Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2005 volume:11 issue:4

Article
Assessment and Development of the Solid Wastes Management in Al-Najaf City
تقويم وتطوير إدارة النفايات الصلبة البلدية في مدينة النجف

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Abstract

This project deal with the study of solid waste of AL-Najaf city which belongs to AL-Najaf Governorate, one of the important Iraqi cities which has religious interest, This study include the identification of solid waste characteristics (generation rates, physical components, moisture content , density) . The examinations have been done on the waste for eight months as a rate, for the period from December 2003 A.D. until July 2004 A.D., to take into account the changes of seasons of the year and temperature on these characteristics. The rate of collection results were of 0.420 kg/person/day for generation rate and density of waste 473 kg/m3, as to moisture content were 48%. In addition to that, a comprehensive planning system has been achieved to management the solid waste of the city including all the activities from the point of generation to final disposal in a manner that minimizes environmental impacts. This research includes, two types of solid waste collection systems will be used, the vehicles and labor requirements for each system have been calculated. This study also includes the estimate of land fill volume required for disposal of Al-Najaf city with two adjacent cities (Kufa and Al-Manatherah), from year 2004 to year 2017, and future land requirement for one combined sanitary land filling (1000x1400) m.

Keywords


Article
The Influence of Cognition in the Change of Architecture as Product
أثر الإدراك المعرفي في تغيير النتاج المعماري

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Abstract

Concepts of both "Change ", "Architecture" are explored in relation to each other on the one hand and their relation with "Man" through "the product of architecture", aiming to clarify the influence of the recipient cognition in the process of change in architectural products, and also to clarify the act of continuous change taking place in the building and its effects on both form and meaning through time. The assumption here is that change takes place in architecture when the understanding of the designed and function has been changed to a new use. This change happens when the potentials of the building (under change) has come to a state in which it is ready to accept the new situation, so it resembles the (state of physical presence) while the new objective resembles the state of absence or absent potential, depending on the cognition of the recipient to be brought to actuality to in a combination, which is one among other possibilities in function and form shown in space I place though time. Research one discusses the concepts of change and architecture by building a theoretical frame work in order to conclude the research problem, which appears in the ambiguity of knowledge about the theoretical and applicable relation between the designed and produced architecture in reality and what is produced after its change in time. It also discusses the aspects this change has, and the role of the "potentiality" in its taking place in both sides, the object, physical architectural product (a building) and the recipient subject.

Keywords


Article
Proposal Algorithms to Solve Delay -Constrained Routing Problem

Authors: Deya J. Kadhim
Pages: 621-631
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Abstract

One of the Quality of Service (QoS) routing problems is link-constrained, path constrained routing, and example of such problem is delay and bandwidth-constrained routing. Here, the proposed solution is presented through our proposal routing algorithms DCUR-AB (Delay Constraint Unicast Routing at Available Bandwidth) and ADCUR-AB (Adaptive Delay Constraint Unicast Routing at Available Bandwidth). DCUR-AB and ADCUR-AB routing algorithms are proposed to solve the most popular QoS problem (Delay-constrained routing problem). Our proposed algorithms solve this problem in addition to take into account one of the important network resource (bandwidth). From experimental results for DCUR-AB it is found that this algorithm has a limitation searching to find the optimal path with taking into account the bandwidth constrained, therefore; it is proposed here another routing algorithm called ADCUR-AB that has a wide search to find the optimal path, then a practical comparison between the two proposed algorithms results is applied and it is found that the second algorithm is better than the first one.


Article
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Solid Fuel-Rich Propellant for Ram Rocket Applications

Authors: Amer D. Zmat --- Mumtaz Y. Rejab --- Adil A. AI-Hemiri
Pages: 633-640
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Abstract

Five formulations of fuel-rich propellant consisting hydroxy-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based polymer, ammonium perchlorate (AP) and magnesium (Mg) or aluminum (Al) as additive have been processed and investigated. Theoretical calculations of flame temperature and gas composition were determined by NASA-273 computer code. The sustained ignition / combustion of such propellant is possible with long duration pyrotechnic igniters. The experimental investigations of the effect of solid particle size range and content on fuel ballistic and mechanical properties have revealed that a considerable enhancement may be obtained with fine particle size and high content percent. High air-to-fuel ratio increases the combustion efficiency in the ramjet-mode resulting in higher specific impulse.


Article
Static and Dynamic Non-Linear Soil Behaviour by the Bounding Surface Plasticity Model for Iraqi Soil

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Abstract

This paper studies the non-linear behaviour of a clayey Iraqi soil taken from Baghdad City, using the bounding surface plasticity model under static and dynamic loading. The bounding surface plasticity model needs a group of input parameters. Some of them are determined directly from triaxial and consolidation tests, while the others are evaluated from a parametric study using a computer program named EVAL.A series of advanced laboratory tests was performed after modifying and manufacturing some parts of the triaxial machine that are required for carrying out Ks-consolidated compression and extension tests. The soil test results are used in a computer program named EVAL to compute the soil properties and input parameters for the Iraqi clayey soil under consideration that are required in the bounding surface plasticity model. After the input parameters became available, one could use them in finite element computer programs for static and dynamic analyses. Two-finite element programs are chosen. The first program, named ACED used for solving coupled problems under static loading. While the second program, named DLEARN, is used for solving dynamic problem. The proposed abbreviation of Baghdad silty clay soil is (BBSC).. The program EVAL gives the input parameters for the Iraqi clayey soil that the bounding surface plasticity model needs. The values obtained of these parameters are as follows: Lamda=0.064, Kappa=0.017, Mc=1.20 , Me/Mc=0.676 , Poissons ratio=0.4 ,Rc=2.70 , Re/Rc=0.85 ,Ac=0.05 , Ae/Ac=0.8


Article
Material Nonlinear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Shell Foundations

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Abstract

Shell foundations are generally found to be economic under conditions of heavy loads and weak soils as small amount of reinforcement is needed due to occurrence of compressive stresses in most parts of the foundation. Depending upon their size, conical shells can serve as footings for columns while inverted domes shells can serve as rafts for tanks supported on a circular row of columns. This paper describes 3-D finite element models, the eight nodes degenerated shell and the twenty nodes brick elements which are used herein. The models which may be adopted in the material nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shell foundations are described briefly in this paper. The present study results give good agreement compared with available experimental values about 5% in displacements.


Article
Expert System for Group Technology

Authors: Naseer M. Abbas --- A. H. Sikhi --- Zuhair I. Ahmed
Pages: 665-681
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Abstract

Modern manufacturing enterprises are increasingly faced with fierce international competition and fluctuating market conditions. To gain flexibility from a functional manufacturing system and efficiency from mass production, group technology has emerged as an effective compromise between the two. Identification and grouping of parts, that share similar processes into cells, is the basic problem in the design of cellular manufacturing systems. The design of cellular manufacturing systems is a complex, multi - criteria and multi – step process which can have significant implication for the entire organization. The formation of machine cell and part families have a number of constraints such as number of cells, cell size, technological requirements, and any other constraints like cost and time. This research proposes an expert system called CAEGT, which controls a number of constraints during the formation of machine cells and part families by using three methods. The system was tested in a manufacturing company and it gives an efficient results.


Article
Experimental Study of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer for a Thermally Developing Air Flow in an Inclined Annulus

Authors: Ahmed J.Shkarah --- Yasin K.Salman
Pages: 683-699
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Abstract

The investigation-included experiments were conducted to investigate the local and average mixed convection heat transfer coefficient for thermally developing and fully developed hydrodynamically laminar airflow in an inclined annulus. The experimental setup, using an aluminum annulus having a radius ratio of (0.41) and the inner tube with a heated length of (0.85m) with constant wall heat flux boundary conditions. The investigation covered Reynolds number range from (332 to 1128) and heat flux varied from (82w/m2 to 545w/m2). The air is developed hydrodynamically by using the entrance section annulus (calming section) having the same inner and outer diameter as a test section but with variable lengths. The entrance sections included a long calming section with a length of 90 cm (L/Dh =20.93) and short calming section with lengths of 60 cm (L/Dh =13.95). The results obtained represent the temperature distribution along the inner tube surface, the local and average Nusselt number distributions with the dimensionless axial distance (Z+). For all annulus orientations and all entrance sections, the results show an increase in the Nusselt number values as the heat flux increases and as the angle of the inclination moves from the vertical to the horizontal position. A comparison was made between the experimental results and the available previous work of Mataira, D. and Subba Raju, K. (1975), for the local Nusselt number distribution with the dimensionless axial distance (Z+). The results obtained showed a good agreement and has the same trend that obtained in the previous work.


Article
Advanced Treatment of Textile Wastewater and Its Cost by H2o2/Uv Oxidation Process

Authors: Hayder Mohammed Abdul-Hameed
Pages: 701-705
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Abstract

Different parameters were investigated to evaluate their effect on the process removal efficiency of COD and color, by using different H2O concentration, UV power, multi-step addition of H2O2, and air bubbling. As a result, the color can be removed completely within 20 minutes, and the COD removal of approximately 90% can be achieved within 40 minutes of UV illumination. This process favors the H202 addition in one step rather than in four steps. Supply of oxygen does not enhance the process removal efficiency. The overall result indicates that the operating cost (chemical and electricity) to reduce the COD to below 80 mg/l is 0.93 US$/m3.

Keywords

COD --- oxidation --- photoreactor.


Article
Implementations Of 8x8 DCT And IDCT on Different FPGA Technologies Using the Modified Loeffler Algorithm

Authors: N. H. Abbas
Pages: 707-714
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Abstract

In this paper the hardware implementations is investing of 8x8 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT) on different Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies using the modified Loeffler algorithm. The investigations involved simulations, and synthesis of Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code utilizing recent FPGA families of Xilinx, Altera, and Lucent. The paper achieving the most demanding real-time requirements of some standardized frame resolutions and rates. Synthesis results for 8-point DCT/IDCT implementations indicate operating frequencies of 50 MHz, 60 MHz, and 22 MHz for the investigated Xilinx, Altera and Lucent FPGA chips, respectively. These frequencies allow 2193 Source Input Format (SIF) and 100 High Definition Television (HDTV) frames to be processed by the Xilinx FPGA. The resulting frame processing rates for Lucent are 877 and 40 for SIF and HDTV, while for Altera they are 647 and 29, respectively. Results indicate that the investigated FPGA implementations would speed DCT based compression algorithms up to frame rates well above the real-time requirements of SIF, International Consulting Committee on Radio & Television (CCIR-TV) and HDTV frame formats.


Article
Hydro-De-Aromatization of Paraffin Wax

Authors: Suondos K. A. Barno --- Ammar S. Abbas
Pages: 715-723
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Abstract

Iraqi paraffin wax (1.0 wt% aromatic content and 4.4 wt% oil content, Basrah origin) was hydrotreated over commercial Pt-Re/y-Al2O3 catalyst in order to study aromatic removal reaction (de-aromatization) kinetics. Reaction temperature varied from 453 to 533 K over a liquid hourly space velocity from 0.5 to 4.2 h-1. Hydrogen pressure was kept constant throughout all the experiments at 3.6 Mpa with hydrogen to wax ratio about 400 m3/m3. Kinetics analysis showed that the hydro-de-aromatization reaction followed a second order kinetics model. Energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation of hydro-de-aromatization reaction were 17.2 kJJ/mole, 13.1 kJ/mole and -16.9 J/mole K, respectively.


Article
Transient Flow in a Rectangular Open Channel

Authors: Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi --- Jafar M.Hassan
Pages: 725-739
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Abstract

In this paper, the transient flow in a rectangular open channel has been studied for different conditions. The velocity and depth of water have been calculated at different sections in the channel. A computer program (Channel) was developed to solve the mathematical model using characteristic method .The initial conditions have been calculated using Runge-Kutta method.


Article
The Influence of Reynolds Number and Temperature on the Mass Transfer Coefficient of the Corroding Pipe

Authors: Basim O. Hasan --- Q.J.M. Slaiman
Pages: 741-750
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Abstract

Corrosion of carbon steel pipe in aerated O.l N NaCl solution under isothermal turbulent flow conditions (Reynolds number= 15000-113000 and temperature of 30-60°C) is investigated by weight loss method. The effect of Reynolds number and temperature on corrosion rates is experimentally studied and discussed. Corrosion mechanism is analyzed as a mass transfer operation and the corrosion rate is expressed in terms of mass transfer dimensionless groups (Sh and St) and in terms of usual corrosion units. The results of corrosion rates are compared with many proposed models particularly those based on the concept of analogy among mass, heat, and momentum transport by determining experimental friction factor. The capability of these models to express corrosion rates over the investigated range of Re and temperature is examined and discussed. Many of these correlations are adopted to estimate corrosion rates for the considered system. It is found that Reynolds number increases the corrosion rate depending on temperature. Temperature increases the corrosion rate for high and moderate values of Reynolds number. At low Reynolds number the effect of temperature depends on oxygen solubility, oxygen molecular diffusivity, and Reynolds number (or eddy diffusion). Generally, Von Karman and Prandtl- Taylor analogies (based on the experimental friction factor) show good agreement with experimental mass transfer results while Chilton-Colburn analogy exhibits reasonable agreement at low Reynolds number and some overestimation at high Reynolds number.


Article
Human Face Recognition Using Gabor Filter and Self Organizing Map Neural Network

Authors: Mohamed Fadhel --- Tarik Zeyad
Pages: 751-758
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Abstract

This work implements the face recognition system based on two stages, the first stage is feature extraction stage and the second stage is the classification stage. The feature extraction stage consists of Self-Organizing Maps in a hierarchical format in conjunction with Gabor Filters and local image sampling. The next stage is the classification stage, and consists of self-organizing map neural network; the goal of this stage is to find the similar image to the input image. The proposal method algorithm implemented by using C++ packages, this work is successful classifier for a face database consist of 20 people with six images for each person.


Article
Flow Calculations for a Two-Dimensional Irrigation Nozzle

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Abstract

The most efficient nozzle is generally considered to be that for which the discharge coefficient is nearly unity. Nozzle dimensions influence the discharge coefficient. In sprinkler irrigation systems there are many types of nozzles because any sprinkler irrigation system has special one depend on these system characteristics, so the discharge coefficient relation with nozzle dimensions must be known to the sprinkler irrigation system designer. A computer program for nozzle flow characteristic was built and the relation between the discharge coefficient (Cd) and the nozzle geometrical dimensions to reach to the best nozzle design was studied. The finite difference approach was introduced to carryout all computations with special grid arrangement. The steady state Navier-Stocks equations complemented with (k - ε) turbulence models were solved. These work calculations were for nozzle of convergent part with some angle (3.7° -7.7°) followed by straight part (tip part). Three values were taken for the convergent part length; three for tip part length and the nozzle diameter changed for three values also. The Reynolds number range was 1.95 x 10^5 < Re < 3.9 x 10^5 and Fortran 95 computer program language was used. The results gave good imaging to the relation between nozzle dimensions and the discharge coefficient, where the major result was increasing the tip length is allowing the boundary layer to growth and hence increasing its thickness and so discharge coefficient decreasing. Comparison of the results with ANSYS package shows that the present numerical method was accurate enough and might be used to predict the discharge coefficient for the sprinkler irrigation system nozzle.


Article
Different Approaches to Estimate the Suction Head at the Wet Front in the Green and Ampt Water Infiltration Equation

Authors: Nameer T. Mahdi --- Abbas H. Thiab --- Mahdi I. Aoda
Pages: 775-785
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This study was conducted to estimate the suction head at the wetting front τw in the Green and Ampt infiltration equation using uniformly packed soil columns of three different - textured soils. Four different approaches were used for this estimation. Cumulative depths of infiltration I along with the visual wet front advance Z was recorded with time t. Soil water content profiles were also obtained by which the sharpness of the wet front was tested using an empirical model adopted from van Genuchten (1980) model for soil moisture-suction head relation. The Green and Ampt equation did fit the infiltration data very well with significant correlation of its parameter K1 with the physical measure of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks. Four different methods were used to estimate τw: from fitting the Green and Ampt equation to infiltration data (I vs. t), numerical integration using hydraulic conductivity as a function of suction head K(τ) in the basic definition equation of defining τw, numerical integration using conductivity as a function of volumetric water content K(θ), and from the soil sorptivity S evaluated from early time infiltration data using Philip one-term equation alons with Green and Ampt equation for horizontal infiltration. No significant differences were found between these four methods in estimating τw at 0.01 level. Significant differences, however, were found at the same level between the values of τw for the three soils as it was expected.


Article
An Empirical Correlation to Estimate Solid Stresses For Differentially Stuck Pipes

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A new correlation to calculate the solid stresses at the contact face between the pipe and the mud cake, for the case of differential pipe sticking (DPS), is developed. The proposed correlation takes into consideration the effect of setting (contact) time, thickness of mud cake, and viscosity of mud filtrate on the behavior of the solid stresses. A good match is obtained between the present correlation, the measured values, and Terzaghi trend for calculating the resulted solid stresses. This in turn leads to estimate the minimum force required to free the stuck pipe.

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