Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2008 volume:14 issue:1

Article
Selecting the Best Locations of New Primary Schools in New Baghdad by Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems
الأختيار الأمثل لمواقع المدارس الأبتدائية الجديدة في منطقة بغداد الجديدة باستخدام التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

Authors: لمى حنا --- بشار سليم
Pages: 245-255
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Abstract

This paper deals with the using of Geographic Information Systems to build up analytical model to choose the best locations of new schools within the study area. This has been done by using satellite image of Baghdad city. Then multi themes digital maps were prepared to the study area. These can be used to update their data by using Geographic Information Systems software. Then, an analytical had been prepared to create the best probable locations, for new primary schools, depending on criteria, scientific technical specifications. Finally, we prepared layouts with geographical geometrical specifications for these proposed locations.

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Article
Tensegrity in Tensile Forces Structures
التآزرية في منشآت قوى الشد

Authors: أنس حميد --- عاطف السهيري
Pages: 257-274
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Abstract

The world witnesses in this period of time the appearance of various structural concepts. Technology and other factors helped in the development of many architectural forms that carried technological character manifested through efficiency, lightness, most of these forms are tensile structures. In spite of the fact that the use of tensile structures is still in doubt and suspicion, they started to appear in Arab countries and neighbouring regions, after they had been affected by the technological achievements of the technologically developed countries, and started to use such structures in their local buildings, especially if the factors needed to adapt such kind of structures are present on their lands, also the minds that can deal with such structures with special forces. The scientific fields had discovered a lot of in this field, but there is a gap in dealing with principles and concepts of this force and its products. This had formed our research problem. So, the study depends on describtive-analytical method in dealing with one of the basic concepts and thier biological bases which aim to give an imagination about tensile forces related to this subject -this is tensigrity concept- and its role in achieving architecture modern. The research concluded many points that throw some light on the subject of tensigrity of tensile forces stryucture.

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Article
The Campus and the Sense of Belonging to Place and Structure
الجامعة و الاحساس بالانتماء المكاني البنيوي "دور الفعل التصميمي للفضاءات الخارجية في تحقيق بنية الاتصال السيميائية للجامعة"

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Abstract

The research investigates the role of the Campus Landscape Design in achieving a complete semio-communicational structure that creates a continuous dialogue between the perceiver and the physical entity of the urban environment (through the unconscious recall of meanings and semiotic indexes implicit therein) and achieves individuals' sense of belonging to place , thereby emphasizing the human ,social and cultural role of the university and its vital contribution in building up the Whole Man .The absence of a comprehensive theoretical framework for the role of the Landscape Design in achieving a semio-communicational structure for the campus urban environment ,constitutes the main research problem.This problem arises from the lack of knowledge in the previous architectural literature in providing clear theoretical frame-work concerning the above mentioned role (as a result of literature concentration on fragmented and separate attributes) , as well as the absence of a dialectic and reasonable interrelation between architectural theories and scientific theories in the fields of Structuralism and Semiotics . In view of the problem under investigation , the aim of the present research is defined as arriving at the establishment of a comprehensive theoretical model , by which are determined the principles and mechanisms of the role of the Landscape Design in achieving a semio-communicational structure for the campus urban environment . Arriving at this aim requires the building of the theoretical framework in the light of the main research hypothesis, and eventually the extraction of the research conclusions and recommendations . The result of the research , led to clear mechanism for the role of landscape design in achieving a semio- communicational structure for the campus urban environment . This mechanism is formed by the reaction and simultaneity of the components of the three basic characteristics of place structure (cognitive , spatial and behavioral). By applying this mechanism , the designer will be able to create meaningful environments that achieve people’s sense of belonging to place .

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Article
تطوير إنتاج البلاطات الخرسانية (الشتايكر).

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Abstract

A case study had been made to investigate the reasons of the repetitive failure during concrete tiles testing. Cubes, cylinders, and prisms in addition to full-scale concrete tiles had been prepared. Half of these samples were made using the same popular concrete mix. Test results indicated that, these samples were below standard requirements. The second half of the test samples was prepared using a newly designed concrete mix. Based upon the recommended breaking load, the required flexural strength of the tiles was calculated. This mix was designed to comply a flexural strength that was recommended by specifications. Care had been also concentrated on aggregate grading and concrete curing. Tests showed positive results. In spite of this success it is still believed that there is a possibility of some failures may be due to mass production or due to bad quality control. A new proposed model had been prepared and tested. Finally these newly proposed tiles had shown that it was more resistant to breaking loads by +21% in comparison with the previous samples. This result might insure the production of safe concrete tiles.


Article
Assessing The Risk and Potential of Personal Exposure to Road Generated Pollutant Emissions Through Urban Transportation System.

Authors: Saad Issa Sarsam
Pages: 2111-2117
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Abstract

This paper presents a study to assess the degree of personal exposure to traffic generated pollutant emission along urban arterials in Mosul. The traffic flow characteristics (volume, speed, density, and vehicle type) were determined in the field at selected locations on the arterials.The vehicular traffic which includes (drivers, number of passengers in vehicles on the road, and pedestrian) exposed to road generated emissions were obtained through field survey.The vehicle emissions of CO, VOC, and NOx were calculated using air pollution estimation computer model (Mobile 4.1). It was concluded that the emission of CO, VOC, and NOx exceeds the standard level requirements. The risk arising from personal exposure to traffic generated emissions of such pollutants was analyzed and the degree of personal exposure of road users (drivers, passengers, and pedestrians) to pollutants emission along urban arterials in Mosul was determined.

Keywords

Assessment --- Emission --- Exposure --- Pollutant --- Risk


Article
Development of Pavement Condition Index Model for Flexible Pavement in Baghdad City

Authors: Suham E. Saleh --- Ghassan J. Awda --- Namir G. Ahmed
Pages: 2120-2135
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Abstract

The pavement is one of the basic components of road infrastructure and, therefore, directly influences general levels of transport safety, as well as the quality of transportation services in human and cargo traffic. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to develop the prediction model for pavement condition index (PCI) for flexible pavement. To achieve this objective, (80) selected pavement sections in four sites in the study area and (1100) sample of pavement sections were selected from these sections for the purpose of (PCI) model building. These data include ; longitudinal , transverse, alligator , slippage and block cracking , rutting ,depression , bleeding , polishing , patching and pothole . The effort to develop a (PCI) model is carried out by using a stepwise regression technique. These statistical processes are carried out with the aid of (STATISTICA – version 5.5) computer package. The validation process for the developed models shows that, this model is adequate to be used for the prediction of pavement condition for flexible pavements within the range of data.


Article
Design and Implementation A PC Based System for Circuit Testing

Authors: ZAID ALI SALMAN --- Sarkout N. Abdulla
Pages: 2137-2153
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Abstract

This thesis deals with design and implementation of PC based control unit for testing systems. The design of the system involves mainly the hardware circuits, and software. The tester carries out the following types of test Analog circuit test, Digital I.C. test, In-circuit test, and functional test. The system designed and implemented, the implemented system hardware was built around two parallel ports. The hardware includes four buffers used as IO channels addressed as Analog input (AI), Analog output (AO), Digital input (DI), and Digital output (DO). The system also includes Analog to digital converter, Digital to analog converter, and resistor testing circuit. The data to processed can be in digital or in an analog form. In the same time the hardware outputs controlling signals for testing and controlling the equipments. These signals are in digital or analog form. The implemented system software has two main user interfaces, one for selecting the mode of operation (as read or write), and activates the associated buffer. The other which included the functions of tests. For the resistor testing, I.C. testing, and circuit testing the system software compares inputs from the unit under test (UUT) with stored upper and lower limits, if the input is a value between them the test is considered successful otherwise the test fails. The software has been written in "Visual Basic" programming language running under windows® (MEXP) operating system environment and tested on the already exist hardware. The system has been tested and it worked successfully for different resistance value and different types of Digital I.C.

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Article
Antiseizure Characteristics of Leaded Aluminum Alloys under Dry Sliding Conditions

Authors: Akeel D. Subhi
Pages: 2156-2161
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Abstract

Aluminum-Silicon alloys, with soft lubricant metal, are considered to be one of the important tribological alloys which resist seizure. The effect of different lead percentages (1-20%Pb) that added to the modified eutectic Al-12%Si alloy on the wear rate and resistance was studied by sliding these alloys under dry sliding conditions on a carbon steel disc at different sliding distances (2.24-40.37 km). The results showed that the wear rate was decreased and wear resistance increased with increasing lead percentage of Al-12%Si alloy. Furthermore, wear rate was increased linearly with increasing sliding distance.


Article
Automated Approach for Color image Generation

Authors: Aminna Dahim Aboud --- Ammar A. Hassan
Pages: 2164-2172
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Abstract

We introduce a general technique for “generating” images by automatic transferring luminance and color between a source and a target images both can be in black/ white, grayscale and color images at any time. Although the general problem of adding luminance and chromatic values to a target image was not exact, so, the current approach attempts to provide a method to help minimize the a mount of human labor required for this task. This method perform the image generating rely on luminance matching techniques between the source and target pixel neighborhood, and transfer the best pixels of neighborhood matching, i .e., luminance and chromatic information from source to target. The results demonstrate this technique introduce natural-looking generating in entertaining manner and work surprisingly well for a large variety of images, no more time of frustration attempting to get just the look you want without human intervention. It is compatible with such popular image processing software as “A dobe PhotoShop”. Although this study find a new method focus only on the homogeneous images, future work will solve the problems of non-homogeneous images.


Article
Evaluation of The Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection of Carbon Steel in 0.5M Nacl Using Experimental Design

Authors: Aprael Sarkis Yaro
Pages: 2176-2182
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Abstract

This study examined the effect of Temperature (T); flow rate(F); and pH ; on the zinc consumption as sacrificial anode in cathodic protection of steel pipe carrying saline solution (i.e., 0.5 M NaCl) using a 23 factorial design. Rates of zinc consumption during cathodic protection were measured by weight loss technique and it ranges from 7.5x10-3 to 98.9x10-3 g/cm2.day. For the system under investigation, the cell responsible for cathodic protection is Zn/NaCl/Fe It was found that both temperature and flow rate increases the zinc consumption while pH decreases it sharply.It was found also that the interaction between the temperature and pH is the dominant term compared with other interactions.


Article
Password Security Via Neural Networks

Authors: Mokhtar Mohammed Hasan
Pages: 2184-2200
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Abstract

Password security and protection are one of the important research topics in modem computer systems. Providing privacy, authenticity, integrity and limited access to data, encryption methods are proposed for password security schemes. This paper proposes the use of neural network accessing the system, the system needs other information extracted from the user's password along with the password itself, these information is passed to two different neural networks to examine the authenticity of the user, and then decide whether the user is a legal user or an intruder. The extracted information can be summarized by the time period between each two successive characters in the password and the strength of strike of the user when each character is typed at login time. As a result is a powerful security scheme for password protection and the user has no wary about password being theft because the related password information can not be theft.


Article
Spot Welding Residual Stresses Assessment Using Nonlinear Numerical Technique

Authors: Faiz F. Mustafa --- Somer M. Nacy --- Nabeel K. Alsahib
Pages: 2202-2215
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Abstract

A description is given of the resistance spot welding process in terms of internal behavior of the weld as welding takes place. Heat input due to spot welding of steel sheet plate causes temperature gradient in the parent metal. After cooling, residual stresses appear around the welding zone reducing the strength. Residual stresses are a result of the temperature gradient and the dependency of material properties on the temperature, such as yield strength, elasticity modulus, and thermal expansion coefficient. Nonlinear transient heat transfer analysis performed in order to obtain the temperature distribution in the welded part .A nonlinear thermo–plastic stress analysis is then performed to predict the stress and strain fields during and after welding. The material properties such as yield strength, elasticity modulus, convection coefficient, conduction, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient are used as a function of temperature. The heat transfer results are compared with experimental results performed within the scope of work of this study. On the other hand, the residual stress results are compared with experimental result obtained from literature .The comparison shows good agreement between numerical and experimental results.


Article
A study of Influence of Vertical Vibration on Heat Transfer Coefficient From horizontal Cylinders

Authors: Majid. H. M. Al-Shorafa’a
Pages: 2218-2229
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Abstract

Electrically heated horizontal cylinders of diameters 2.15cm,3cm, and 3.8cm were vibrated vertically in stagnant air at a frequency (10,15,20Hz) and amplitude range from (0.0005m) to (.0076m). The effect of different parameters on the heat transfer ratio (hv/ho) was investigated from its outer surface. It is concluded that, heat transfer ratio increases at high frequency and small diameter. Vibration Reynolds number has good effects on heat transfer ratio. (Gr.Pr) has bad indication on heat transfer ratio at high temperature difference (high heat flow). The vibration intensity also has good influence on heat transfer.


Article
Two-Dimensional Consolidation Analysis of Partially Saturated Earth Embankment Under ITS Self Weight by Using the Finite Element Method

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Abstract

This paper studies the two-dimensional analysis of the consolidation process for partially saturated soils applied to an earth embankment mainly from the theoretical point of view. The method of finite elements is used to find a numerical solution to describe the behavior of soils during consolidation. Moreover, this study was carried for both, isothermal and non-isothermal cases. The case of two–dimensional, plane strain consolidation is considered, as it is widely needed in the studies of soil mechanics. The parameters studied are displacement in the y–direction, pore water pressure, pore air pressure, and temperature. The embankment was constructed in Basrah - Iraq, where the temperature is usually high at most days of the year. It is believed that it is more realistic to model the embankment as a partially saturated soil rather than a fully saturated soil as was done before. The study reveals that: – - The consolidation process is affected by the degree of saturation. As the paths in the soil that are used by the pore–water and/or the pore–air may transfer from one state (open path) to another state (closed path) and vice versa. - The pore–water and the pore–air pressures are affected by temperature. The pressure increases when the temperature increases (for a constant volume). This is usually the case inside the partially saturated soil. Temperature can affect indirectly the soil skeleton as a result of the change in pore–air and pore–water pressures. - The vertical displacement for partially saturated soil consolidation under self weight loading is noticed to have almost regular settlement. Then, there is an accelerated settlement due to the dissipation of the air and water pressures. After a while (after excess pressures dissipation), there will be a classical consolidation form.


Article
Biosorption of Dissolved Pb(II) in Dilute Aqueous Solutions by Using Agro-Waste Products

Authors: Ban Ali Jabi --- Mohammed Ali I. Al-Hashimi
Pages: 2257-2273
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Abstract

The potential to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions through biosorption using four raw dead plant biomasses (karab, bardie, rice hulls and corn-cobs) was investigated in batch tests and compared with that for the PAC. From tests, it was found that the four types of dead-plant biomasses had shown high removal efficiency with the descending order (karab, bardie, rice hulls and corn cobs). Their percent removal (% R) of Pb(II) were (98.76, 96.10, 95.16 and 94.70) respectively at pH 4 with 0.2 g of sorbent/100 ml of 10 ppm lead solution , while it was (99.8 %) for PAC. Generally through batch system at a laboratory scale, karab has proved to be an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions with low initial ion concentration (1–10 mg Pb(II)/ℓ) at pH (4 - 4.5). The EPA discharge limit (0.1 ppm) for lead was achieved. The biosorption rate is quite rapid and within 5 min of mixing more than 90 % of Pb(II) ions were removed by the karab biomass. Varying agitation speed has no influence on the rate of uptake and the Pb(II) uptake was not affected by karab particle size. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms described the data well. According to the evaluation using Langmuir equation, the maximum capacity q max obtined from equilibrium biosorption isotherm test was 13.2 mg/l for pb (II) . The ultimate sorption capacity KF in the Frendlich model was 3.1 .


Article
Effect of The Outlet Nozzle Diameter on The Performance of Divergent Vortex tube

Authors: H. N. Al-Rawi --- Ramzi R. Ibrahim --- Asaad T. Al-Omran
Pages: 2275-2288
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Abstract

The aim of the present work is to study the effect of different outlet nozzle diameters, by using one or two nozzles on the performance of divergent vortex tube and also to determine the effects of various parameters on the vortex tube cooling performance such as: refrigeration capacity, coefficient of performance, isentropic efficiency. The experimental investigation was carried out on a divergent vortex tube rig manufactured for the present study covering all tests. The effect of different outlet nozzle diameters ( dn= 4 mm, dn = 5 mm, and dn= 6.5 mm) on the performance of the vortex tube is described by using one nozzle or two nozzles by varying the pressure of the inlet air and cold air mass ratio (μ¬c) within the ranges (Pi abs=2 - 7 bar) and (μ¬c= 0 - 1). The outlet nozzle diameter, (dn= 5 mm), and the outlet cold diameter (dc= 10 mm), when using two nozzles, give high temperature separation and may considered to be the optimum for different pressures of the inlet air regarding all the size tube diameter. The experimental study predicts two empirical results between the outlet nozzle diameter (dn), number of nozzles (N), inside vortex tube diameter (D), and length of vortex tube (L) as: for ( N=1 ) and; for ( N=2 )


Article
Investigation of the Thermal Performance of A cross-Flow Water Cooling Tower with Different Packings

Authors: Basim A. Rasheed --- A. N. S. Kassim
Pages: 2290-2300
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Abstract

The present research involves experimental and theoretical work to study the performance of three kinds of packing (PVC, corrugated and flat plate asbestos) in a cross-flow water cooling tower under different atmospheric conditions and then comparing the performance of them with each other. The experimental work included the design, constructions and installation of a cross-flow cooling tower test rig suitable for measuring the individual coefficients (kGa) and (k'a). The experimental results were found by varying the inlet air flow rate and inlet water flow rate which are used as an input data to the computer program for finding the available performance coefficient (NTU) using the method of Webb with some modifications. Least square method was then used to correlate the experimental results of (NTU) in terms of water to air ratio (L/G).


Article
The Axisymmetric Dynamics of Isotropic Circular Plates with Variable Thickness Under The Effect of Large Amplitudes

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Rajihy
Pages: 2302-2313
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This paper presents a study of the geometrically non-linear vibrations of clamped circular plates with variable thickness by taking the effect of large amplitude motion. The maximum thickness is considered to be at the plate center and it is taken to be twice the value of thickness at the edge. The problem is solved by the numerical iteration procedure to obtain the results of vibration amplitudes up to twice the maximum plate thickness. The results are presented for the first two modes of vibration. The obtained results indicate that increasing the ratio of thickness has the effect of increasing the nonlinear frequency and modify the corresponding mode shape.


Article
Solving Problems of Unsteady – Confined Flow to Pumped Wells by Computer

Authors: Abdulhadi A. A. Al-Delewy
Pages: 2315-2329
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Abstract

In this research, a procedure to solve problems of unsteady flow to wells in confined aquifers by the computer is developed. The solution is based on the [THEIS:1935] procedure to solve such problems. The developed procedure is applied to (14) different sets of well – test data, including a predicted ideal one. The respective problems are solved completely by the computer without the need to construct or to refer to tables or nomographs; this, accordingly, deletes the role of personal judgment and the need to a high skill. The applications indicate that the developed solution procedure is simple, easy to use, elaborate, superiorly fast in giving the required results, and comparatively accurate. Despite that the developed solution procedure has been set for the case of a pumped well in an ideal confined aquifer, it is basically general; the computer program can be easily modified to fit the solution of problems of the other cases of groundwater flow to wells after introducing the additions that consider the respective boundary conditions.


Article
Comparison Study between Dubinin-red Ushkevich and Temkin Model for Adsorption of Mercury onto Activated Carbon

Authors: Hayder Mohammed Abdul-Hameed
Pages: 2331-2336
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Abstract

Activated carbon has been used as an adsorbent in this work to remove mercury from aqueous solutions. The aim of the work is to test how best activated carbon can be used as an adsorbent for mercury. Equilibrium isotherms, both, Dubinin-Redushkevich, and Temkin have been test. The batch experiments were conducted at room temperature (30oC) and at the normal pH (7.0±0.1) of the solution. HYBRID fraction error function analysis shows that the best-fit for the adsorption equilibrium data is represented by (D-R) model rather than Temkin model. Its found that the correction factor (R2) for (D-R) is 0.9928 while for Temkin model is 0.942, also the HYBRID fractional error was conducted for the both models and (D-R) model give minimum value of (0.0128) while it was (0.129) for Temkin.


Article
Ploughing of Work-Hardening Asperities by A hemispherical Slider

Authors: Ahmed Abdul Hussaim Ali
Pages: 2338-2348
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A theoretical description is given for the ploughing of a work-hardening inclined surface by a hemispherical slider. As the indenture is moving horizontally, the grooving force and the depth of penetration are expressed for conditions that correspond to the climbing and descending asperities. Assuming a constant vertical load on the slider, the friction coefficient due to ploughing, , is shown to be affected by surface inclination moreover, the limiting value of when the vertical load on slider is made infinitely small is shown to be independent upon the asperity angle and the shape of the slider. The treatment has some use in predicting the extent of surface damage in contact profilometry, especially for soft materials in particular, the depth of penetration is shown to be different when climbing or descending a surface whose inclination is .

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