Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2005 volume:11 issue:2

Article
Dispersion of Conservative Pollutants in Diyala River Applying One Dimensional Model

Authors: Shaima Ahmed Rasheed --- Sabah Anwar Dawood
Pages: 213-219
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Abstract

A study concerns the dispersion of pollutants in Diyala River using one-dimensional finite difference technique (implicit method) to solve the simplified dispersion equation. The model starts at Diyala barrage and extend to the confluence of the Tigris - Diyala Rivers, and for 203-km length. The simplified dispersion model results were verified by comparison with the analytical solution for different time increments. The calibration of the model was conducted on 31/11/1998 using measured data (discharge, velocity, cross sectional area, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (CL), and sulfate (SO4) concentrations at the same day and results indicated a good agreement between the computed and measured data. The verification of the model is accomplished on (13/12/98, 27/12/98, 10/1/99, 25/1/99) and the results indicates also the accuracy of the applied model to simulate the conservative salts (TDS, CL, So4) in the river.


Article
Formulation and Simplification of Data Input and Output for Group Technology Technique in Cellular Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Zouhair I. A. Al-Daoud
Pages: 221-233
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Abstract

In most of the group technology approaches the formulation and simplification of date entry has been ignored. This has lead to difficulties and complexity for the end-user of the group technology, especially in the cases where the number of machines and components are large and complex. The way the data are inputted are in the form of a 0-1 matrix, which is quite difficult, troublesome, and error creation is possible in their entry, even with double-checking in their input. Also for output results, as it is given in the form of the 0-1 matrix and left to the end-user to interrupt instead of giving the results in a such a way that it could be used by the end-user directly. In this paper, a systematic formulation of data input and output is introduced so as to make easier for the users to enter their data as simple as possible and with minimum error occurrence, especially in the cases where there are considerable number of machines and components to be dealt with. And also use the results directly without any further interpretation. The proposed system for data entry and output interruption has been applied and then implemented in two different companies with easiness and apparition of end-user in terms of data input, Minimum corrections, simple and direct usage of outputs without further interpretation.


Article
Theoretical Estimation of Strength of Over Lap Joining of Sheets

Authors: Ahmed M. Almukhtar
Pages: 235-245
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Abstract

One of the main purposes of this study is to understand the reasons of determining the standard of the parameters of overlap spot welding test, which is based on the thickness and overlap distances. The overlap joint is the most convential joining for the spot and riveting joint. The analysis of riveted and welded connection involves so many indeterminate factors that an exact solution is impossible. Nevertheless, by making certain simplifying assumption the most significant of these assumptions is that when the applied load passes through the centroid of the spotted region and the rotation angle will be small. By using the classical fracture theory, Misses and bending beam theory. The result which explain the behavior of the junction to the applied load, and to the rotational angle which depend on the yield strength of the base metal and on the maximum load of the welded joint. The different parameters were affected on the rotation of the welded joint and fracture load. Here, "failure" of the test sample is defend as the "fracture initiation", which corresponds to the peak load as discussed earlier. Two theories were applied with simple assumptions which used to reach the final formula in which suitable for lap welded joint. Also the mechanism of fracture and notation of crack have been examined.


Article
A Proposed Design for R.C Blast Resistant Barriers

Authors: Raad Al-Azawi --- Thamir Al-Azawi
Pages: 247-261
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Abstract

In this study proposed design for reinforced concert barriers in industrial units is presented. The barriers are deemed to mitigate the hazards of internal explosions to protect the surroundings. The Technical Manual (TM5-1300) for fortified structures recommends the use of lacing reinforcement barrier walls when the plastic rotation exceeds a specified limit. Such reinforcement is essential in shear design but it needs special skill and additional cost. To avoid using lacing reinforcement, walls of grillage system is proposed in this study to reduce the plastic rotation of the panels. The Panels are designed to respond plastically, while the grillage members respond elastically. This advantageous from recruiting point of view since only the blast – damaged panels may be repaired. Results have showing that the (SDOF) analysis method as recommended by the (TM5-1300) [D.C., 1992] gives an upper bound solution as compared with the (F.E) method. Cubicles of ribbed walls show higher blast resistance and exhibits smaller plastic support rotation of panels than that of flat-sided walls. The minimum thickness required to avoid using lacing reinforcement have been obtained for different cases of grillage arrangements and charge weights.


Article
Assessment of Equivalent Grain Diameter for Soil Specific Surface Determination

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Abstract

A procedure is presented to calculate an equivalent diameter for soil grains to be used to calculate the specific surface of the soil. The typical grain size distribution curve is expressed as a normal probability distribution cumulative curve and the frequency corresponding to the equivalent diameter is accordingly found. This frequency is adopted as the percent finer corresponding to the equivalent diameter. A relation is given for the calculation of the specific surface using the equivalent diameter. Grain size distribution curves of many soil samples are collected. A value for the specific surface of each soil is determined summing the surface area of subintervals in the distribution curve. The values of specific surface obtained from these gradation curves are compared to those calculated using the proposed values of the equivalent diameter for each soil. The results have shown good agreement for using the equivalent diameter that presented in this paper to determine the specific surface for soils instead of using the usual long procedure.


Article
CAD/NC Integration with the OOP Suport

Authors: Moonier M. Yousif --- Kasim M. Daws
Pages: 290-305
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Abstract

Now Days: large and small manufacturing companies own several numerically controlled (NC) lathe machine. They are finding that NC/CNC machines can make a dramatic saving possible. Certain aspects of NC/CNC shop operations require a high skilled operator level than conventional method, so that the need to develop a computerized technology to support the adoption of these machines and get the maximum benefits that’s offer is highly recommended. The present work aims to develop such system that stand over the most modern available technologies to support this task. The system database is used to organize the factory data. The database hold factory lathe machines definition at current state tooling and the available tools and materials with the recommended machining parameters for each machine-tool-material combinations. The developed system is interactive supported with a powerful graphics package (AutoCAD) which gives the system user the ability to describe the part manufacturing process through direct manipulation of the part and stock in process drawing the aid of friendly user machining process dialog box. The system offers as output different types of the product documentation files these are the process plan sheet, the computer aided plan description model, and a DXF (Drawing Exchange File) format which may be used to exchange the product information between the CAD/CAM systems. Finally the system postprocessor is used to generate NC/CNC code (G-Code) files that are necessary to operate the predefined machines to produce the part.

Keywords


Article
Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Root Stresses of the Gear Tooth

Authors: Issam Shamouael --- Mohammad Q. Abdullah
Pages: 307-326
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Abstract

The effect of fiber orientation angle of composite materials on the gear tooth root stresses is analytically investigated in the order to select the required orientation of the fibers inside the gear tooth, which leads to improve the gear tooth strength. The effect of geometrical parameters (loaded or unloaded pressure angles, number of teeth, radius of fillet and profile correction) and type of fibers (glass, graphite and boron) are also studied. A stress analysis using the finite element method is performed for reinforced gear subject to bending loads. The results indicate that there is an effect of the fiber orientation on the root stresses of the gear tooth, and also there is a direct proportionality between the improving of the gear strength with geometrical parameters.


Article
The Production of a Photorealistic Digital Terrain Model (P.D.T.M.)

Authors: Bashar Salem Al-Joboory
Pages: 327-337
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Abstract

This research introduce an efficient and easy method to superimpose or merge an available digitized aerial photo on the common wireframe digital terrain model D.T.M. For a specific region, and to finally produce what is called photorealistic digital terrain model P.D.T.M with the aid of Matlab programming language.


Article
Design and Analysis of Enhanced Performance Simulator for GSM Network

Authors: Salan Al-Ani --- Imad Al-Hussaini --- Hayam Al-Yasiri
Pages: 339-360
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Abstract

The rapid advances in mobile communication systems, especially in global system for mobile communication (GSM), have led to a wide range of developments in design, simulation, controlling mechanism, management protocols and performance analyzing techniques of such systems. Several Software simulator systems are designed and implemented in this work. The designed systems have simulated the real GSM cellular network with all related topics concerning the control on calling mechanism, mobility managements, and others. In this concern, simulators for the GSM cellular network, Mobile Station, Base Transceiver Station, Base Station Controller, and Mobile Switching Center are all designed and implemented in this work. Moreover, Several Graphical Users Interacts (GUIs) are built to analyze and evaluate the performance of the designed cellular network systems at different operating conditions. This has been base on a comprehensive investigation to the mathematical analyzing approaches such as the calculating the call blocking probability, the hand off dropping probability and network performance optimization after adopting the guard channel principle.


Article
Non Linear Earthquake Analysis of Baghdad Tower for Communications using a Three Dimensional Finite Element Method

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Abstract

This study analyzes Baghdad tower for communications when subjected to earthquake excitation using an elasto-viscoplastic material modeling and a three-dimensional finite element method. The algorithm used in this research deals with nonlinear structural analysis. Newmark’s method is employed to study displacement response under El-Centro earthquake type of excitation.


Article
An Investigation of Liquid Metal and Gas Flow Characteristics in Confined Atomization Nozzle

Authors: Ihsan Y.Hussain
Pages: 377-391
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Abstract

Supersonic gas jets in confined liquid metal atomizing nozzle were studied by using the method of characteristics. Nitrogen at operating (stagnation) pressure of (1.65 Mpa) was used in the study, with three different values of ambient pressure (1.25, 1.52 and 1.75 bar). For all the three values, the nozzle is over expanded. The Mach number at the nozzle exit for all the investigated cases was (2.64). The pressure and mach number of the atomizing gas at various lattice points downstream of the nozzle exit were found. Besides, the effect of heat transfer from the liquid metal (aluminum) on the gas flow behavior was also investigated. The results showed that the stagnation temperature rise of nitrogen caused by heat transferred from aluminum is very small and can be neglected, and hence the flow can be assumed to be adiabatic. The results indicates that the pressure of the atomizing gas tries to adjust to the higher ambient pressure by the formation of a weak oblique "lip" shock followed by a reflected weak oblige "edge" shock. As the ambient pressure increases, the inward curvature of the jet boundary increases and hence the length of the jet decreases. As the ambient pressure increases, the point at which the oblique lip shock strikes the wall moves upstream toward the nozzle exit. If the shock is to be avoided, the difference between the ambient and nozzle exit pressures must be decreased. For fixed nozzle geometry, this can be done either by increasing the operation pressure or by decreasing the ambient pressure.


Article
A Genetic Aproach for Automated Image Generation: Grayscale Image Generation

Authors: Aminna Dahim Aboud --- Bara'a Ali Attea
Pages: 393-403
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Abstract

Non photorealistic rendering is a new research field in the areas of computer graphics. The goal is to give a more natural feel to computer generated images, by simulating various artistic techniques and to give the sense of an image without reproducing it. In this paper, we present a new evolutionary approach to non-photorealistic rendering of 2D black/white and grayscale images. The goal is to generate a painting that is close to a given input images. This problem can be formalized as a high-dimensional optimization problem, with local minima. We have developed a genetic algorithm that modifies the traditional uniform crossover to spread out vital genes at the expense of lethal genes rather than exchanging them between matting parents. A vital or lethal gene can be determined via a threshold field associated with each pixel gene that indicates the distance between a chromosome gene and the corresponding input image pixel. The proposed evolutionary painting framework demonstrates good results and achieves reasonable convergence.


Article
Free Vibration Analysis Tapered Box Grider using Grillage Analogy and Finite Element Methods

Authors: Meethaq Sh. Al-Fatlawi
Pages: 405-420
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Abstract

A general method using the theory of thin-walled structures is given for determining the natural frequencies and mode shape for box –girder of varying depth having closed section, subjected to torsion and bending using a grillage method and finite element method (Plate /Shell, MSC, NASTRAN). Consistent mass matrices related to torsion and bi-moment effects have been derived using shape function corresponding to an assumed polynomial deflection configuration, also stiffness and consistent mass matrices for flexural behavior including the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in bending. The stiffness matrix for beam element under non-uniform torsion is presented by using the differential equation of equilibrium. A special computer program is written to perform the free vibration analysis starting from the element stiffness and consistent mass matrices. The results have been compared with those obtained from MSC/NASTRAN package. Numerical examples are presented to show the effect of cell number and effect of variation for (span/width) ratio.


Article
Water Treatment of Cooling Towers Blowdown by Reverse Osmosis

Authors: Ammar A. Beddai --- Adil Al-Hemiri
Pages: 421-428
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Abstract

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of operating parameters on the permeable conductivity and product rate were studied for reverse osmosis process. The parameters studied were: - conductivity of feed water in the range of (1000-1500 us/cm), pH in the range of (4-10) and operating pressure in the range of (3-6 bar). The best operating conditions, which lead to good quantity and quality for water product, are: (1000 us/cm) conductivity of feed water, (7) pH and (6 bar) operating pressure. At these conditions the permeable conductivity is (52.905 us/cm) and the product rate is (328.143 1/hr).


Article
Planning the Optimum Path for a Mobile Robot using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mayada F. Abdul-Halim
Pages: 429-439
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Abstract

One aspect of interest in robotics in planning the optimum path for a mobile robot or the optimum trajectory for link movements of a stationary robot in order to increase their efficiency. The objective of this paper is to identify the sequence of steps and processes needed for construction off-line path planning system using genetic algorithm (as we coined GPPS). In off-line path planning, the robot is given a map with the location of all obstacles in a given world. The goal is construct the shortest possible path between a pre-defined start and goal positions and then follow this path without running into the obstacles. In addition to the three basic genetic operators, a new operator is proposed here which is coined as repair operator. Repair operator eliminates infeasible path segments and removes path points from nearby obstacles. However, the shortest possible path resulted from applying genetic operators and repair operator may contain overlapping and redundant segments. Hence, to eliminate these drawbacks, a new operator is proposed which is coined as enhancement operator. Eighty experiments are tested on GPPS with different cases. These cases are taken from different perspectives: number and distribution of obstacles, size of obstacles, and number of experiments per a workspace. All experiments with these different cases give, as possible, an acceptable feasible path.

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