Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:8 issue:2عدد خاص بمؤتمر الفيزياء

Article
The parameters effect on the holographic optical elements
العوامل المؤثره على العناصر البصريه الهولوكرافيه

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In this work we fabrication holographic optical element diffraction grating thickness 40μm and mirror90μm by using dichromated gelatin,to perform that we have to use the Nd-yaG laser doubling frequency of wavelenght (532)nm and its powers of (80)mWatt.we have studyed the thickness and concentration dichromat effect in mirror reflaction ,effect of angle of reconstruction beam in band width and diffraction efficiency ,study effect gelatin hardener of the diffraction efficiency.


Article
Effect of additive polyvinyl alcohol polymer on properties of cement – Silica
تاثير اضافة بوليمر بولي فاينيل الكحول (PVA) على خصائص متراكبات السمنت- سليكا

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Abstract

Study the effect of additives polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) after solving in water by concentration 10% since represent a standard of PVA solution with added to cement – silica composite of ratio (1:2) with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% respectively to the standard quantity of water which using as a mortar of building. The results are demonstrate increasing on compression resistance with increase of PVA solution until 20%, and decreasing of thermal conductivity which represent a composite are increasing in thermal insulating. The results were recommended decreasing of water absorption with increase of PVA solution ratio as illustrated in this study.


Article
Measurement of Background Radioactivity in Sewage Sludge for Baghdad City Treatment Stations
قياس الخلفية الاشعاعية للمياه الثقيلة في محطات التصفية لمدينة بغداد

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Abstract

Sewage sludge samples were collected from Al-rasafa and Al-karkh refinement stations which represent the main stations of Baghdad city. Samples were collected from all treatment stages: before, after, and during refinement processes. The High Purity Germanium Coaxial Detector system with energy resolution 1.8 keV for energy line 1333 keV of Co – 60 radioactive sources was used to measure radioactivity from both natural and artificial sources. GENIE – 2000 analysis the results statistically and qualitatively. The results showed that all sewage sludge samples exhibited natural radioactive level and sometimes less than the international regular standards, but Al–Karkh station showed increment in radioactive levels than Al– Rasafa station. Cs – 137 artificial radionuclide was detected in the samples with low concentration.


Article
Measurement of Photon Buildup Factor for Samples of Iraqi Carbon Black Material
حساب عامل التراكم العددي لعينات من أسودالكاربون العراقي

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Abstract

The buildup factor was measured after irradiating Iraq carbon black powder using each of and sources respectively, using mixing ratios 40% & 50% for thickness range . The results showed that the buildup factor depends on energy and has limited dependence on the mixing ratio. The QIFT program succeeded accenting for the experimental results even for expected values more than 4 m.f.p outside the thickness range.


Article
Measurement of Uranium Concentration in Soil of Middle of Iraq using CR ،V 39 Track Detector
تحديد تركيز اليورانيوم في نماذج من تربة ومياه المنطقة الوسطى والجنوبية من العراق باستخدام كاشف الاثر CR-39

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to determine the uranium concentration in soil and water samples taken from different locations from the middle and south of Iraq using fission fragments track registration. Twelve samples of soil and water were taken from middle and South of Iraq. The nuclear reaction used as a source of nuclear fission fragments is U-235 (n.f) obtained by bombardment U-235with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source with flux (5X103 n.cm-2.s-1). The concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples recommended by IAEA.The results of the measurements show that the uranium concentration in soil samples were in Thekar (16.38 ppm), AL-Basra (16.1ppm) and (0.78 ppm) in Baghdad, from the results which show that this governorate were contaminated with depleted uranium after the Wars against Iraq . The uranium concentration in the water samples of Tigers river were in AL-Qurna (8.85 g/l) and in AL-Suwera (4.72 g/l).


Article
Study of optical properties for Ge - GaAs Heterojunction
دراسة الخصائص البصرية للمفرق المتباين Ge - GaAs Heterojunction

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Abstract

In this work, heterojunction have been fabricated utilizing gallium arsenide (Bulk-n-GaAs) and (Epitaxy-n-GaAs) wavers as substrate, an amorphous germanium(Ge)was evaporated as thin film on the substrate, using thermal evaporation technique, lastly, electrical characteristics have been studied. All samples were annealed at temperature 637K for 30 minutes. Optical properties have been studied for Ge/Bulk n-GaAs contact and Ge/Epitaxy-n-GaAs contact, photocurrent as a function of the incident wavelength was measured to calculate the detector parameters. It was shown that the Spectral Responsivity Ge/Bulk n-GaAs was (0.2A/W) at (700nm), (0.191A/W) at (1300nm) and for Ge/Epitaxy-n-GaAs (0.148A/W) at (700nm), (0.145A/W) at (1300nm).


Article
Study The effect of central ion to the dithene complexes on spectral shifting of saturable absorber band
دراسة تأثير الايون المركزي لمعقدات الدايثين على الزحزحة الطيفية لحزمة أمتصاص التشبع

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Abstract

In this work dithine complexes prepared from dithiol benzil ligand and central ion to the Ni,Pd,Pt, element the ligand and complexes have been investigated using FTIR spectrophotometer and uv-vis-NIR spectral reigns show higher intensity represents the π-π* transition in the chromopher cycle .These absorption which appear in visible and near IR spectral regions ,According to the complexes of one group ,the spectral shifting due to the change of central ion has been found to be related to atomic number of central ion .This shifting is increased while decreasing the central ion atom number These complexes have been implemented in Nd+2:YAG cavity because each posses resonant absorption band near Nd+2:YAG, Nd+2:Glass emitting at (1060nm). pulse duration measured to complexes dissolved in dioxin(2*10-3M) is very short compared with free running pulse duration ,therefore the complexes work as Q-switch to the NIR lasers.


Article
Study the effective of annealing on the structural and sensitivity properties for SnO2 thin films to CO2 Gas
دراسة تأثير التلدين على الخواص التركيبية والتحسسية لأغشيةSnO2 لغازCO2

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Abstract

تم في هذا البحث تحضير أغشية رقيقة لشبه الموصل SnO2 بطريقة الرش الكيمياوي على قواعد زجاجية الحراري ذات درجة حرارة(723K) باستخدام محلول مائي لكلوريدات القصدير المائية وبتركيز(0.125M) بسمك (300nm) .أجريت عملية التلدين للأغشية المحضرة عند درجة حرارة(823K). تم دراسة الخواص التركيبية والتحسسية للأغشية المحضرة لغاز CO2 قبل و بعد التلدين بالاضافة الى ذلك درس تأثير التلدين على الحجم الحبيبي لتلك الأغشية.

Keywords

thin film --- SnO2 --- CO2 gas sensor


Article
Comparison between Direct and Coherent Optical Communication System
مقارنة بين نظام أتصال ضوئي متشاكه ومباشر

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Abstract

The work in this paper focuses on the system quality of direct and coherent communication system for two computers. A system quality is represented by Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER). First part of the work includes implementation of direct optical fiber communication system and measure the system quality .The second part of the work include implementation both the( homodyne and heterodyne)coherent optical fiber communication system and measure the system quality . Laser diode 1310 nm wavelength with its drive circuit used in the transmitter circuit . A single mode of 62.11 km optical fiber is selected as transmission medium . A PIN photo detector is used in the receiver circuit. The optical D-coupler was used to combine the optical signal that come from transmitter laser source with optical signal of laser local oscillator at 1310/1550 nm to obtain coherent detection . Results show that for direct detection the SNR and the BER (28.5 dB, 9.64x10-8,) respectively, while for homodyne and heterodyne coherent detection , the SNR(94.36,97.71)dB and the BER are (1.32x10-22,2.43x10-23) at maximum optical fiber length at 62.11 km. Results show that the homodyne and heterodyne detection are better than direct detection because the large output SNR and low BER of the received signal.


Article
Spectroscopic Properties Study of Coumarine -47 Dye doped Poly Methyl Methacrylate
دراسة الخواص الطيفية لصبغة الكومرين – 47 المطعمة بالبوليمرPMMA

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Abstract

A thin film of Coumarine -47 has been prepared in a chloroform solvent mixed with the same ratio of Poly Methyl Meth Acrylate ( PMMA ) at different concentrations (1x10-4 , 5x10-4 and 1x10-3 ) M . This film has been prepared by using thermal oven with temperature about (333 K) and pressure at 10-2 torr for 1 hour. The prepared thin film thickness measured using Michelson interferometer is around 0.2mm. The quantum efficiency decreased as follows (80%, 74% and 59% ) respectively. The radiative life time and fluorescent life time has been investigated as a function of dye concentration and it can be shown that they both decreased (8.57, 3.35 and 2.5) ns and (6.85, 1.97 and 1.85) ns respectively. It has been determined that the resulting overlap between the absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum for thin film is less than that shown for the solution, therefore stock shift will be more . From the morphological studying of the thin film it has been shown that with the increasing the concentration the defects and inhomogenity of the film increase.


Article
Java Applet Technology for Design Interference Optical Coating
تكنولوجيا جافا لتصميم طلاء التداخل البصري

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Abstract

Java is a high-level , third generation programming language were introduced Javaoptics Open Source Physics (OSP) as a new simulation for design one of the most important interference optical coating called antireflection coating. It is recent developments in deign thin-film coatings. (OSP) shows multiple beam interferences from a parallel dielectric thin film and the evolution of reflection factors. It is simple to use and efficiently also can serve educational purposes. The obtained results have been compared with needle method


Article
Annealing Effect on the phase Transformation in
دراسة تأثير التلدين في التحولات الطورية لأوكسيد التيتانيوم

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Abstract

This work describes the effect of temperature on the phase transformation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) prepared using metal organic precursors as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the structural properties of TiO2 gels calcined at different temperatures (300, 500, 700) C. the results showed that the samples have typical peaks of TiO2 polycrystalline brookite nanopowders after calcined at (300 C), which confirmed by (111), (121), (200), (012), (131), (220), (040), (231), (132) and (232) diffraction peaks. Also, XRD diffraction spectra showed the presence of crystallites of anatase with low proportion of rutile phase where calcined at (500 C), while rutile phase domains at (700 C). The crystallite size of TiO2 nanopowders was calculated by Scherer's formula and showed that the crystallite size decreased and then increased with increasing the annealing temperature.


Article
Texture analysis using spatial gray level dependence matrix and the logical operators for Brodatz images
التحليل النسيجي باستخدام ٍSpatial Gray Level Dependence Matrix و نسيج العوامل المنطقية لصور Brodatz

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Abstract

The evaluation of texture features is important for several image processing applications. Texture analysis forms the basis of object recognition and classification in several domains. There is a range of texture extraction methods and their performance evaluation is an important part of understanding the feature extraction tools on the images. in this paper a new algorithm for texture classification based on logical operators and one of the statistical texture methods which is the spatial gray level dependence method. Ten digital Brodatz images used in this search with five samples taken from each image the logical operators have been convolved with texture images and (25) logical operators have been used, (7) textural feature have been obtained from the spatial gray level dependence matrix. These operators have been reduce to (10) logical operators and the features reduced to (3) features depending on the J-parameter, but this is not enough for texture analysis. So the minimum distance has been calculated between the images and the (5) samples belong to them taken into account the logical operators and the features after the minimum distance have been determined the features reduced to (2) and the logical operators to (4). From this result we concluded that the correlation and angular second moment gives the best features and the four logical operators.


Article
Calculating the density of electronic charge for hydrogen atom and ions like atom
حساب كثافة الاحتمالية القطرية والدالة القطرية لذرة الهيدروجين والايونات المشابهة لذرة الهيدروجين

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Abstract

The radial wave function R(r) and the radial distribution function P(r) as a function of (r), for the Hydrogen atom was calculated for several atomic state (1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,3d) The results were compared with Hydrogen like atom(He+,Li+2,Be+3).


Article
Self Consistent Field Calculation Using Two Parameter Wave Function for Helium atom and Helium Like ions
حساب طاقة الهليوم وايوناته بواسطة المجال المقوم لذاته ولدالة هارتري ذات متغيرين

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Abstract

The application of the self consistent field linear combination (SCF-LCAO) of two Slater type orbitals with two parameters wave function is used to obtain the energy of the 1s state. Calculation is carried out self-consistency in many iteration. The results for the final iterations are compared with experimental results.


Article
Estimation the Radioactive Pollution by Uranium in the Soil of Al-Kut City/ Iraq
تقويم التلوث الأشعاعي باليورانيوم في تربة مدينة الكوت/العراق

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Abstract

The aim of the present work, was measuring of uranium concentrations in 25 soil samples from five locations of Al-Kut city. The samples taken from different depths ranged from soil surface to 60cm step 15 cm, for this measurement of uranium concentrations .The most widely used technique SSNTDs was chosen to be the measurement technique. Results showed that the higher concentrations were in Hai Al- Kafaat which recorded 1.49 ± 0.054 ppm . The uranium content in soil samples were less than permissible limit of UNSCEAR(11.7ppm).

Keywords

uranium --- Al-Kut --- CR-39.


Article
The optical properties of Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymers doped by Potassium Iodide with different thickness
الخصائص البصرية لبوليمرات البولي مثيل مثااكريلات (PMMA)المشوبة بيوديد البوتاسيوم بأختلاف السمك

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Abstract

Films of pure Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) doped by potassium iodide (KI) salt with percentages (1%) at different thickness prepared by casting method at room temperature. In order to study the effect of increasing thickness on optical properties, transmission and absorption spectra have been record for five different thicknesses(80,140,210,250,320)µm. The study has been extended to include the changes in the band gap energies, refractive index, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient with thickness.


Article
The MR affect on optical properties for poly (Vinyl alcohol) films
تأثير إضافة المثيل الأحمر على الخصائص البصرية لأغشية بولي فينايل الكحول

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Abstract

optical properties of pure poly(vinyl Alcohol) films and poly(vinyl Alcohol) doped with methyl red were study, different percentage prepared with constant thickness using casting technique. Absorption, Transmission spectra have been recorded in order to study the optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, energy gap, refractive index, Extinction coefficient and dispersion parameters were measured in the wavelength range (200-800)nm. This study reveals that the optical properties of PVA affect by increasing the impurity concentration.


Article
Effect of Water on Some Mechanical Properties for Sawdust and Chopped Reeds /UPE composites
تأثيرالماءعلى بعض الخصائص الميكانيكية لمتراكبات نشارة الخشب والقصب المقطع بولي استر

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In this study, composite materials were prepared using unsaturated polyester resin as binder with two types of fillers (sawdust and chopped reeds). The molding method is used to prepare sheets of UPE / sawdust composite and UPE / chopped reeds composite. The mechanical properties were studied including flexural strength and Young's modulus for the samples at normal conditions (N.C). The Commercial wood, UPE and its composite samples were immersed in water for about 30 days to find the weight gain (Mt%) of water for the samples, also to find the effect of water on their flexural strength and Young's modulus. The results showed that the samples of UPE / chopped reeds composite gained highest values of flexural strength (24.5 MPa) and Young's modulus (5.1 GPa) as compared with other composites at (N.C). The results showed that the wet samples of sawdust composite have lowest values of weight gain (Mt %) of water (0.043%) as compared with other composites after immersion. Also it’s showed a slight decrease in values of Young's modulus for all the samples after immersion as compared with the samples at (N.C). Finally it’s showed a slight decrease in values of flexural strength for all the samples except for the composite material formed from UPE / chopped reeds which showed an increase in the value of flexural strength after immersion, where the wet samples of UPE / chopped reeds composite gained (29 MPa) as compared with the samples at (N.C).


Article
Annealing Effect on Some Optical Properties of Cr2O3 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique
تأثير التلدين على بعض الخصائص البصرية لأغشية أوكسيد الكروم المحضرة بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري

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Cr2O3 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis on a glass substrate. Absorbance and transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength range (300-900) nm before and after annealing. The effects of annealing temperature on absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant and optical conductivity were expected. It was found that all these parameters increase as the annealing temperature increased to 550°C.


Article
The Effect of Chlorine Concentration on the Optical Constants of SnS Thin Films
تاثير تركيز الكلور على الثوابت البصرية لاغشية كبريتيد القصدير الرقيقة

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Chlorine doped SnS have been prepared utilizing chemical spray pyrolysis. The effects of chlorine concentration on the optical constants were studied. It was seen that the transmittance decreased with doping, while reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were increased as the doping percentage increased. The results show also that the skin depth decrease as the chlorine percentage increased which could be assure that it is transmittance related.


Article
Parabola Dish and Cassegrain Concentrators to Improve Solar Cell Conversion Efficiency
استخدام المركزات ذو القطع المكافئ والكاسكريني لتحسين اداء الخلايا الشمسية

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New designs of solar using ray tracing program, have been presented for improved the performance and the out put power of the silicon solar cell, as well as reducing the cost of system working by solar energy. Two dimensional solar concentrator (Fresnel lenses) and three dimensional concentrators (parabola dish and cassegrain) were used as concentrator for photovoltaic applications (CPV). The results show that the performance efficiency and out power for crystalline silicon solar cells are improved.


Article
Hybrid(Luminescent and Fresnel ) Concentrators to Improve Solar Panel Conversion Efficiency
مركز هجين لتحسين كفاءة تحويل الالواح الشمسية

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The spectral response of the Si solar cell does not coincidence with the sun irradiance spectrum, so the efficiency of the Si solar cell is not high. To improve the Si solar cell one try to make use of most region of the sun spectrum by using dyes which absorb un useful wavelengths and radiate at useful region of spectrum (by stock shift). Fluorescence's dye is used as luminescent concentrator to increase the efficiency of the solar cell. The results show that the performance efficiency and out power for crystalline silicon solar cells are improved.


Article
Energy band diagram of In2O3/ Si heterojunction
مخطط حزمة الطاقة للمفرق الهجين In2O3 /Si

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Crystalline In2O3 Thin films have been prepared by flash evaporation. We have studied the crystal structure of as deposited at 303K and annealed at 523K using X-ray diffraction. The Hall Effect measurements confirmed that electrons were predominant charges in the conduction process (i.e n-type).It is found that the absorption coefficient of the prepared films decreases with increasing Ta. The d.c conductivity study showed that the conductivity increase with increasing Ta , whereas the activation energy decreases with increasing Ta. Also we study the barrier tunneling diode for In2O3/Si heterostructure grown by Flash evaporation technique. (capacitance-voltage C-V) spectroscopy measurements were performed at 303 K and at the annealing temperature 523K. The built in voltage has been determined and it depends strongly on the annealing process of the heterojunction. From all above measurements we assumed an energy band diagram for In2O3 /Si(P-type) heterojunction.


Article
Effect of Water Diffusion on Adhesion Strength
تأثير امتصاص الماء على قوة التلاصق

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The adhesion strength between Polyethylene (PE) film and Aluminum surface by using the adhesive material (Cyanoacrylate) has been studied. Aluminum (Al) was used as a substrate, and polyethylene (PE) was used as a film adhered to the Al surface. Standard specimens were prepared to use in the peeling test in dry condition, other specimens were immersed in water for 12 days at room temperature. the results for the specimens in the dry condition had shown that high value in the peel force and the peel energy, the peel force was 0.38*103 N/m and the peel energy was 0.605*103 N/m, peeling the film from Al surface leaves a residual of the adhesive material on both adherend, the failure for this specimen were combination of adhesive and cohesive failure. For the specimens that were immersed in water for 12 days, the results had shown that the effect of water on the specimen (Al /PE), where the water diffusion coefficient on the adhesive joint was 1.09*10-14 m2/s and the peel force was 0.062*103 N/m and the peel energy was 0.124*103 N/m, PE film was peeled from Al surface without any resistance.


Article
SlantletTransformbased VideoDenoising
إزالة الضوضاء من الفيديو بالاعتماد على تحويلة الموّيل

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A technique for noise removal is proposed based on slantlet transform. The proposed algorithm tends to reduce the computational time by reducing the total number of frames through dividing the video film into sub films, finding master frames, applying the slantlet transform which is orthogonal discrete wavelet transform with two zero moments and with improved time localization. Thresholding technique is applied to the details coefficients of the slantlet transform .The denoised frame is repeated to retain the original frame sequence. The proposed method was applied by using MATLAB R2010a with video contaminated by white Gaussian noise .The experimental results show that the proposed method provides better subjective and objective quality, and obtain up to 5-6 dB PSNR improvement from the frames contaminated by noise.


Article
Satellite Images Unsupervised Classification Using Two Methods Fast Otsu and K-means
التصنيف الغير موجه للصور الفضائية بأستعمال المصنفين اوتسو السريع والمعدل المتعدد

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Two unsupervised classifiers for optimum multithreshold are presented; fast Otsu and k-means. The unparametric methods produce an efficient procedure to separate the regions (classes) by select optimum levels, either on the gray levels of image histogram (as Otsu classifier), or on the gray levels of image intensities(as k-mean classifier), which are represent threshold values of the classes. In order to compare between the experimental results of these classifiers, the computation time is recorded and the needed iterations for k-means classifier to converge with optimum classes centers. The variation in the recorded computation time for k-means classifier is discussed.


Article
Superconducting Properties of the (Bi0.8Pb0.2)2(Sr0.9Ba0.1)2 Ca2Cu3-x Nix O10+ System.
الخواص الفائقة التوصيل للنظام (Bi0.8Pb0.2)2(Sr0.9Ba0.1)2 Ca2Cu3-x Nix O10+

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The effect of substitution of Ni on Cu in (Bi0.8Pb0.2)2(Sr0.9Ba0.1)2 Ca2Cu3-x Nix O10+ for (x=0,0.1….1,2,3) superconductor system and sintering time has been investigated .The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction methods. The results show that the optimum sintering temperature is equal to 850 ºC, and the sintering time is equal to 140 h. The highest transition temperature (Tc) obtained for (Bi0.8Pb0.2)2(Sr0.9Ba0.1)2 Ca2Cu3-x NixO10+ composition was 113 with x=0.8 Phase analyses of the samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed an orthorhombic structure with a high Tc phases (2223) as a dominant phase and low Tc phase (2212) in addition to some impurity phases.


Article
Dependence of gamma-ray absorption coefficient on the size of lead particle
اعتماد معامل امتصاص أشعة كاما على حجم دقائق الرصاص

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In this study, dependence of gamma-ray absorption coefficient on the size of Pb particle size ranging from 200µm up to 2.5mm, using different weights of each particle size. The results show that gamma-ray attenuation coefficient is inversely proportional with the size of Pb particle size due to the reduction of the spaces between the lead particles.


Article
Analysis of grape fruits and grape seed for their major , minor and trace elemental contact by XRF technique
تحليل فواكه العنب وبذورها باستعمال تقنية XRF

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Grapes and grape seeds are important samples employed for environmental medical studies . The air of this work was to identify and concentration calculation of the elements in grapes fruit and thier seeds by using X-Ray fluoresces technique (XRF) . Samples were collected from Abo Ghraib of Baghdad city ,the grape seeds were obtained from those samples . Both samples were taken under experimental procedure to obtain the sample which were ready for analysis . The samples were then submitted to experimental conditions using a radiation source and then samples were applied for counting analysis shows the elements Na , Mg , Al , Si , P , S , Cl , K , Ca , and Sr as major components of the samples. Fe , Sr , I , Ba and V were found an minor elements other elements Cr , Cu , Sn , Sb , Te gave a value of 5 – 10 ppm , Co , Ni , Rb , Ag ,Cd < 5 ppm for the samples of grape seeds . The analysis of grape seeds present Sr , Ca , K , Cl , S , Si , P as major components of the samples, and gave a values for Cr and Rb , Sn , Sb and Te (5 – 10 ppm) , while Co , Rb , Ni , Ag ,Cd (Less than 5 ppm) .

Keywords

XRF technique --- grape seed


Article
Development Binary Search Algorithm
تطوير خوارزمية البحث الثنائي

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There are many methods of searching large amount of data to find one particular piece of information. Such as find name of person in record of mobile. Certain methods of organizing data make the search process more efficient the objective of these methods is to find the element with least cost (least time). Binary search algorithm is faster than sequential and other commonly used search algorithms. This research develops binary search algorithm by using new structure called Triple, structure in this structure data are represented as triple. It consists of three locations (1-Top, 2-Left, and 3-Right) Binary search algorithm divide the search interval in half, this process makes the maximum number of comparisons (Average case complexity of Search) is O(log2 n) (pronounce this "big-Oh-n" or "the order of magnitude"), if we search in a list consists of (N) elements. In this research the number of comparison is reduced to triple by using Triple structure, this process makes the maximum number of comparisons is O(log2 (n)/3+1) if we search key in list consist of (N) elements.


Article
Impedance Characteristics of Pulsed Atmospheric Electrical Discharge in Spherical Plasma Switch
خصائص ممانعة تفريغ كهربائي نبضي في مفتاح بلازما كروي تحت الضغط الجوي الاعتيادي

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Abstract

A number of pulsed experiments have been carried out using a high-voltage circuit containing R,L, and C in certain arrangements. A spherical spark gap of steel electrodes was used as a high-current switch operated by a voltage of up to 8kV and triggered in both self-triggering and third-electrode triggering modes. Current measurements were carried out by using both current-viewing resistor and Rogowski coils designed for this purpose. Typical current waveforms have shown obvious dominating inductance effect of the circuit components in an underdamped oscillation. The behavior of the circuit impedance was studied by recording both pulsed current peaks and the charging voltages when currents of up to 2.5kA were recorded. The duration of these current pulses were found to extend between 0.1μs and 0.3μs depending on the values of the circuit components as well as the spacing of the spark gap electrodes along which the plasma propagates at atmospheric pressure. Over the whole range of experimental conditions, the average nominal impedance values were ranged between (2-10)Ω depending on the gap and circuit parameters. Typical damage patterns were observed with average diameters of up to 8.3 mm on the high voltage electrode and 10.5 mm on the grounded sphere resulting from accumulative discharges and power dissipation within the gap.


Article
Electrical behavior and Optical Properties of Copper oxide thin Films
السلوك الكهربائي والخواص البصرية لأغشية اوكسيد النحاس الرقيقة

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Abstract

In this work the structural, electrical and optical Properties of CuO semiconductor films had been studied, which prepared at three thickness (100, 200 and 500 nm) by spray pyrolysis method at 573K substrate temperatures on glass substrates from 0.2M CuCl2•2H2O dissolved in alcohol. Structural Properties shows that the films have only a polycrystalline CuO phase with preferential orientation in the (111) direction, the dc conductivity shows that all films have two activation energies, Ea1 (0.45-0.66 eV) and Ea2 (0.055-.0185 eV), CuO films have CBH (Correlated Barrier Hopping) mechanism for ac-conductivity. The energy gap between (1.5-1.85 eV).


Article
Monitoring the Vegetation and Water Content of Al-Hammar Marsh Using Remote Sensing Techniques
مراقبة النباتات والمحتوى المائي لهور الحمار بأستخدام تقانات الاستشعارعن بعد

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Abstract

The object of the presented study was to monitor the changes that had happened in the main features (water, vegetation, and soil) of Al-Hammar Marsh region. To fulfill this goal, different satellite images had been used in different times, MSS 1973, TM 1990, ETM+ 2000, 2002, and MODIS 2009, 2010. A new technique of the unsupervised classification called (Color Extracting Technique) was used to classify the satellite images. MATLAP programming used the technique and separated Al-Hammar Marsh from other water features (rivers, irrigated lands, etc.) when calculated the changes in the water content of the study region. ArcGIS 9.3 (arcMAP, arcToolbox) were used to achieve this work and calculate area of each class.


Article
The effect of Tilt Angle, Surface Azimuth and Mirror in Solar Cell Panel Output in Baghdad.
تأثير زاوية الميل وزاوية السمت السطحية والمرايا في القدرة الخارجة للوح الخلايا الشمسية في بغداد

Authors: Falah Hasan Ali فلاح حسن علي
Pages: 652-657
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Abstract

In this research (100* 40* 4 cm) solar cell panel was used in Baghdad at autumn season (2010), to get best solar cell panel angles experimentally, and then a mirror (40*50 cm) is use to concentrate incident sunlight intensity on a panel. At first case we get (Tilt angle P =60°and Surface Azimuth angle P =36°E) is the best angles and other case, we add a mirror at angle = 120° at bottom of panel, then we get output power (27.48watt) is bigger than without using a mirror (25.16watt). We can benefit from these cases in variety applications.


Article
Parabolic Trough Solar Collector – Design, Construction and Testing
تصميم وتركيب واختبار مركز شمسي حوضي ذو قطع مكافىء

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Abstract

This paper presents the design, construction and investigates an experimental study of a parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC). It is constructed of multi – piece glass mirror to form the parabolic reflector (1.8 m  2.8 m) its form were checked with help of a laser and carbon steel rectangular as receiver. Sun tracker has been developed (using two – axis) to track solar PTSC according to the direction of beam propagation of solar radiation. Using synthetic oil as a heat transfer its capability to heat transfer and load high temperature (400 oc). The storage tank is fabricated with stainless steel of size 50 L. The experimental tests have been carried out in Baghdad climatic conditions (33.3o N, 44.4o E) during selective days of the months October and November. The performance of PTSC is evaluated using outdoor experimental measurements including the useful heat gain, the thermal instantaneous efficiency and the energy gained by the storage tank oil. The storage tank oil temperature is increased from 30oc at 9:30h to 136oc at 13:30h without draw – off oil. The experimental result shows the average thermal efficiency was 42% which is fairly acceptable assessment results of a PTSC locally.


Article
Study of linear absorption-fluorescence spectroscopy of natural honey as an active medium.
دراسة اطياف الامتصاص و الفلورة الخطية للعسل الطبيعي كوسط فعال

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Abstract

In the present work, a study of absorption-fluorescence characterization of natural honey was presented, an optical tests were employed such as, absorbance and fluorescence spectrophotometer. An important parameter The area under the curve were calculated using GEUP program with other function, the results show that the natural pure honey can be used as an active laser medium.


Article
Effect of triammonium orthophosphate on fire retardationof Epoxy resin reinforced with wood flour
تأثير ثلاثي أمونيوم أورثو فوسفات على مقاومة الاحتراق لراتنج الايبوكسي المسلح بنشارة الخشب

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Abstract

Epoxy resin reinforced by 30% of wood flour was prepared as a composite . Triammonium orthophosphate as a flame retardant was added to composite at weight percentages of ( 0 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , and 10 ) % . Hand lay-up technique was used to prepare sheets from that composite. The results indicated that the rate of burning decreases with increasing the weight percentage of that flame retardant. And the limiting oxygen Index (LOI ) increases with increasing concentration of that flame retardant .


Article
Image Compression Using Tap 9/7 Wavelet Transform and Quadtree Coding Scheme
ضغط الصورة باستخدام التحويل المويجي 7/9 مع طريقة الترميز ذات الشجرة الرباعية

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Abstract

This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of an image compression method based on biorthogonal tap-9/7 discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and quadtree coding method. As a first step the color correlation is handled using YUV color representation instead of RGB. Then, the chromatic sub-bands are downsampled, and the data of each color band is transformed using wavelet transform. The produced wavelet sub-bands are quantized using hierarchal scalar quantization method. The detail quantized coefficient is coded using quadtree coding followed by Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) encoding. While the approximation coefficients are coded using delta coding followed by LZW encoding. The test results indicated that the compression results are comparable to those gained by standard compression schemes.


Article
An algorithm for binary codebook design based on the average bitmap replacement error (ABPRE)
خوارزمية توليد كتاب تشفير ثنائي بالاعتماد على معيار ال ABPRE

Authors: Maha A. Hameed مها احمد حميد
Pages: 684-688
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Abstract

In this paper, an algorithm for binary codebook design has been used in vector quantization technique, which is used to improve the acceptability of the absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) method. Vector quantization (VQ) method is used to compress the bitmap (the output proposed from the first method (AMBTC)). In this paper, the binary codebook can be engender for many images depending on randomly chosen to the code vectors from a set of binary images vectors, and this codebook is then used to compress all bitmaps of these images. The chosen of the bitmap of image in order to compress it by using this codebook based on the criterion of the average bitmap replacement error (ABPRE). This paper is suitable to reduce bit rates (increase compression ratios) with little reduction of performance (PSNR).


Article
A Study of Wear Rate Epoxy Resin filled with SiO2 particle and Glass fibers
دراسة معدل البلى لراتنج الايبوكسي المضاف اليه دقائق السليكا والياف الزجاج

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Abstract

This research is devoted to study the effect of different in weight percentage of Sio2 particles and glass fibers (5, 10, 15, 20) wt. % on the wear rate epoxy resin. The results show that the value of hardness increase with the increase for the weight percentage of reinforcing particles and fibers, while the wear rate decrease with the increase the load level of the reinforcing particles and fibers . The largest value of the hardness, and the lowest value of the wear rate for epoxy reinforced with 20% of SiO2, the wear rate increase in general with increasing the applied load.

Keywords

epoxy resin --- glass fibers --- sio2 --- wear rate

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