Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2005 volume:11 issue:3

Article
Implementation Of quality In Preparation The Engineering Design
اعتبارات الجودة في اعداد تصميم المشروع الهندسي

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Abstract

Quality of engineering Design is considered as an important and essential matter for assuring the quality of the following project phases (construction, commissioning and maintenance), Bank – to – turn (BTT) control is used to implement a command – to – line and ay delay or fault in this phase (Design phase) will reflect on the following phases cumulatively. In this research, the authors has identified the quality requirements in engineering design which represented as requirements for achievement constructability, and design control., and then controlling the cost of design. The research has also discussed the reasons of causing problems in preparing the engineering design and that will affect the executed project. The researches have concluded many points like there is a necessity to nominate the design works to the related phases of the design preparation to implement the quality requirements in the engineering design.

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Article
تأثير حامض الكبريتيك على الخصائص الجيوتكنيكية

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Abstract

This study deals with the effect of sulphuric acid with different concentration (10%, 50% & 98%) on the geotechnical properties of clayey silt soil brought from Al-Mussayab south of Baghdad. The study deals with natural soil contamination by adding sulphuric acid with different concentrations at 25% as a percent of dry weight of soil with different percents of water content for curing periods (0, 3, 7 & 14) days, Oedometer tests are carried out to study the behavior of soil after adding the acid. It has been found that a severe reaction happens between acid and calcium carbonate in the clayey silt soil accompanied with volume increasing producing gypsum. Prevention of volume increasing by surcharge generated a swelling pressure. This pressure increases with the increasing of acid concentration and decreases with the increasing of curing period. The maximum value of swelling pressure is about 530 kPa. The study shows that the maximum dry density of soil reduces after adding 98% and 50% concentration acid while it increases for 10% conc. acid. The values of liquid limit and plasticity index of contaminated soil are reduces for 10% conc. acid and increases for other concentration.


Article
Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Impact Loads and Explosive
سلوكية الخرسانة المسلحة بألياف البولي بروبلين تحت تأثير أحمال الصدم والانفجار

Authors: ندى مهدي فوزي
Pages: 59-68
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Abstract

One of the important advantages of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete is its resistance to impact loads and explosives. The paper presents further experiments on the behavior of plates reinforced with polypropylene fibers and their resistance to impact loads and explosives. The published literature on the subject is scarce and it is difficult to obtain most of them as they are confidential and restricted. Concrete specimens reinforced with polypropylene fibers were tested using Charpy impact apparatus in addition plates of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete containing up to 2% Vol. fraction of fibers were tested using flat ended cylindrical projectiles. The behavior of the plates was discussed with reference to the velocity and the cracks according on both sides. The results of the experiments confirmed that polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete has a high resistance to impact and withstands high velocity waves of explosives depending on volume fracture of fibers. The plates with fiber contents (1-2)% remained intact with hair cracks compared to unreinforced specimens which shattered to several pieces.

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Article
Clos Guidance for Bank-to-Turn Missile

Authors: Yousif.I.Al-Mashhidina --- Mohammed.Z.Al-Faiz
Pages: 441-453
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Abstract

Bank- to-turn (BTT) control is used to implement a command –to- line-of-sight (CLOS) guidance law. Physical description of the principles involved is given and a 10.th order nonlinear deterministic model proposed .Conventional control is used to design a closed loop controller for the nonlinear system. Continuous system simulation techniques employed to explain the effect of bank-to-turn on cross coupling of yaw. Pitch and roll channels .Detailed simulation studies are then used for a wide range of engagement sinearieous for trajectory of Missile /Target interception. The target model is considered for three cases: stationary, moving and maneuvering targets .Satisfactory results are obtained for capturing the targets.

Keywords

Crosscoupling --- BTT --- CLOS.


Article
Solving Multiple-Container Packing Problems using Pseudo-Meiosis Genetic Algorithm

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Abstract

Knapsack problems are a class of common but difficult (NP-complete or NP – hard) problems. Since, it is believed that no knapsack problem algorithm can be constructed whose computation time optimality increases as any polynomial function of the problem size. There is a variety of knapsack-type problems in which a set of entities, together with their values (profits)and sizes, is given, and it is desired to select one or more disjoint subsets so that the total of the sizes in each subset does not exceed given bounds and the total of the selected values is maximized .Diploid representation and dominance operator are advanced operators that attempt to improve upon the power of traditional genetic algorithms .Pseudo – Meiosis Genetic Algorithm(PsM GA) is one form of genetic algorithms that incorporate diploidy structure and dominance mechanism in their genetic search .the goal of this dissertation is to present the application of PsM GA in one of the promising combinatorial optimization problems- the Knapsack Problem (KP).Results obtained concern two types of KP: the 0/1 KP and the Multiple Container Packing Problem, MCPP. Moreover, several aspects are considered in experiments such as , the algorithm used for evaluation of the individuals (fitness evaluation ), the number of items (i.e., search space size ), the correlation between the weights and the profits of items, and the capacity of the knapsack.


Article
Spline – Approximate Methode for Solution of Rverse Profile Problem in Space

Authors: Ahmed A.A. --- Nabil H.H. --- Ahmed Zaidan M.H.
Pages: 469-479
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Abstract

Profiling is one of the important problems in mechanical engineering and industry because of its large applications in the field of cutting tool. Most papers and researches deal with the problem of profiling of involute profile .The problem of direct profile design consists in determination of profile tool if profile of gear is defined. This paper deal with problem of determination non – involute profile for helical surface in which profile of tool is defines and this problem called the reverse profile problem .There are very large applications of this problem in cutting tool, for example cutting of helical surface (flutes)of twist drill with disc (wheel) tool and generating of helical surface for hops with disc (wheel) tool. To solve this problem,we use transformation method for determination profile of helical surface and spline – approximate method for describing initial profile of tool.


Article
Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior and Electrochemical Characteristic of Welded Steel Alloys

Authors: Nabeel Kadim Abid Al- Sahib
Pages: 481-494
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Abstract

Two types of steel alloys (St.17Mn1Si and st.22 MnAl) and their fusion welded parts applying different thermal treatment techniques were tested electrochemically. Their electrochemical characteristic including : the electrochemical potential values and current density of the base metals, heat affected zones and welding pools are estimated .Correlation are developed to express the effect of the electrochemical potential of the heat affected zone as an additional independent variable of the models .Also the evaluation of corrosion resistance behavior of welded alloys used as corrosion medium 3% NaCl solution in presence of air, oxygen and carbon dioxide for 3300 hre. Were investigated visually and experimentally using different techniques. The developed .models estimated are candidated to be used to determine the electrochemical characteristics of other related classes of welded steel alloys.


Article
Optimal Brain Surgeon Pruning of Neural Network Models of Manufacturing Processes

Authors: Ali Khudhair Mutlag --- Bahaa Ibraheem Kazem
Pages: 495-508
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Abstract

In this paper ,Optimal Brain Surgeon (OBS) pruning algorithm is proposed to optimize network architecture with respect to testing patterns error and overcoming the over fitting problem . Turning process is used as case study to improve the performance of the neural network – surface roughness model .Using the proposed algorithm reduced the prediction error on testing patterns from 0.6237 to 0.2854 based on the absolute percent error estimate .Also. noticeable improvement is made in correlation coefficient from 0.8656 to 0.9807 making the network more reliable for new operating conditions.


Article
Suggested Energy Equivalence Approach for the Dynamic Analysis of Tapered Chimneys

Authors: Dhia B.Ghailan --- Thamir K.Al-Azawi
Pages: 509-521
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Abstract

In this paper an energy equivalence approach is suggested for the dynamic analysis of tapered chimneys. For any mode of vibration ; by equating the Kinetic energy of the actual chimney to that of an equivalent prismatic chimney, a hypothetical equivalent uniform mass has been obtained for the equivalent chimney .Also, by equating the strain energy of the actual and equivalent prismatic chimney , a hypothetical equivalent constant moment of inertia has been derived for the equivalent chimney. The accuracy of proposed equivalent prismatic model has been checked by comparing the results with that of the conventional segmented model using the stiffness method ,with is deemed to be the more rigorous solution .Free and forced dynamic analyses have been carried out and the results indicated that the proposed equivalence energy model is in a good agreement with the stiffness(segmented chimney) model .The maximum discrepancy in the fundamental natural frequency ranges between 1.2%and 1.44%. The difference in the maximum dynamic bending moment due to wind vortex shedding is about 3.0%.


Article
Removal of the Furfural Form Wastewater by the Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Waleed M.Abood --- Abbas H. Sulaymon
Pages: 523-531
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Abstract

The aim of the present work is the adsorption of the furfural onto activated carbon where Langmuir and freundlich equation were used to determine the adsorption isotherm in the batch experiment continuos adsorption experiment of fixed-bed were carried out to study the effects of flow rate, bed depth, initial furfural concentration, carbon particle size to determine breakpoint time and adsorption capacity.


Article
Comparison between FPGA Co-Processor &Tms320 C641x DSP Family in Implementing DIF FFT Algorithm

Authors: A.M.Ragib --- N.H.Abbas
Pages: 533-540
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Abstract

The Decimation in Frequency Fast Fourier Transform (DIF FFT) is a computationally intensive digital signal processing function widely used in application such as imaging and wireless communication .Historically, this has been a relatively difficult function to implement optimally in hardware, leading many software designers to use digital signal processors (DSPs) in soft implementations. Unfortunately, because of the function s computationally intensive nature, such an approach typically requires multiple DSPs within the system to support the processing requirements. This is costly from a device and board rcal – estate perspective as well as power intensive. Field –programmable gate array (FPGA) co-processors have become an extremely cost – effective means of off – loading computationally intensive algorithms to improve overall system performance while reducing development time, cost and risks. This paper will describe two DIF FFT implementation approaches, one implemented as an FPGA co –processor and the other using only an external TMS320C641X DSP Family. It will then examine the advantages and disadvantages of implementation perspectives.


Article
Prediction of Optimum Separation Conditions for Sequential Field Separation System

Authors: Omar F.Hassan --- Mohammed S.Al-Jawad
Pages: 541-552
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Abstract

A study has been done for finding the optimum separators pressures of degassing station .The optimum operation pressures are determined by employing Constrained Rosenbrock (1966) method using the maximum API, minimum GOR and minimum Bob as objective functions and separators pressures as the decision variables. The optimization of separators pressures requires equilibrium flash calculation under different conditions of pressures and temperatures to determine the conditions that will yield the most stock tank liquid. Equilibrium flash calculation is achieved by solving the equation of state. In the current study, Soave-Redlich-Kwong(1972)and Peng-Robinson (1976) have been used wit the black and volatile oils respectively. Two computer models are used to find the optimum separators pressures .The first model is OSPB which can be used with black oils while the second is OSPV that employs volatile oils. Application of these models shows improvement of the all objective functions for oils. Two checking techniques (the plotting &sensitivity analysis test) proved the validity of these optimization models.


Article
Dynamic Response of Ruttba Sand using Equivalent Linear Model

Authors: Asma Y. al- Tae'e
Pages: 553-565
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Abstract

in this paper, the dynamic response of Ruttba sand with different relative densities is studied by using equivalent linear model. The equivalent linear model is adopted in which the soil properties are strain dependent but cycle dependent. The shear modulus tends to decrease as the shear strain increases, while the damping ratio tends to increase as the shear strain increase. The computer program SHAKE, developed at the University of California, is used for predicting and analyzing the problem. The study reach that the magnitude of the acceleration is increasing as the relative density is decreasing and the natural frequency of the structures that would be built on Al- Ruttba soil must not be equal to (4c/sec) to avoid resonance condition.

Keywords

Earthquake --- shake --- spectra --- acceleration --- Ruttba sand


Article
Using Markov Model in Reliability Assessment of an Electrical Power Plant

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to make an evaluation to the reliability and availability of an electrical power plant as special kind of production systems to assess its ability in providing power with acceptable quality at a given period of time. Markov model was used as an analytical tool in assessment of the reliability and availability of a production power plant Iraq, and especially for its four new steam- power units, which considered as basic power units of this plant. This model (Markov) was used for the first once in assessment of power production system in Iraq and prove its ability to provide a general evaluation for the performance of the power plant during a period of time. Since the method has too extensive mathematical operations, Matlab system (version605)was used to formulize two computerized programs. once define the mathematics model of the problem ,and the other for define the mathematics model of the problem, and the other for the analysis and plot curves.


Article
Seismic Analyses of an Earth Dam Using the Boundary Surface Plasticity Model

Authors: Omar al-Farouk Salem Al-Damluji
Pages: 581-600
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Abstract

This investigation presents coupled analysis of an earth dam problem including all aspects of fluid-structure interaction (class I coupling) and soil-pore fluid-structure interaction (class II coupling) under earthquake excitations using the finite element method and its comparison with the coupled one. New software for predicting and analyzing coupled behavior is established using the pressure formulation for modeling of the fluid and the u-p formulation for modeling of the soil-pore fluid. The staggered partitioned solution technique for coupled field problems is implemented and used in the computer code. This scheme is incorporated in terms of a sequential execution for single-field analyzers. The bounding surface plasticity model is used as a constitutive relationship for modeling the clay core of a dam made up of Boston blue clay first and Baghdad brown silty clay later. The general theoretical farme work of the model and its numerical implementation with emphasis on isotropic cohesive soils are given. Also, the input material parameters are identified and the tests required for determining these parameter s are clarified on Baghdad brown silty clay. Implicit-Implicit Newmark’s numerical integration of the equations of motion. The results show that the bounding surface plasticity model can give a logical impression for the behavior of clayey soils under dynamic loads. Also, the earthquake design of structures generally and dams in particullr, must take into account various interactions between the foundation, the structure and the water in the reservoir in addition to site effects. Amplifications due to stratification and dephasing (response lag) in the foundations of structures should also be considered.


Article
Fatigue Equation Parameters Relationships

Authors: Hassan Y.Mirza --- Ali H.Al-Neaime --- Hamed M. Alani
Pages: 601-619
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Abstract

Substantial amounts of data concerning the fatigue performance tests are presented.These data contain the information about results that are expressed by means of the fatife equation parameters Different fatigue tests are included using different types of mixes. The collected information was not similar in all aspeets.Some studies included variables ,which were not considered by other.The defferent representation of the fatigue equation makes it necessary to find the relations between the parameters of these different equations in order to study all the data belong to the same population .The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for goodness of fit was adopted for this purpose.

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