Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2005 volume:11 issue:1

Article
Evaluation of Welding Sequences for Patching in Steel Gears

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Abstract

The present work deals with an experimental investigation of the effect of surfacing parameters on the final quality of large gear surfacing. This gear forms a vital part of the drive train of cement furnace at the Iraqi Cement Company. The gear is made of DIN CK 45 steel with an analyzed carbon content of 0.429 % and core hardness 185 HV. The gear is considered large, with dimensions of 490 mm in diameter, 250 mm width and 27 mm module, its weight is 350 Kg. The aim of the present work is to study the possibility of repairing this type of gear using SMAW process. The gear surface is cleaned by sand blasting, followed by dye penetrate testing for crack detection. DIN E1-UM350 hardfacing electrode is selected to hardface the gear. This electrode has a nominal composition (0.08 % C, 3.3 % Cr, 1% Mn) and a minimum hardness 350 HV. The gear teeth are surfaced with one, two, and three layers with and without preheating. The preheating temperature is 200 Cْ, which is, selected according to carbon equivalent of the DIN CK 45 base metal. Cracks were observed in the weld metals when surfacing with three layers of E1-UM350 electrode. So, E 8018-B2, and E9018-D1 are selected to butter the gear surface with one layer, followed by two layers of E1-um350 electrode. These low hydrogen electrode are selected based on their mechanical properties compared with DIN CK 45 base metal and low hydrogen content which eliminate hydrogen induced cold cracking. Preheating the gear surface gives good hardness distribution across the weld, HAZ, and base metals due to reducing the cooling rates and prevents hard structure to form at the interface region. A set of destructive and non destructive tests are carried out. Including, tensile wear, impact, chemical analysis, metallographic, micro hardness, macro etchant, and dye penetrate tests. Both of wear and impact resistance of all specimens is greater than the base metal. All weld deposits of E1-UM350 hardfacing electrode gives martensitic structures with different hardness depending on the cooling rates and number of layers. Using of low hydrogen electrodes (E 8018-B2 and E 9018-D1) as buttering layers, solve the cracking problem of weld deposits when surfacing with three layers of E1-UM350 electrodes.


Article
Flexural Behavior of Reed Reinforced Concrete
سلوكية الخرسانة المسلحة بشرائح القصب في الإنحناء

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Abstract

The paper presents further experimental results on the behavior of reed reinforced concrete joists in flexure. The experiments include the determination of elastic modulus of reeds by pluse velocity method , also additional results are presented on the tensile strength, density, ductility and toughness indices. The results include the effect of asphaltic emulsion paints (Flinkote) on flexural properties. The aim of the work is to develop the uses of reeds in low cost housing due to its low cost and its availability in immense quantities.

Keywords


Article
The Relationship between Identity and Creativity in Architecture Analytical View According to the Demand of Accquiring the Identity in Contemporary Iraqi Architecture
طبيعة العلاقة بين الهوية والابداع في العمارة نظرة تحليلية في ضوء مطلب تحقيق الهوية في العمارة العراقية المعاصرة

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Abstract

The research discusses the relationship between “Identity” as a concept giving the impression of “Unchangability”, and the concept of “Creativity” giving the Impression of “newness”. It is supposed here that the original work of the architect as “subject”, and designer having his own character and , his belonging to his society and nation, will have both the value of Identity and the value of creativity. This is accomplished by balancing between two levels in the act of making architecture: the level of thought, and the level of physical products, which reveals the relation between Form/Matter. These two levels are discussed through analyzing three cases: 1. The case of traditions in architecture in which the act is “immitation”. 2. The case of modern architecture where we find the act of representing the idea, which could be called the act of design. 3. The contemporary case in which we are conscious of the demand of accomplishing Identity in the creative work.

Keywords


Article
Reduction of Formation Damage Due to Drilling Muds

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Abstract

An experimental study has been carried out in investigate the possible reduction of formation damage that is result from drilling muds. This was accomplished through making a bridging system with different barite additions 70, 140, 200, 280, lb/bbl to fresh water mud. This bridging system creates an effective sealing of impermeable filter cake, thereby inhibiting continual losses of small solids and mud filtrate into the formation. The study indicates that all the muds, which were used, have the ability to damage the petrophysical properties of formation, but some additives to mud reduce the damage in petrophysical properties. In addition, it is found that minimum permeability damage can be obtained when the particles of drilling mud are larger than the pore size of formation because no internal mud cake is created. Finally, the relationship between the pore size distribution of the core samples and particle size distribution of drilling muds becomes better and the impairment is reduced, when the particle size distribution in the mud is matched to the pore entry size distribution within the rock, so that each pore entry could be bridge as permitted by the particular fluid flow rate involved.


Article
Design of a Percolator for Aqua-Ammonia Liquid

Authors: Ali S. Baqir --- Mikdam M. Saleh
Pages: 33-49
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Abstract

A new design concept for a percolator is developed which combine the simultaneous production of ammonia vapor plus the pumping of weak aqua ammonia liquid. This steady state design was based on a balance between the hydrostatic driving head and the total signal and two-phase pressure losses in the percolator system. To accomplish this, the results from modeling of the driving pressure and pressure losses, using the separated flow and drift flux methods were compared with the experimental measurements. The Chisholm’s model was the best in predicting the measured flow rate versus water level for first stage with a maximum standard deviation of ± 10.1 % and was adopted for the theoretical calculations. Parametric design studies that include the cooling power and the strong solution level, inner tube diameter and height for each stage of the percolator were carried out to maximize suitable cost function. The results of the optimization gave a two stage percolator of length 280 mm, inner diameter 5.5 mm for first stage and length 520 mm, inner diameter 5.5 mm for second stage.


Article
The Role of Memberane Action in Load Test

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Abstract

Most of the structures subjected to load tests had successfully passed it, although some of them had failed in cube and core tests. It is believed that membrane action may be the most important factor that made them do so. In the present study, an attempt is made to study the effect of membrane action on load test results. In this study, two space (3-D) model frames, nine panels (3x3), [consisted of rafts, columns, beams and slabs] were prepared for load test. The results show the positive role of the membrane action especially with camber beams and slabs in successful passing of the load test. Also there is enhancement in the deflection behavior of camber members compared with straight members.


Article
Effect of Loads on the Stability of Cohesive Slopes in Undrained Condition

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Abstract

The underained stability of cohesive slopes (Φu=0) subjected loads is studied in this paper. Problems of this kind involved in structures rapidly built near the crest of cohesive slopes and heavy equipment (e.g. draglines, buldozers and railways) move on slop. Using the non-linear finite element method, the effects of loads and uniformly distributed loads are studied and the distribution of stresses under these loads is examined. The value of Pcr (critical line load) required equating the driving and resisting for a unit length of the slope was computed using the computer program. The process was repeated until a minimum Pcr was obtained.

Keywords

Stability --- slopes --- finite elements --- cohesive


Article
Estimation of The Life of Thick Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure with Manufacturing Cracks using J-Integral Method

Authors: Akeel A. Abtan --- Imad A. Husain --- Adnan N. Jamel
Pages: 79-89
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Abstract

Cracks may appear in structures due to manufacturing processes and some time are appeared in the structure product from casting, these structures may be used but in the life less than the design life according to crack propagation on it. In this research a thick cylinder has one crack or more is investigated to estimate the life under pulsation internal pressure. Finite element method with J-integral approach has been used to evaluate the numerical strain energy release rate (J) for the thick cylinder and the stress intensity factor (SIF). J-integral method is most accurate method to evaluate the SIF for the elastic-plastic material by considering the local plastic zone near crack tip. Software developed using the FEM; J-integral; SIF and Paris formula to estimate the life of the component is presented with many working examples.


Article
Global Buckling Load of Steel Columns Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Abbas Abdel-Majid Allawi
Pages: 91-109
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Abstract

The need for strengthening structural members is well known and research is progressing in this field. In recent years the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for strengthening has shown to be a efficient method both regarding structural performance and economical aspects. However, most of the research in this field has been undertaken on concrete of old and damaged structures and for flexural and shear strengthening. So, this paper presents axially loaded steel columns strengthened for increased load capacity and improved stability. The topic is studied theoretically. The theory covers analytical method, and a numerical finite elements (FE) analysis. Different Types of most common commercial FRP systems have been examined and used in this study.


Article
Digital Technology in Photogrammetry

Authors: Fanar Mansour
Pages: 101-109
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Abstract

One of the major advantages of digital photogrammetry is the potential to automate production processes efficiently, thus substantially improving the price / performance ratio for photogrammetry products. Image Processing and computer vision techniques have successfully been employed for facilitating automated procedures in digital aerial images such as interior orientation, relative orientation, point transfer in photogrammetry block triangulation, and the generation of DTMS. In this paper, the researcher presents her investigations on a digital triangulation of a block consist of two strips of eight aerial photographs. Digital imae data scanned with a resolution of 400 dpi, this gives pixel size of 63.5 μm (corresponding to 0.19m ground resolution). Each one of the eight black-and-white overlapped aerial photograph that have been used in this research has a photo scale equal approximately to 1:3000. The measurements were carried out using Pentium III personal computer with processor (CPU) 733MH, 128MB memory and 20 GB hard disk. All observations were later adjusted in dundle adjustment program (jadria) that has been written by the researcher herself. The goal of this research is building a digital aerial triangulation package to be the first trial of digital aerial triangulation in Iraqi Universities.


Article
Electronic Commerce on the Internet Facing the New Media

Authors: Suha Mohammed Hadi
Pages: 111-115
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This paper will be present the success of using the world wide web as a platform for electronic commerce and explain the necessary security mechanisms for it, Also we will propose a new approach dealing with pre and post sales support activities by using the electronic media as integral and very important parts of the business process that can be implemented to our Iraqi small and medium enterprises.


Article
The Effect of Self-Equilbrating Stresses on the Natural Frequencies of Elastically Restrained Rectangular Plate

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Abstract

An investigation has been made into the effect of residual stresses on the vibration, characteristics of thin rectangular plates elastically restrained against rotation along three edges and free on the fourth edge. General frequency equation with and without including the effect of residual stresses has been obtained. Exact frequency expressions including the effect of residual stresses for the cases: S-S-S-F, S-S-C-F, C-C-S-F, C-S-S-F, C-S-C-F, C-C-C-F were also obtained. The effect of the position of welding along the width of the plate for all cases was also included. Actual plate models were tested and the results were compared with the theoretical predictions giving good agreement.


Article
Study of Performance and Prediction of Heat Releace in Compression Ignition Engin Working on Ethyl Alcohol and Gas-Oil Solution

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Abstract

The effect of using solutions of ethanol and gas-oil (duel fuel ) to fuel the diesel engine on engine performance and heat release have been studied experimentally. A single cylinder diesel engine type Recardo (E6/US) was used and the ethanol percentage in the solution was varied from 0 to 20 percent. The results showed that, in general, addition of ethanol to gas-oil cause the maximum power output to decrease at medium and high range of speed and it was nearly the same as that of the straight gas-oil at low speed ranges. The specific fuel consumption of the dual is nearly the same as that of straight gas-oil at low and medium ranges of load. But at high ranges of load the specific fuel consumption was increase. In general, the addition of ethanol to gas-oil cause the maximum rate of heat release to increase during the first stage of combustion and decrease during the second stage of combustion. Further substitution of gas-oil with ethanol (higher than 20 percent) was limited by knock.


Article
Elastic Stability of Frames Having Concave Tapered Struts

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Abstract

The aesthetic and architectural of beam-column elements may enhance the elements strength depending on the maximum and minimum bending moments effect. Therefore, the stability value of the non-linear taper member in concave configuration may be more efficient than linear taper or prismatic members. The modified stability functions will be obtained from the solution of the basic differential equation, where this basic differential equation depends on the non-linearity factor (1) λ of the beam-column shape and the shape factor of the across-sectional area. These two factors, multiplied by others, produce the modified shape factor, which affects the results of the basic differential equation solutions.


Article
Experimental and Theoretical Studty for Sealing Effects of Squeez Air Film

Authors: Hussain Yousif M
Pages: 165-173
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Abstract

The sealing effects of squeeze air film were analyzed experimentally and theoretically. The air flow rate and the sealed pressure were measured in a squeeze face seal. The air flow rate can be expressed as the difference between the flow rate by the pumping and the flow rate by leakage. The air flow rate by the pumping increases proportionally to the square of the vibration amplitude of the surface, as does the sealed pressure. The air flow rate by the leakage increases proportionally to the pressure difference between the vessel pressure and the ambient pressure. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical results.


Article
Thermal Analysis of an Octagonal Shell Earth Orbiting Body

Authors: Ihsan Y. Hussain --- Manhal M. Awda --- Khalil M. Khalil
Pages: 175-192
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Abstract

The thermal behavior of an octagonal shell orbiting body in space environments had been simulated theoretically in the present work, and a simplified experimental test in a thermal vacuum chamber was also made on half-scale model of the prototype to investigated the problem. A mathematical model was built and simulated numerically by using lumped system technique and finite difference control volume approach with explicit scheme. The body in its orbit around the earth is assumed to receive solar, albedo and earth radiation heat fluxes. The orbit is circular of (500- Km) height and (40 degree) inclination. The developed computational algorithm is capable of calculating the heat fluxes on body faces and the temperature distribution of the body at any time instance. The results showed that the albedo and earth heat fluxes are smaller when the orbit is higher. In the side faces, the heat fluxes are maximum when orbit inclination is minimum , and vice versa, the inverse behaviour is true for the upper and lower faces. The heat fluxes are maximum in winter solstice and minimum in summer solstice. If the difference between the emissivity and absorptivity values is low, the body reaches to synchronous steady state faster. The emissivity is affected more than absorptivity. The temperatures of faces, which see the earth, are more fluctuated than the other faces. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results showed good agreement.


Article
Feature Extraction in Electromyography by Digital Signal Processing Techniques

Authors: Ahmed Ali Sadik
Pages: 193-202
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Abstract

Myoelectric signals are the electrical manifestation associated with the movements exerted by the muscular system in the mamal beings (including the human). Examination of these signals should reveal the Status of the muscles as well as the driving nervous system. This is important in diagnosis as well as prosthesis for the health of mankind and aids for handicaped. This would not be possible unless powerful digital processing techniques are available. In this paper, several techniques are investigated so as to extract the features of the ME signals both in time and frequency domains. The extracted features are subsequently employed in an automatic diagnostic classification system to decide whether or not they correspond to a normal muscle.


Article
Identification Type of Noise in Gray Scale Images using Wavelet-Network (WN)

Authors: H. H. Khalil --- W. A. Mahmoud
Pages: 203-211
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In this paper, Wavelet-Network (WN) model has been recently proposed and applied to image processing, e.g., identification type of noise in Gray-Scale Images (GSI). This paper develops a new technique, which employs a Discrete Wavelet Transforma(DWT) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This WN technique uses special mother wavelet ψ (x1, x2) of (DWT) as activation function for (ANN) instead of the traditional activation function like ( Log sigmoid, Tan sigmoid, . etc). it is shown here that the benefit of WN circuits which uses WN is a good approximation tool for GSI images. These approximation patterns for images forced ANN to learn on these images which will be used in the test phase after that.

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