From these sites, 280 points are obtained. The relationship between the liquid limit and the coefficient of consolidation is drawn as a curve. This curve is studied and compared with the curve that obtained from other studies. From these curves, it can be noticed that the curves are close to each other when the liquid limit is equal to 60 while they diverge when the liquid limit is less or greater than 60. Therefore, the coefficient of consolidation of Iraqi soils can be obtained when the liquid limit is given


Article
Electrochemical Decolorization Of Direct Black Textile Dye Wastewater
الازالة الكهروكيمياوية للصبغة السوداء المباشرة من الماء المطروح من الصناعات االنسيجية

Authors: Baseem H. Fadhil --- Atheer M. Ghalib
Pages: 441-447
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Abstract

Electrochemical decolorization of direct black textile dye was studied in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaCl). Electrochemical cell occupy about 1 liter of working electrolyte supplied with graphite electrodes for both anode and cathode was constructed for this purpose. Decolorization percent, treatment time, power consumption, and pH were studied as a function of the applied voltage and salt concentration. Results show that decolorization increase with increasing salt concentration and applied voltage. Best decolorization of 86% can be achieved after 17 min at 7 volt and 5 g/l salt concentration. Further decolorization can be achieved but this will be accompanied with a sharp increase in power consumption. No significant decrease in pH value was observed at the end of each experiment


Article
Design And Implementation Of Fast Three Stages Sla Battery Charger For Plc Systems

Authors: Anas W. Ata’a
Pages: 448-465
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Abstract

New fast sealed lead acid (SLA) battery chargers must be able to charge the fully discharged batteries in a short time. In the same time, the charger must monitor the battery state of health in order to prevent over charge and to extend the battery life time. In this paper a Fast charger was presented to charge SLA batteries in short time and monitor the battery voltage to prevent over charge. The design was implemented practically. And 150 charger of similar type was produced for commercial use. They are now in service in different Mobile base station sites around Baghdad. It can charge a fully discharged 12V, 4.5Ah battery in less than 5 hours. To supply PLC control system on DC power to about 24 hour of continuous operation during main electricity faults. During one and half year of continuous operation three faults have been recorded in the 150 chargers. All of the three cases were because of bad components manufacturing.


Article
Dc Motor Speed Controller Design Using Pole Assignment Technique For Industrial Application
تصميم مسيطر على سرعة ماكنة تيار مستمر بأستخدام تقنية تحديد القطب للتطبيقات الصناعية

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Abstract

This paper describes DC motor speed control based on pole assignment feedback control technique. The present pole assignment technique specifies all closed-loop poles. Such a system where the reference input always zero is called a regulator system. The problem of shifting the regulator poles (closed-loop poles) at the desired location is called pole assignment problem, and this can be done if and only if the system is completely state controllable. Controller's objective is to maintain the speed of rotation of the motor shaft with a particular step response. Results obtained were compared with another controller applied to the DC motor based on Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control. The controller was designed and tested using MATLAB 7 programming language.


Article
Estimating the Sediment Transport Capacity of Tigris River within Al Mosul City
حساب طاقة الحمل الرسوبي لنهر دجلة ضمن مدينة الموصل

Authors: Ala Hassan Nama
Pages: 473-485
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Abstract

The capacity of Tigris River to transport the sediment within Al Mosul City is one of the most important characteristics of the river. Establishment of islands within this reach of the river because of decreasing the discharge of Tigris River can be controlled through studying this characteristic. Establishment of these islands and increase of the sediment deposition in the river reach affect the water treatment plants and the urban and industrial activities that are located on the banks of this reach. A steady one dimensional mathematical model for simulating the flow and estimating the sediment transport capacity of the studied reach was implemented and run by using the HEC-RAS (Version 3.1.3) software and making use of recorded field measurements for running and carrying out the calibration and verification processes. Flow velocity and sediment transport capacity were estimated for a range of discharge from 50 to 1500m3/sec. Locations of the low flow velocity were specified. The comparison between sediment capacity rating curves of these locations showed that the sediment transport capacity of the reach cross sections at 13000 and 4500m from the end of the reach, before and after Al Khosar River, is less than that of the other cross sections of this reach. The comparison between the sediment transport capacity and the inflow sediment quantity into the river reach before and after Al Khosar River with discharge and sediment concentration of 425m3/sec and 600ppm from Al Mosul Dam and 5m3/sec and 3150ppm from Al Khosar River showed that the deposited sediment in the river reach before and after Al Khosar River was 21900 and 15000tonnes/day, respectively. To avoid deposition of sediment before Al Khosar River and then along the studied reach the inflow discharge into the reach from Al Mosul Dam must be not less than 1500m3/sec. While, to avoid deposition of sediment after Al Khosar River the total discharge must be not less than 780m3/sec. The river reach cross section of low flow velocity must be developed to increase the sediment transport capacity


Article
Image Based Multi-Length Random Key Generator

Authors: Sadiq Habeeb Abdulhussain --- Firas Ali Sabir
Pages: 486-498
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Abstract

Random Number Generators (RNGs) are an important building block for algorithms and protocols in cryptography. They are dominant in the construction of encryption keys and other cryptographic algorithm parameters. In practice, statistical testing is employed to gather evidence that a generator indeed produces numbers that appear to be random. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed to generate variable length random binary sequence. The random sequence is generated by selecting different point from hashed digital images; the selecting process is organized in such a way to ensure randomness and to avoid regeneration of same sequence within a year. The generated sequences are tested to meet the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) criteria. In proposed algorithm the traditional key exchange is not needed which gives advantage to the system from the security point of view. This proposed algorithm is capable of generating random binary sequences that can meet security requirements of cryptographic algorithms


Article
Simulation Of Indirect Evaporative Cooler Heat Exchanger At Iraqi Conditions

Authors: Khawla N. Hmood --- Khalid A. Joudi
Pages: 499-516
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Abstract

The investigation included PHE performance variation with heat exchanger dimensions, plate spacing, inlet air velocities and inlet air temperatures. The momentum and energy equations were solved in 3-dimensions by using FLUENT 5.3 software and heat exchanger performance parameters were extracted from the post processing of the numerical data. In addition, a 2-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer numerical analysis for the crossflow PHE was carried out. A numerical code based on the finite difference method and the SIMPLE algorithm was developed to solve the governing equations. The result of the numerical study for PHE performance shows that for both air streams the maximum thermal gradient occurs at 0.5 m/s inlet air velocity while the minimum occurs at 5 m/s velocity. Furthermore; the greater thermal gradient for the both air streams occurs at 3 mm plate spacing and decrease progressively to the lowest gradient at 10 mm spacing. Also, the results indicated that indirect evaporative cooling could be applied to obtain suitable outlet air temperatures for low and medium values of wet-bulb temperatures in arid climates.


Article
Theoretical Analysis Of Temperature Distribution In Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Hassan R. Hassan --- Ahmad Zaidan --- Qasim M. Doos
Pages: 517-533
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Abstract

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new welding process that may have significant advantages compared to the fusion processes as follow: joining of conventionally non-fusion weldable alloys, reduced distortion and improved mechanical properties of weldable alloys joints due to the pure solid-state joining of metals. In this paper, a two-dimensional model based on finite element analysis is used to study the thermal history and thermomechanical process in the butt-welding of aluminum alloys. The model incorporates the mechanical reaction of the tool and thermomechanical process of the welded material. The heat source incorporated in the model involves the friction between the material and the probe and the shoulder. The calculation result also shows that preheat to the workpiece before process is beneficial to FSW. The effects of welding parameters such as preheating (100, 200) ˚C, rotational speed (960, 1200) rpm and linear speed (110, 155, 195) mm/min on the distribution of temperature of Al Alloy will be studied


Article
Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Natural Convection in an Inclined Square Enclosure

Authors: Khudheyer S. Mushatet --- Qasim S. Mehdi
Pages: 534-546
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Abstract

Two dimensional turbulent natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow inside an air filled inclined square enclosure differentially heated has been numerically studied. Fully elliptic Navier- Stockes and energy equations are solved using finite volume method. The problem is simulated for different angles of inclination ( ) and Rayleigh numbers ( ). The turbulence k-є model is used to model the effect of turbulence. The wall function approach is used to model the regions near the walls of the enclosure. The obtained results from this study show that the rate of heat transfer is increased with the increase of Rayleigh number and decreased with the increase of angle of inclination( ).Also the induced vortices are strongly elongated with increase of Rayleigh number. The thickness of thermal boundary layer is decreased with the increase of Ra. The validation of the present code was done by comparing the computed results with the published ones. The comparison indicated a good agreement.


Article
Laminar Aiding Combined Convection in the Developing Region of Inclined Cylinder

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Abstract

The influence of natural convection due to buoyancy on the laminar upwards air flow in a uniformly heated inclined circular cylinder has been experimentally studied. The investigation covered a wide range of Reynolds number (450≤Re≤2008), heat flux (95 ≤ q ≤ 898) W/m2, Rayligh number ( ), with different angles of cylinder inclination α=0° (Horizontal), α=30°, α=60° (Inclined) and α=90° (Vertical).Results show that the heat transfer process improves as the angle of inclination moves from vertical to horizontal position. A general empirical equation for average Nusselt number Num as a function of Rayligh number Ra, Reynolds number Re and angle of inclination α was obtained


Article
Design Optimization Of Serial Robot Manipulator

Authors: Alyaa H. A. --- Ahmed A. A.
Pages: 558-576
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Abstract

Optimal design of three links and four links serial manipulator involves striking a balance between an appropriate link length, radius, link exact end effecter deflection and the amount of stress induced in each link. Optimization has been applied for getting a minimum robot weight through making the robot arm section tapered while keeping the first link as cylindrical tube as it represent the robot base only. The synthesis optimization problem involves setting up guess values for links length and radius subjected to constraints of deflection, stress and geometric constraints of total robot length. The optimization process focuses on minimization of robot weight as an objective function, the guess values has taken from three links manipulator and the industrial robot as four links serial manipulator. The results of optimization has been plotted and represented through the different relations between the design parameters (Link radius, length and total robot deflection, total robot weight, stress…etc). The results shows a good agreement minimizing the total deflection to(2x10-5 m) with this degree of precision an optimum design features may be obtained that gives a robot structure with high stiffness and minimum weight that enables the robot to do its tasks with minimum inertia effect

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Article
Improvement Of A Hydrostatic Transmission Control System Performence Using Radial Basis Neural Network

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Pump-controlled motors (PCM) are the preferred power elements in most applications because of their high maximum operating efficiency. The dynamics of such hydraulic systems are highly nonlinear and the system may be subjected to non-smooth and discontinuous nonlinearities. Aside from the nonlinear nature of hydraulic dynamics, hydraulic servo systems also have large extent of model uncertainties such as uncompensated friction forces variation of system parameters and external disturbances. The conventional Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller can not cope with hydraulic system nonlinearities and could not compensate its variation of parameters. Therefore, a radial basis neural network has been suggested to control the speed response of PCM. The structure of radial basis neural network (RBNN) controller is simple and efficient in control purposes. The design of control surface based on radial basis function (RBF) controller has been considered. The performance of PID and RBF controllers has been assessed based on the improvement in speed behavior and their capabilities to compensate the changes in system parameters (load and bulk of modulus). Also, the effect of tuning of the radial basis parameters on the dynamic response has been studied. Results showed that the RBF controller is more robust and shows typical results compared to classical PID controller. Moreover, a further improvement in speed dynamic can be obtained with appropriate tuning of RBF parameters


Article
Technological Analysis of Flat Surface Conditions by Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Method (MAF)

Authors: Nazar K. Mohammad --- Yahya M. Hamad --- Ali H. Kadhum
Pages: 586-593
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This study introduced the effect of using magnetic abrasive finishing method (MAF) for finishing flat surfaces. The results of experiment allow considering the MAF method as a perspective for finishing flat surfaces, forming optimum physical mechanical properties of surfaces layer, removing the defective layers and decreasing the height of micro irregularities. Study the characteristics which permit judgment parameters of surface quality after MAF method then comparative with grinding


Article
The Effective Embedded Length of Steel Bars in Self Compacted Concrete (SCC)

Authors: Ali I. Salahaldin --- Amer F. Izzat
Pages: 594-609
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Eight reinforced concrete beams were tested in order to investigate the effective embedded length of the longitudinal reinforcement bar in self compacted concrete (SCC). All specimens were reinforced with a uni-reinforced bar, six of them embedded in self compacted concrete and the others embedded in normal concrete. The test was carried out on simply supported beams loaded at two points. At the end of the reinforcement bar slip was measured, also under the loading point slip and the bar strain were measured. The investigated variables in this study were: The bar diameter, and the available embedded length. To find out how these variables influence the embedded length in case of using self compacted concrete and comparing it with the normal concrete. The results show that, with increasing the bar diameter, bond stress slightly decreases, while with increasing the embedded length of the longitudinal bar the bond stress decreases and this improves the mode of the bond failure, especially for the specimens having small bar diameter


Article
Seismic Analysis Of Liquid Storage Tanks

Authors: AbdulMuttalib I. Said --- Ammar A. AbdulMajeed
Pages: 610-619
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ABSTRACT This study presents an idealization scheme for the analysis of rectangular storage tanks acted upon by earthquake excitations. Above and below ground tank, uses have been considered. A linear three-dimensional finite element analysis has been used to predict the natural frequencies. Analysis parameters are the ratio of height to length of the tank, the type of soil, level of water in the tank, and also the wall thickness. The results for top displacement and axial force components for a full tankabove ground case have values greater than those in half- full (31%) and empty tank cases (75%). At the opposite of that, the underground tank demonstrates that top displacement and axial force components for an empty tank case have values greater than those in half- full (19%) and full tank cases (40%). The base shear for above ground tank case has values greater than those in underground tank cases (19% to 37%). The shear base for soil type 2 is greater than those in soil type 1(17% to 28%).


Article
An E-Learning Package for Data Structure Using Visual Basic
الحقيبة التعليمية الالكترونية لمادة هياكل البيانات باستخدام الفيجوال بيسك

Authors: Yasmin M. Kassim
Pages: 620-635
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E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported teaching and learning. The information and communication system, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process; Computer based learning is one of the applications and processes of E-learning, sometimes abbreviated to CBL, refers to the use of computers as a key component of the educational environment [2]. Through my teaching, I found that there is a need for software learning packages at the lab to help students understand their courses especially in the subjects that need imagination like data structure. This research presents a data structure learning package for array and linear structure. Linear structure covers non-linked structure (stack and queue) and linked structure with their kinds.Through out this project the students can obtain a demonstration of how data structure is represented in memory. Most of the windows consist of three tabs, the first one is the information tab which contains all the information about the structures. The second tab contains all the operations performed on it and there is an ability to display all the operations in one executable program (full program), which receives inputs from the students, the students can enter different inputs according to the choices displayed and produce output after implementing by C++ program. The third tab contains exercises for the students to test their ability in understanding and after completing all the questions the package gives a score depending upon solutions. The package includes pictures and demos (movies) that represent the data structure implemented with 3D Max, finally all the windows are supplied with voice (my voice) to teach the students how to use the package


Article
Effect of Rotating Cylinder on the Drag Force of A Road Truck Vehicle

Authors: Alaalddin A. Ismail --- Najdat N. Abdulla
Pages: 636-646
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The effect on aerodynamic drag of a truck by controlling the boundary layer separation using a rotating cylinder on leading edge of the truck-trailer is investigated numerically. The flow was assumed to be steady, incompressible, turbulent, and two-dimensional passing over the top surface of the truck. The boundary condition for all the boundaries of the truck was set as well as the cylinder was treated as a moving wall with a specific rotational velocity. The developed computational algorithm is tested for the flow over a flat plate (8m) long with various free stream inlet relative velocity (U∞) which are considered the same as truck velocity and has the values (40, 60, 90, and 120) km/h. The effect of cylinder diameter (10,20,30,and 40) , rotational speed (1000-5000 r.p.m) and free stream velocity on the aerodynamic drag and pressure distribution of the flow field were investigated. The governing equations which used are the continuity, momentum, and the (K-ε) turbulence model. These equations are approximated by using a finite volume method, with staggered grid and modified SIMPLE algorithm. A computer program in FORTRAN 90 is built to perform the numerical solution.The numerical results show that, the optimum cases for inlet free stream relative velocity (U∞) values( 40,60) km/h, a significant reduction of drag coefficient equal to 80% and 77% respectively was obtained by useing a speed of rotation and diameter size equal to 5000 r.p.m and 40 cm , for (U∞) value( 90 )km/h a reduction equal to76%, and for (U∞) equal to (120) km/h a reduction equal to 60% was obtained . These optimum results lade to reduce the effect of the aerodynamic drag on the vehicle by delaying the separation zone of boundary layer and enhancing the pressure gradient of the flow field. Comparison of the results with the available previous published experimental and fluent program results was investigated.


Article
Removal of Heavy Metals Using Reverse Osmosis
ازالة المعادن الثقيلة باستخدام التناضح العكسي

Authors: Haider A. Aljendeel
Pages: 647-658
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The aim of this work is to study reverse osmosis characteristics for copper sulfate hexahydrate (CuSO4.6H2O), nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4.6H2O) and zinc sulfate hexahydrate (ZnSO4.6H2O) removal from aqueous solution which discharge from some Iraqi factories such as Alnasser Company for mechanical industries. The mode of operation of reverse osmosis was permeate is removed and the concentrate of metals solution is recycled back to the feed vessel. Spiral-wound membrane is thin film composite membrane (TFC) was used to conduct this study on reverse osmosis. The variables studied are metals concentrations (50 – 150 ppm) and time (15 – 90 min). It was found that increasing the time results in an increase in concentration of metal in permeate, feed concentration in feed vessel and recovery percent. While, it was found that water flux, rejection percent and mass transfer coefficient is decreasing with increasing operating time. Also, it was found that the permeate concentration and feed concentration in feed vessel increases with increasing feed concentration, on the contrary, water flux, the percentage of recovery, rejection percent and mass transfer coefficient decreases with increasing the concentration of feed solution. The maximum rejection of copper, nickel, and zinc salts are 96.6%, 95.7% and 98.2% respectively. The maximum recovery percentage of copper, nickel, and zinc salts are 40.8%, 41.35% and 38.44% respectively. The pure water permeability constant was calculated for TFC membrane. Key words: reverse osmosis, heavy metal, copper, nickel, zinc

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