Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2009 volume:15 issue:2

Article
Pozzolanic Activity Index of Local Feldspar
معامل الفعالية البوزولانية للفلدسبار المحلي

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Abstract

The paper presents an experimental research on pozzolanic activity index of local feldspar obtained from quarries near Al-Najaf lake in comparison an imported microsilica. The feldspar in ground to a very fine powder (1200m2/kg) on Blaine scale. The experiments were made according to ASTM C-311-02. It is found that the pozzolanic activity index of local feldspar is (97%) compared to (92%) for microsilica, which indicates that feldspar can be used for making high performance or compact concrete.


Article
Originality and Modernity of the Iraqi Rural House A Case Study of the New Anna
الاصالة والمعاصرة في المسكن الريفي العراقي –دراسة في مساكن قضاء عنة الجديدة

Authors: تغريد حامد علي
Pages: 644-665
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Abstract

Designs of the traditional rural houses of Iraq are considered as a school in presenting successful designs and Solutions. This is because these designs are from the environment of Iraq rural community and its traditions and attitudes .The hypothesis of this research is that the traditional design of the rural house is in change. The problems of the researches is that change leading to loosen the distinct identity, soiling the general view and the appearance of conflict and opposition. This change can be contributed to several factors relating to the conditions of the urban development which are so speedy and are not under the prior planning. Results of this research indicated that the rural house natural environmental which consists with the hard, hot, daily deviation of temperature, hot wind and dust factors, and at the same time, cold winter , high rains and high level of humidity . In the other hand, the rural house is consistent with the social environment by depending on common practices and traditions and attitudes. The research is aimed to return to the past, taking thoughts from it, manipulate these to use in solving the problems of our rural society. The recommendations are not a call to return back to the tradition from work of pure past and go away from modernity, and at the same time it is not a call to separate from all the tradition practices, and accepting all the modern and new practices, it is a call to matching the originality and modernity to support our district identity.

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Article
مقترح بناء نظام اداري لاختيار اسلوب التعاقد المناسب لاسلوب المقاول العام في قطاع التشييد

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Abstract

Among the most important problems which faced us is the wide use of old approach , particularly the traditional approach ( general contractor ) and the bill of quantity contract which works according to the general conditions of civil engineering works contracts sponsored by FIDIC and ministry of planning , so It became necessary to look for certain contract rules to be used as a substitute suited all conditions and cases after concluding lessons from the local experiments in rebuilding issues . This research aims at analyzing the subject of time and cost factor taking in consideration the effect all the effective factors which leads to increase the cost and time . A scientific methodology was followed in both theoretical and practical phases of the study . The study concentrated on a detailed statistical analysis of the study was incorporated using questionnaire and interview method to evaluate the effective factors directly or indirectly on contract method At the end certain conclusions and recommendations were drawn as developing managerial system for selecting satisfy contract method

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Article
The Influence of Dynamic Envelopes on the Efficiency of Thermal Performance of Hot – Arid Zones Buildings
أثر الأغلفة الديناميكية على كفاءة الأداء الحراري لأبنية المناطق الحارة – الجافة

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Abstract

This research studies the subject of finding efficient climatic buildings whose envelops are characterized by a high dynamic movement that enables them to react and integrate in accordance with seasons’ changing in our hot – arid zones. The importing of architectural thoughts and the emergence of new techniques have led to the evolution of an intellectual and urban trend that disagrees with the least environmentally and urbanely characteristics of these regions, and consequently, the evolution of a kind of architecture that does not belong to its environmental reality, therefore, it has stopped in between the non-considering of the environment and the keeping up with the western intellect and between confining to traditional architecture. Thus, the architect’s thought and designs should be based on the deep understanding of the current potentialities of the age concerning choosing the suitable materials and investing what others has reached concerning the suitable technical and epistemic progress along with making use of and inspiring from our rich architectural heritage and all what it contains concerning a comprehensive and deep understanding of the climatic problems, and at the same time, these thoughts and designs belong to its environment and utilizing its surrounding geographical and climatic features to reach to the drawing of futuristic paths in establishing a harmonious and balanced with the surrounding environment to achieve the equation of thermal balance for our buildings and then putting architecture on its right environmental way. The research takes the problem through balancing between the employment of modern techniques in a simply way on one hand, and the use of the natural climatic design methods on the other hand, in order to establish dynamic buildings that imitate the severe climatic changes in the hot – arid areas during the year, and then by raising the level of the buildings futuristic architectural designs since these buildings explore and imitate the future and already interacting with it by the present information and at the same time inspire from the architecture of the past and make use of it in a contemporary style, in order to reach to the formation of a kind of architecture that is conditioned with the surrounding climatic conditions and is capable of resistance in the future. The importance of the research’s subject is that it supports the worldwide interest of modern technology, and at the same time, it imitates traditional architecture through constructing dynamic buildings responding to the surrounding climatic changes.


Article
Variable Voltage - Frequency Control of a Single Phase Induction Motor Driven by SHEPWM Inverter
السيطرة على مسوق محرك حثي أحادي الطور مغذى من عاكس يعمل بتقنية SHPWM باستخدام طريقة التردد و الجهد المتغيرين

Authors: Ali Hussein Abdul-Jabbar
Pages: 3572-3582
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Abstract

Single phase AC induction motors are one of the widely used motors in the world, yet relatively little woke has been done in the applications of power electronic converter to these motors to achieve variable speed operation. When variable speed is required, it is usually achieved either by using auto transformer or by switching between two or more fixed winding configurations. The motor is analyzed as an unbalanced two phase system to determine the torque that can be expected under variable frequency control. The performance of capacitor-run single phase induction motor used in SHEPWM adjustable speed drives in the steady-state is investigated. The supply voltage-frequency law for the motor is selected in such a way as to insure a correct operation of the motor over the whole speed range.

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Article
Dowel Action between Two Concretes
الفعل الوتدي بين خرسانتين

Authors: Hakim S. Muhammed --- Nazar K. Oukaili --- Husain M.Husain
Pages: 3583-3605
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Abstract

This paper reports eight tests in which in-plane shear forces are applied across the joint between two different concretes forming a composite action. Shear can be transmitted across the joint either by interlocking of the aggregate particles protruding from each face or by shearing of the reinforcement crossing the joint. Tests are conducted on initially cracked specimens by depending only on dowel action. The results of the tests are compared with theoretical results of the exponential equation presented by Millard and Johnson. The computer program of Al-Shaarbaf using the nonlinear behavior of concrete is used to perform the analysis with inclusion of the exponential equation for dowel action in the interface layer. The program uses 20-node brick elements with embedded bar elements. This program is also applied to Hofbeck et al. tests. The comparison shows that the experimental and the analytical results give good agreement where the difference between the two is between (2.5-5)% . The use of the exponential equation gives good results when the concrete is assumed to be initially cracked as in construction joints.


Article
Stability Index of the Treated Water from Al-Karkh and Al-Rasheed Water Treatment Plants in Baghdad City

Authors: Mohammed Abdul- Khalek --- Awatif Soaded Alsaqqar
Pages: 3606-3619
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Abstract

An analysis was performed on the treated water from two water treatment plants in Baghdad city. This analysis was used to evaluate the stability of the treated water from these plants and that will flow in the distribution system to consider its corrosivity. The variation in water stability with time and distance from the north to the south of Baghdad was indicated. The analysis showed that the flowing water in the distribution system in Baghdad is corrosive to very corrosive water by calculating Ryznar stability index (RI). In Al- Karkh WTP in the north, RI maximum ranged between 7.958 to 9.403 where RI minimum ranged between 7.03 to 7.915. Where in the south Al-Rasheed WTP, RI maximum ranged between 7.119 to 8.63 and RI minimum ranged 6.679 to 7.994. The corrositivity of water decreased in the water flowing down stream. The water quality parameters affecting RI was discussed which were calcium, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and pH.


Article
Alkylation of Benzene with Long Chain Olefins Over Solid-Acid Catalyst

Authors: Ali M. Ridha --- Abdul Halim A. K. Mohammed
Pages: 3620-3632
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Abstract

This investigation is concerned with the linear alkylbenzene production reaction by the alkylation of benzene with long chain olefins C10-C13 over various prepared solid acid catalysts. The alkylation process was studied at different reaction temperature, Weight hourly space velocities and with constant pressure and benzene/olefin ratio. The liquid-phase of alkylation of benzene with olefins carried out over prepared tungstophosphoric acid supported on SiO2 with 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt. % loading catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. Prepared tungstophosphoric acid supported over silica catalyst with 30 % loading gave the highest conversion of olefin to linear alkylbenzene (94% conversion) at 398K and 5h-1. The study of the kinetics of benzene alkylation with olefins over these prepared catalysts reveals that the reaction is second order. The value of Thiele modulus for each prepared catalysts is lower than 0.4 which means that diffusion free regime and the surface reaction is the limiting step for the alkylation process.

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Article
Transmission of a Multiplexed Eight Channels Subcarrier Optically Intensity Modulated Based on Microcontroller.
إرسال ثمان قنوات ممتزجة بطريقة تضمين الشدة للناقل الثانوي مستنداً على المسيطر الدقيق

Authors: Hani J. Kbashi --- Husam A. Mohammed
Pages: 3633-3640
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Abstract

An optical fiber communication system for transmitting eight time division multiplexed analog signals each of bandwidth of 500 Hz was designed and implemented. The system utilizes the 8051 microcontroller as a parallel to serial converter in the transmitter side and parallel to serial converter in the receiver side in addition to the control process of the multiplexer and demultiplexer in both sides and for serial transmission via its RS232. The transmitted signal is subcarrier intensity modulated using the Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation technique with a carrier of 20 MHz. A laser diode of the type HFCT-5205 at 1300 nm wavelength was used as an optical carrier generator with an emitted optical power of -10 dBm, and a HFCT-S205 InGaAs/InP PIN Photodiode with responsivity of 0.36 A/W at the receiver side. A single mode fiber of (42 km) length was used as a tranasmission channel. This system can be utilized in the TDM fiber telephone lines often operating at higher rates such as T3 (44.7 Mbps), T3C (91 Mbps) and above.


Article
Color Satellite Images Denoising using Wavelets

Authors: Hawrra H.Abbas Al-Rubiae
Pages: 3642-3656
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The satellite image is multi band image,the first three bands have the largest wavelength and image information and usually contain noise due to different reason such as image band acquisition or transmission. In this paper an adaptive method implemented to denoising the satellite image by using the Haar wavelet transform applied to the principle components bands of the satellite image. The image denoising by Haar wavelet transform is applied on the first band(PC1).This band has found contain about 90% of the image information, in this case the time required for processing and storage size are reduced ,and the image appearance are more suitable than the processing the image bands directily.


Article
The Used of Dental Radiographic Image Analysis in Identification of Deceased Individuals
استخدام نماذج تحليل صور اشعة الاسنان في التعرف على هوية الموتى

Authors: Ahmed A.H.Hindy --- Hana' S.Basheer
Pages: 3666-3672
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Abstract

Dental records recently used in forensic medicine to help in human identification, based mainly on radiograph images. The aim of our study is to automate this process , using image analysis and pattern recognition techniques. Postmortem radiographs, including dental radiographs, with a database of ante mortem radiographs searching , in order to get the closest match with respect to some distinct features. Contours of teeth are used as the feature for matching, since they remain more invariant over time compared to some other features of the body . The work include two stages: radiograph segmentation, with pixel classification , and contour matching. Probability model is used to describe the distribution of object pixels in the image. Results of retrievals on database of over 40 images are encouraging.

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Article
Modeling the Distribution of (BOD) and (TDS) in Part of Tigris River within Baghdad

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A multi-cells in serial model was developed to simulate the distribution of pollutants (which are BOD5 and TDS) in Tigris river between Al-A'imma bridge and Al-Jumhuria bridge ,a reach which is about (9 km) length within Baghdad city; this includes four sewage pumping stations untreated discharged to the river. This region was divided into eleven cells of different volumes. The model was operated using the field data, which were obtained from the results of laboratory test of samples which were collected from twelve stations in the river and four sewage pumping stations located within the study region twice a month from 15/11/2005 to 30/4/2006. Verification of the simulation model was accomplished by its application to predict the substances concentrations observed. A package program of differential equation were applied to obtain the concentrations of parameters and modeling the water quality, it was concluded that the concentrations of pollutants were increased at the discharge points in the river, the concentration of BOD5 reached 140ppm at 1.4km from the beginning of the study region, 170ppm at 5km, 160ppm at 6.5km and 155ppm at 7.5km, then BOD5 became within the acceptable values in the other regions and finally it reaches the acceptable value after the last discharge point (7.8km) from the beginning of the study region, TDS was within the acceptable range except at 5km it reaches 1100ppm. sewage pumping stations shouldn't set at high discharge rate (12 hr/day) to decrease the pollutants concentrations in Tigris river in order to keep these concentrations within the acceptable values specially at low flow of the river (250 m3/sec). By using Surfer program to show the distribution of model results (obtained from the previous program) and the field results (which were obtained from the laboratory tests) and to compute the comparison between them.

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Article
Numerical Analysis of Controlled Modulus Column Foundation System Supported Embankments

Authors: Zainab Ahmed Alkaissi
Pages: 3691-3709
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The objective of this research is to present the numerical analysis of deep foundation system namely controlled modulus columns (CMC) for support of embankments. This paper describes the analysis modeling used for CMC foundation system using the finite element method. The elasto-plastic finite element model used to simulate the embankment soil foundation has been verified against field data. The results obtained from this study showed that the effect of CMC could be negligible when the soil strength increased in terms of its angle of internal friction. With low values of internal friction angle, the CMC reduce the potential of surface deformation about 12%. The values of surface deformation decreased with column diameter until it reach constant value at (0.5m) where less than this values the reduction in deformation could be negligible or have insignificant effect. The maximum deformation was observed at the middle of embankment, also the deformation at the embankment foundation reduce by about (17%) when take into consideration the CMC in soil embankment foundation.


Article
Developing a Computer Program for Modeling the Stadia Meausrements for Tacheometry Works

Authors: Afrah M. Daham --- Asma Th. Ibraheem
Pages: 3710-3730
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Tacheometry is used to measure the lengths of traverse sides, to check the more accurate taped distances in order to uncover gross errors or mistakes and to determine differences of elevation between points. It's most general use is found in the compilation of planimetric and topographic maps by field methods alone, by which distances, elevations and directions to points are to be determined from field control points whose positions have been established by a higher order of accuracy. The principles of stadia measurement by use of the transit or theodolite or total station is one of the main method of tacheometry. This paper presents the principles of stadia measurement and a computer program MSM (Modeling the Stadia Measurements). The program is formulated and written by using the Visual Basic language, Version 6. This version of the language is objecting oriented provided with comprehensive tools to simplify the task of programming and to provide the programmer with wide range of options for design of the user interface system.


Article
Performance Evaluation of Thermal Storage Porous Wall with Vents using Passive Solar Energy

Authors: Hussein K. Saleem --- Saad M. Saleh
Pages: 3730-3742
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The performance of thermal storage porous wall with vents (gravel material) is analyzed for passive solar heating system under Baghdad climatic conditions by comparing it with conventional wall (Concrete wall) for a variety of control strategies. The variation has been calculated during a period of heating season for three months from December (1999) to February (2000) by using computer simulation with MATLAB language (Ver.6.5). A mathematical model containing the governing differential equations of heat transfer through the wall and glazing under unsteady heat flow was performed by using “control volume” technique to obtain the temperature distribution within the wall. The study was carried out for a south facing vertical wall and the effect of different thicknesses, porosities, effect of insulation and glazing layers and effect of vents was also investigated.


Article
Generation and Simulation of Meshing for Involute Helical Gears

Authors: Mansour Ali Ismael --- Mohammad Qasim Abdullah
Pages: 3743-3755
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A new method for generation and simulation of meshing for involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for generation are based on the imaginary application of two rack-cutters one for pinion and the other for gear generation. The proposed simulation of meshing of aligned and misaligned helical gears gives (i) the shift of the bearing contact (real contact path) on pinion and gear tooth surfaces, (ii) the function of transmission errors.


Article
Experimental Perspective Assessments for a Proper Refrigerant Alternative to R-22 in a Window-Type Air Conditioning Unit
وجهة نظر لتقييم تجريبي لاستخدام مائع تثليج مناسب بديلاً لفريون-22 في وحدة تبريد هواء من النوع الشباكي

Authors: Ameera Yaseen Salim --- Ali Hussain Tarrad
Pages: 3756-3775
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The present research is concerned with the future phase-out of halocarbon types of refrigerants used in the vapor compression refrigeration systems. A window-type air conditioner is selected for the tests to be conducted with two different refrigerants. It is well known that these cooling units are wide spread in their applications and are circulating R-22 as a refrigerant. It is intended to replace this type of refrigerant by another type which is considered to be as environmental friendly refrigerant for smooth operation. The refrigerant selected for this object was R-407C for its favorable thermal properties and acceptable pressure and temperature ranges. The effect of replacing this refrigerant as a substitute on the performance of the cooling unit was studied. The performance characteristics comprise of cooling capacity (Q evap ), power consumed by the compressor (W ̇_cons ) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air conditioning unit were obtained. The results showed that the pressure ratio of the R-407C for a proper operation was higher than that of the R-22 by a mean value of (13) %. The power consumed per ton of refrigeration by the unit when circulating R-407C was about (19) % greater than the R-22 values for the whole range of tests. Further, the experimental work has revealed that the actual COP of the unit was reduced by (17) % when circulating the alternative R-407C for the test conditions. The results also showed that this alternative for the present refrigerant with existing cooling unit requires the attention to the mass flow rate of refrigerant circulated and the pressure and temperature ranges throughout the system.


Article
Analysis of Approximated Curved Cracks in Homogeneous and Graded Materials

Authors: Hayder Fanoos Neamah
Pages: 3777-3792
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In this paper two stages of analysis are studied. In stage I, the influence of crack shape on the crack-tip stresses, critical loads and subsequent propagation direction is investigated via a simple analytical model for cracks in homogeneous materials. This model is verified through finite element simulations using ANSYS. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of mechanical energy release rate and crack deflection angle may be obtained from a smaller number of crack shape parameters. In stage II, this concept is extended to curved cracks in functionally graded materials (FGMs).It is common that analytical and computational models of fracture in FGMs have focused almost extensively on straight cracks. If it can be demonstrated that straight cracks give an adequate approximation of curved cracks in graded materials, then the existing solutions for straight cracks provide a sufficient foundation for fracture analysis of FGMs. On the other hand, if straight cracks do not adequately approximate curved cracks in FGMs, then the development of solutions for non straight cracks in graded materials is priority. Three cracks shapes approximations are performed to compare with the actual crack in isotropic and graded materials. The crack propagation and the SIFs were simulated using finite element method. It was concluded that piecewise linear crack shapes provide a significantly better approximation than straight crack shapes. Accordingly, analytical solutions for piecewise linear cracks in graded materials would be very useful, and should be a focus of future work in this area.

Keywords

SIF --- FGM --- Fracture mechanics --- FEA --- ANSYS


Article
Parametric Study of Laminar Natural Convection in Glazing Enclosure

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Toima --- Karima E. Amori
Pages: 3793-3811
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This work includes a numerical investigation of steady two dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer in glazed rectangular enclosure at different tilt angles ranged from (0° to 90°) for Rayleigh number (10^3-10^6), aspect ratios(4,5, and 8),and Prandtl number (0.7). The study considers the effect of different boundary conditions on the heat transfer within the enclosure. The continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation are solved by developing a numerical model based on finite volume method using SIMPLE algorithm with hybrid scheme to compute the velocity vectors, temperature, pressure, and Nusselt No. (local and average). Results show an increase in heat transfer rate with increasing of Rayleigh number, and for low Rayleigh numbers, the conduction is the dominant heat transfer mode. At Ra= 10^3, the mean Nusselt number remains constant around unity for all cases. The tilt angle has the major effect on the heat transfer for Rayleigh number larger than 10^4. A comparison of the present results with previously published data is conducted, and good agreement is seen to indicate the effectiveness and flexibility of the developed numerical procedure.


Article
Split Assignment With Transportation Model for Job-Shop Loading (Case Study)

Authors: Khallel Ibrahim Mahmoud
Pages: 3812-3830
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The aim of this paper, is to analyze the assignment problem in industry where the constraint of allowing to allocate only one job to each machine is relaxed. Thus, splitting the job is permitted and processed by more than one machine. The problem is demonstrated with a real life case study. We solved the problem by splitting the jobs and converting lot of jobs as well as the actual hours of each machine to Standard Machine Hours (SMH). Transportation model is also suggested to overcome the problem, and the optimum solution is obtained by using POM software.


Article
The Effect of Temperature and Acid Concentration on Polarization Resistance for a Corrosion Reaction Under Activation Control

Authors: Aprael Sarguis Yaro
Pages: 3831-3839
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The effect of temperature ( 30,40,50,and 60°C) on the polarization resistance (Rp) has been analyzed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1,3, and 5N HCl solution in absence & presence of phenylthiourea(PHTU) as corrosion inhibitor.The polarization resistance was measured at above mentioned conditions using BETACRUNCH program developed by Green and Gandi[Green,1982]. i.e; Values of applied current densities at potentials of +20,+10,-10 mv and then -20,+10,-10mV(SCE) from corrosion potentials were used to obtain corrosion parameters: iCorr ,ba bc followed by applying the equation: Rp = ( ba bc )/ 2.303 x iCorr.( ba + bc ).It is observed that: (i) for a certain acid concentration the polarization resistance decreased with increase in temperature and/or decrease in inhibitor concentration.(ii) for a certain temperature, the polarization resistance decreases with an increase in acid concentration in presence and absence of inhibitor.


Article
Site Assessment Guidance a Case Study (Ouireej Scrap Yard)

Authors: Jathwa A. Ibraheem
Pages: 3840-3854
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Scrap metal export is currently one of the few thriving industries in Iraq. Looters and legitimate operators are together effectively demolishing many of the old industrial facilities in order to retrieve the metal contained in buildings, processes and storage equipments and vehicles. The mixing of civilian and military scrapping operations such as that occurring at Ouireej is exacerbating the problem. The situation is particularly difficult for Iraq, given the rapid growth of the scrap industry and the lack of security. In view of the current difficulties, the focus was on practical short to medium term improvements such as controlling access to sites, land use zoning, licensing and export controls. The wholesale reform of the scrap metal industry to improve environmental practices, whilst desirable, is also probably not feasible in the short to medium term. The remediation of working scrap sites, such as Ouireej is also probably unfeasible at present. Laboratory analysis of shallow soil detected contamination by PCBs, mineral oil and heavy metals, principally copper, lead, antimony and Zinc. The detected levels of all contaminants were relatively low. But PCB contamination was relatively widespread, being detected in eight soil samples with a maximum concentration of 23 μg/kg. Laboratory analysis of rainwater ponds on the site indicated marginal contamination by heavy metals and mineral oils.


Article
Radar Parameter Generation to Identify the Target

Authors: F.D.Umara --- A.K. Sharief --- W.A. Mahmoud
Pages: 3855-3867
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Due to the popularity of radar , receive often “ hear “ a great number of other transmitters in addition to their own return merely in noise . The dealing with the problem of identify and / or separating a sum of tens of such pulse trains from a number of different sources are often received on the one communication channel. It is then of interest to identify which pulses are from which source , based on the assumption that the different sources have different characteristics .This search deals with a graphical user interface (GUI) to generate the radar pulse in order to use the required radar signal in any specified location.

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