Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:4

Article
دور الاتصال والتواصل في مدن التوابع المعلوماتية

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Abstract

This research attempts to trace the most significant development caused by the information revolution, namely "the Communication Technology" which reduced the distances between different urban communities, or within a single one, eliminated the geographical boundaries and the transformed the world into a global village. This led to the emergence of new forms and bodies to those urban communities; perhaps the most important is the fragmentation of the major cities and the emergence of (Satellite Cities) with global links, rather than hinterlands to the local capital cities as in the past. But in spite of the technological tide of communications and its inevitable impacts, it stays, with all its possibilities, a reaction that occurs only in one direction and within the limits of no more than sending and receiving nothing more. This is what Arab cities had seen in the recent stages of their change. Here arises the problem of the emergence of the communication act as a "Dogmatic" because the whole world revolved around the communications network ... Which in turn became the heart of the system of this era. In light of this problem, this research has sought to find the act parallel if not alternative that will fold the " Communication " between its wings, making it, the stage of the process of response and interaction surpassing the limits of sending and receiving. In other words the transition from importing technology to the process of contributing to its production. This only takes place through the investment of the Communications Technology to achieve that which is the highest and noblest, posed in this research by the "Communicativeness" between communities. To achieve this goal it took the building of the theoretical framework, in the light of which we put forward the hypothesis of the research that reads (Communication in its technological dimension and Communicativeness in its social dimension, both, play a role in the formulation of Satellite Cities of the twenty-first century through their essential impact on the physical, social and economic infrastructure development of those cities). The research, then, sought to test the validity of this hypothesis and draw conclusions and recommendations.


Article
Cathodic Protection of Carbon Steel in 0.1N NaCl Solution Under Flow Conditions Using Rotating Cylinder Electrode

Authors: Marwa F. Adul-Jabbar --- Basim O. Hasan
Pages: 403-414
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Abstract

The effect of applied current on protection of carbon steel in 0.1N NaCl solution (pH=7) was investigated under flow conditions (0-0.262 m/s) for a range of temperatures (35-55°C) using rotating cylinder electrode. Various values of currents were applied to protect steel from corrosion, these were Iapp.= Icorr., Iapp.=2Icorr. and Iapp.=2.4Icorr. under stationary and flow conditions. Corrosion current was measured by weight loss method. The variation of protection potential with time and rotation velocity at various applied currents was assessed. It is found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increases with rotation velocity and has unstable trend with temperature. The protection current required varies with temperature and it increases considerably when the rotation velocity was increased. The protection potential decreases appreciably (shifts to more negative) with time and with increasing rotation velocity. Also it shifts to more positive with increasing temperature.


Article
Experimental and Numerical Stress Analysis of Involute Splined Shaft

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Abstract

In this study, the induced splined shaft teeth contact and bending stresses have been investigated numerically using finite element method(Ansys package version 11.0) with changing the most effecting design parameter, (pressure angle, teeth number, fillet radius and normal module), for internal and external splined shaft. Experimental work has been achieved using two dimensional photoelastic techniques to get the contact and bending stresses; the used material is Bakelite sheet type “PSM-4”. The results of numerical stress analysis indicate that, the increasing of the pressure angle and fillet radius decrease the bending stress and increase the contact stress for both internal and external spline shaft teeth while the increasing of the normal module and teeth number decrease the contact and bending stresses.


Article
Laboratory Investigation on Roller Compaction Technique in Concrete Construction

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Abstract

Roller compacted concrete (RCC) is a concrete compacted by roller compaction. The concrete mixture in its unhardened state must support a roller while being compacted. The aim of this research work was to investigate the behavior and properties of roller compacted concrete when constructed in the laboratory using roller compactor manufactured in local market to simulate the field conditions. The roller compaction was conducts in three stages; each stage has different loading and number of passes of the roller. For the first stage, a load of (24) kg and (5) passes in each direction had been employed. For the second stage, a load of (104) kg and (10) passes in each direction were conducted. Finally, at the third stage, a load of (183) kg and (15) passes were adopted. Such procedure was in accordance to previous work conducted by the author. The effects of the type of coarse aggregate (crushed and rounded), fine aggregate (river and natural) and cement type (OPC and SRPC) on the mechanical properties of RCC were investigated. The effect of compaction method on compressive strength and indirect tensile strength was also discussed. A total of (26) roller compacted concrete slab samples of (380×380×100 mm) were prepared in the laboratory, Then, the slab specimens are taken out of the molds and immersed in the curing tank for (28) days. Core and Beam specimens were obtained from the slab samples for the determination of mechanical properties. Such properties include compressive, indirect tensile, flexural strengths using one point loading. It was concluded that the compressive strength of RCC using crushed aggregate is higher than that when using rounded aggregate in a range of (15-66) % for core specimens, while the compressive strength of RCC when using river sand is higher than that when using natural sand in a range of (9-26)% for core specimens. When river sand is implemented, RCC samples show higher indirect tensile strength than those with natural sand, such variation is within (7-8) %.


Article
Performance Evaluation and Comparison Between LDPC and Turbo Coded MC-CDMA
تقييم و مقارنة كفاءة LDPC and Turbo Coded MC-CDMA

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Abstract

This work presents a comparison between the Convolutional Encoding CE, Parallel Turbo code and Low density Parity Check (LDPC) coding schemes with a MultiUser Single Output MUSO Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system over multipath fading channels. The decoding technique used in the simulation was iterative decoding since it gives maximum efficiency at higher iterations. Modulation schemes used is Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM. An 8 pilot carrier were used to compensate channel effect with Least Square Estimation method. The channel model used is Long Term Evolution (LTE) channel with Technical Specification TS 25.101v2.10 and 5 MHz bandwidth bandwidth including the channels of indoor to outdoor/ pedestrian channel and Vehicular channel. The results showed that the performance of the proposed system was better when the LDPC was used as a coding technique.


Article
Finite Element Analysis of Human and Artificial Articular Cartilage

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Abstract

Joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, induce pain and loss of mobility to millions of people around the world. Current clinical methods for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis include X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy. These methods may be insensitive to the earliest signs of osteoarthritis. This study investigates a new procedure that was developed and validated numerically for use in the evaluation of cartilage quality. This finite element model of the human articular cartilage could be helpful in providing insight into mechanisms of injury, effects of treatment, and the role of mechanical factors in degenerative conditions, this three-dimensional finite element model is a useful tool for understanding of the stress distributions within articular cartilage in response to external loads and investigating both the prevention of injury and the pathological degeneration of the joints. In this study, 21 models were analysed by using ANSYS workbench v12.1: four normal articular cartilage models (distal femur, patella, medial and lateral tibia). A redesign to the distal femur model was done to get osteoarthritis articular cartilage (simple and deep) seven models by making partial cut without affecting the subchondral bone, and full cut with part of the subchondral bone in different diameters. Finally a treatment done by replacing the defective parts with artificial articular cartilages with different types of treatment. The finite element analysis studied depending on a Von Mises criteria and total deformation in different activities. The results shows that Autologous Chondrocyte Implementation is the best treatment way and it is close by 87.50% to normal cartilage. This procedure can be used as a diagnostic procedure for osteoarthritic patients and to choose the best treatment options.


Article
Secured Smart Card Simulation

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Abstract

Different methods of encryption that are widely used in smart card have been presented. Because of the usefulness and widespread application of Food Ration Card throughout our country, three models of designing and simulations are developed. A comparison between the different models is done. The first model is the Food Ration Card without using any security method. The second model is the Food Ration Card with using an AES algorithm as a security method. The third model is the Food Ration Card with using RSA method. All models are implemented and simulated using BasicCard Development kit Environment. For the first model, a Compact BasicCard version ZC1.1 is used. While for the second and third models, a Professional BasicCard version ZC4.5 is used. From obtained results, we noticed that AES-method is faster than RSA and takes less memory size, but RSA is more secure than AES, since it uses two different keys instead of one as in AES.

Keywords

Smart card --- AES --- RSA --- Encryption --- Foot Ration Card.


Article
Corrosion - Resistance Characteristics of Concrete Containing Furfural

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Abstract

Corrosion inhibiting admixtures are unique among other methods to protect reinforced concrete from corrosion damage. In this study, the effect of furfural on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete mixes of 35 and 45 MPa compressive strengths as well as the corrosion inhibition of furfural was evaluated. Furfural was added at different dosages (1, 2 and 3% by weight of cement) with and without superplasticizer (HRWR). Different electrochemical measurements were performed (Half-cell potential, Tafel plot and linear polarization resistance). Electrochemical measurements confirmed that furfural dramatically reduces the rate of corrosion; the inhibition efficiencies were 62.7 and 63.8 % due to 3% furfural addition to 35 and 45MPa-concretes respectively. Results also showed that the combined presence of furfural and HRWR was found to provide an excellent corrosion protection to steel.


Article
Estimation of The Optimum Bed Thickness of A Flow - Through Porous Electrode (FTPE) Working Under Mass Transfer Control

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Abstract

In this paper, a theoretical analysis of optimum bed thickness operates under mass transfer control for realizing a high efficiency and reaction conversion of an electrochemical reactor has been made based on flow-through porous electrode (FTPE) configuration. Many models have been used to represent the optimum bed thickness by taking a look into previous works concerned and collecting all related information, data, and models. The parameters that affect the optimum bed thickness have been visualized and reviewed, and almost all of them have been examined by experimental data from different sources and based on the various models. It has been found that the increase in electrolyte flow rate, concentration, limiting current density, and specific surface area reduce the optimum bed thickness, and the increase in electrolyte conductivity, void fraction, and overpotential range increases optimum bed thickness. The most important design parameter that has a great effect on optimum bed thickness is found to be the electrolyte flow rate for any certain operation. It has been concluded that the most appropriate two models to represent the optimum bed thickness of FTPE electrochemical reactor operating under mass transfer control based on the results are those predicted theoretically and stated by Kreysa in (1978) and Doherty et al. in (1996).


Article
Laminar Natural Convection in Nonrectangular Enclosure with and without Fins

Authors: Sajida Lafta Ghashim Jassim
Pages: 499-517
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Abstract

In the present work, steady, laminar natural convection in nonrectangular enclosures is analyzed numerically with and without fin. Vertical walls insulated while horizontal walls maintained isothermal at different temperature and the fin was placed on horizontal surface. The length of fin was equal (B/L=0.22, 0.44 and 0.66) and thickness of fin was constant. Various parameters are studied: Rayleigh number (from 104 to 107), Prandtl number (0.7), number of fin change from (1-3) and aspect ratio (H/L= 0.15 to 0.5). The problem is formulated in terms of the vorticity-stream function procedure. A numerical solution based on program in Fortran 90 with Tec plot program. The finite difference method is used. Streamlines and isotherms are presented for different values of parameters studied. A Nusselt number correlation is derived by using program (DGA v1.00) and mean Nusselt numbers on hot walls are also calculated at different cases. The results show the mean Nusselt numbers decreases with increasing aspect ratio (H/L).Also, predictions reveal a decrease in heat transfer in the presence of fins. The results of the calculations are compared with the previous works and it showed a good agreement.


Article
Adjusting Off - Centering Process for A Blow Molded Plastic Product by use of Winqsb Software
ضبط عدم تمركز العملية لمنتج بلاستيكي مصنع بماكنة نفخ باستخدام ب ا رمجيات (Win QSB)

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Abstract

In most manufacturing processes, and in spite of statistical control, several process capability indices refer to non conformance of the true mean ( c  ) from the target mean ( T  ), and the variation is also high. In this paper, data have been analyzed and studied for a blow molded plastic product (Zahi Bottle) (ZB). WinQSB software was used to facilitate the statistical process control, and process capability analysis and some of capability indices. The relationship between different process capability indices and the true mean of the process were represented, and then with the standard deviation ( ), of achievement of process capability value that can reduce the standard deviation value and improve production out of theoretical control limitations and cost reduction. The study exhibits that when adjusting the center to the target value by adjusting the mold to the machine, the capability index ( p C ) enhanced by (14.56 %), capability index ( pk C ) is enhanced by (14.48 %), capability index ( pm C ) is enhanced by (12.5 %) and accuracy index ( a C ) is enhanced by (14.49 %). The percentage of the specification band used up by the process ( P ) is reduced by (12.8 %) and the degree of variation increases.

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