Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:8 issue:1عدد خاص بمؤتمر علوم الحياة

Article
Effect of Diclofenac (Voltaren) in histological structure of kidney in male Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus )
تأثير الدايكلوفيناك (الفولتارين) في التركيب النسجي للكلية في ذ كورالأرانب المحليةOryctolagus cuniculus))

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Abstract

This study was designed to know the effect of Diclofenac sodium (voltaren) drug on the histological composition of kidney in domestic rabbits . Twelve adult males with (1.4) kg weight . The first group of animals administrated orally by 1 ml of Voltaren with 6 mg/kg , while the second group with (1) ml of distal water (as control group ) . the administrated continue for (60) days sequentially. The treatment with voltaren showed pathological cases in tissues and cells of kidney including necrosis, infilteration ,congestion in blood vessels edema.Also epithelial separation in kidney tubules in comparison with control group Conclusion from the above results, revealed that voltaren had negative effects on the kidney tissues in local males rabbits .


Article
Effect of developmental stage in cryopreservation of Carp fish Cyprinus carpio L.
تأثير المرحلة التكوينية في حفظ اجنة اسماك الكارب العادي .Cyprinus carpio L بطريقة التجميد العميق Cryopreservation method

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Abstract

A total of 60 specimens of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (40 male, 20 female) were using in present study, ranges between 2 to 5 years, 2 to 5 kg. in total weight for male and 5 to 8 kg. in weight for female. Then preparing the fish for propagation and gain the sex products. A series of experimental processes were conducted to determine the effect of some entrant factors in the cryopreservation of carp embryos, one of these factors was Effect of developmental stage in cryopreservation of Carp fish Cyprinus carpio L . by measurement of Shrinkage period ;Survival ratio and Hatching ratio.


Article
Some blood parameters study in albino female mice orally given crude aqueous soy bean (Glycine max) seeds extract
دراسة بعض معايير الدم في اناث الفئران البيض المجرعة بالمستخلص المائي الخام لبذور فول الصويا (Glycine max)

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Abstract

The possible effect of the crude aqueous extract of soy bean seeds on some blood parameters (total count of red blood cells, white blood cell , (total and differential) blood platelates, packed cell volume and concentration of blood hemoglobin) was studied in 20 albino female mice which were allocated in four experimental groups (5 mice/group). The first group was orally treated with distilled water (control group) while the second, third and fourth group were given a concentration of 4%, 6% and 8% of the extract, respectively. At the end of the daily gavaging, which lasted for 4 weeks, the animals were killed, after recording their life body weight, and blood samples were collected from each mice to study the effect of the extract on the above mentioned parameters. Some of the active ingredients in the soy bean seeds extract were analytically tested. This test showed that the extract contained flavonoids and saponins. The effect of the extract on the studied blood parameters is reflected by the following results: 1) Significant (P<0.05) decline in life body weight of the treated animals. 2) Significant (P<0.05) increase in total and differential count of the white blood cells. 3) Significant (P<0.05) decrease in number of blood platelets in all treated groups. 4) Significant (P<0.05) and (P<0.01) decrease in PCV and total count of red blood cells, respectively. 5) Significant (P<0.05) increase in blood Hb concentration. From the above results it could be concluded that the crude aqueous extract of soy bean seeds has a direct negative effects on the studied blood parameters in albino female mice.


Article
Effect of crude alcoholic celery (Apium graveolens) leaves extract on fertility in albino female mice
تأثير المستخلص الكحولي الخام لأوراق الكرفس Apium graveolens على الخصوبة في إناث الفئران البيض

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Abstract

Sixty albino female mice were used in this experiment to study the possible effect of the crude alcoholic extract of the celery leaves on their fertility. These animals were randomly and equally divided into three experimental groups (20 females/group). The first and second groups were orally given a daily dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of the crude alcoholic extract, while the third group (control) was similarly treated, at the same time, with 0.1 ml/gm body weight of physiological saline for comparison. The treatment, however, lasted for 25 consecutive days. On day 26, after treatment was stopped, the life body weight of all animals was recorded before sacrificing the animals. Thereafter blood samples were collected by heart puncture for hormonal (estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) determination. Reproductive organs (ovaries and uteri) were also isolated and preserved for histological studies. Active ingredients in the extracts were analytically tested. The test gave positive results for flavonoids, steroids, tannins and terbenoids. The effect of the extract on the studied parameters which are related to the fertility is reflected in the following results: 1) significant (p<0.05) decrease in life body weight of treated animals. 2) significant (p<0.05) increase in weights of ovaries and uteri. 3) significant increase in number of ovarian follicles (primary and secondary) as well as the number and diameter of corpora lutea. 4) The concentration levels of all studied hormones were also significantly (P<0.05) increased. It is obvious from the above out lets that the alcoholic extracts of the celery leaves has a positive rule in fertility of albino female mice.


Article
Effect of environmental conditionsions on some biological aspects of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen ( Diptera : Drosophilidae ) collected from Saidiya and Tuwaitha regions in Baghdad
دراسة تأثير الظروف البيئية على بعض الجوانب الحياتية لذبابة الخلDrosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera : Drosophilidae ) المجموعة من منطقتي السيدية و التويثة في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

The wild populations of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen from two regions in Baghdad , Saidiya and Tuwaitha were selected for this study to investigating the frequency of the dominant lethality , this parameter was investigated through fecundity and egg hatchability rate which considered as main indicator for the presence of mutation . The results showed that fecundity rate in Saidiya increased with time , so the lowest rate was 65.5 eggs per female in November and the highest was 87.4 eggs in May , the same results was observed for Tuwaitha except a significantly decrease in fecundity rate that was observed in May which was 42.7 eggs , as well as another significant differences between the two regions was observed in March when the rate was in Saidiya more than Tuwaitha . The hatchability rate increased gradually in Saidiya until March which equal 69.3% , then decreased significantly in May and reached 48.6% , meanwhile , in Tuwaitha the highest hatchability rate was 67.6% in November, then it was decreased until March , while in May it decreased significantly to 24.5% . So , the hatchability rate decreased significantly in Tuwaitha if compared with that of Saidiya in March and May , before that , the opposite was in November and there isn’t any significant differences between the two regions in January .

Keywords

البيض --- Drosophila


Article
Effect of Manganese Chloride in Histological Testes of Male Albino Mice
تأثيركلوريد المنغنيز على نسجية خصى ذكور الفئران البيض

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Manganese on Histopathological changes in testes. Manganese Chloride was given to white mice with oral containing 150_200 and 250 mg/kg for periods of 15_30 and 45 days. The present study recorded the existence of histopathological symptoms in the testes, such as degeneration and necrosis in the tubules, congestion inside blood vessels and Edema in the interstitial tissue, as well as the appearance of giant cells inside the seminiferous tubules.


Article
Effect of Manganese Chloride in Histological of Ovaries in Albino mice
تأثير كلوريد المنغنيز في نسجية المبايض في الفئران البيض

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Abstract

Manganese is considered as one of heavy metals with high toxicity .This element has been used widely in various industries and it is spread with huge quantities in polluted industries areas. As a result the concentrations of this element in the environment have increased and consequently producing acute toxic effects in different tissues and organs of all organisms. A study has been conducted on (30) female of Swiss albino mice, to find out the effect of manganese chloride in histopathological changes of ovaries. The study includes, giving the manganese chloride with concentrations (150, 200 and 250 mg/kg) for (15, 30 and 45 day) for each concentration. The study has reported the existence of histopathological changes in the ovaries including congestion, reddening with emergence of blood vessels. In addition to that there is decrease in their weights and their sizes get smaller. Also there is degeneration in cells of the corpus lutum, and decrease in number of these bodies in the ovaries, with increase in atretic follicles, especially within the concentration (250 mgkg) for (45 day).


Article
First record of click Beetle Agriotes lineatus (Linneaus ) (Coleoptera : Elateridae )In the middle of Iraq
اول تسجيل للخنافس المُطَقطِقه (فرقع لوز) Agriotes lineatus (Linneaus) (Coleoptera : Elateridae) في وسط العراق

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Trials were carried out in the middle of Iraq ( 3 different sites ) during 2009 to detecation and determined the seasonal occurrence of Agriotes lineatus L. Three YATOR funnel traps were used in each of these sites which baited with the specific pheromone of A. lineatus from the first of March to the end of October in the College of Agriculture - Abu- Ghraib / Provenance of Baghdad and AL-Nile / Provenance of Babylon , while in AL-Radhwania was used through May- June. Pheromone dispenser were changed every 6 weeks in each of these traps . Males of A. lineatus were found in all of the three sites , and the total number capture were 208 , 897 and 57 male / 3 traps / season in College of Agriculture , AL-Nile and AL-Radhwania respectively . This is the first record of this species in Iraq . Seasonal occurrence was lasted from mid of April to mid of July with peak population in the end of May in college of Agriculture, while lasted from April to first of July with peak population at the first of June in AL-Nile site. The high population density of Males in AL-Nile site indicate the economic important of A. lineatus in this site on many crops epically on Potato crop .


Article
Study of the effect of some pregnancy parameters on Malon dialdehyde concentration in pregnant women
دراسة تركيز المالون ثنائي الألديهايد في النساء الحوامل خلال فترات وحالات مختلفة من الحمل

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Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of Malon dialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant women during different stages of pregnancy (stage of pregnancy, abortion, contraceptives and parity number).The study included (120) blood samples from normal pregnant women in age of the procreating were subdivided into three trimesters of pregnancy (40/group), and (40) samples from non-pregnant women as a control group. The results showed a significant increase in MDA in three stages of pregnancy compared with the control group. The concentration of MDA increased significantly in pregnant women with multipregnancy when compared with pregnant women for the first time, and in pregnant women whom was using contraceptions compared with pregnant women whom weren't using contraceptions, while there was non significant alternative in MDA level in pregnant women suffered from abortion compared with the pregnant women that didn't aborted .


Article
Effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen grains suspension on spermatogenesis and some biochemical parameters in albino rats
تأثير معلق حبوب لقاح النخيلphoenix dactylifera في نشأة النطفة وبعض المعايير الكيموحيوية في الجرذان البيض

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Abstract

In this study forty mature albino rats were used wich were randomly divided into five groups ,four groups were adminstrated Phoenix dactylifera pollen grains suspension at concertenrations (18,54,108,and 216)mg/ kg body weight by oral administration while the fifth group was considered as a control group.Experiment continued for 40 days then rats were sacrificed and samples of blood were collected for determination of some biochemical parameters (total protein ,total cholesterol ,LDLc and HDLc).Testis were removed for preparation histological sections to measures the diameters of seminferous tubules ,thickness of seminiferous epithelium and the numbers of spermatogenic cells. Results showed significant increase(p<0.05)in total protein and HDLc in the second and third groups compared with a control group while there was significant decrease(p


Article
Determination and evaluation of principal minerals in Negella sativa by atomic absorption technical methods
تقيس وتقييم العناصر الفلزية الرئيسية لنبات الحبة السوداء Negella sativa بتقنية الامتصاص الذري

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Abstract

Determination and evaluation of principal minerals in Negella sativa by atomic absorption technical methods were showed, using wet ashing method. This work was done on Negella sativa because of wide using of this plant in many formulations ( in food or medicine ).two types of atomic absorptions were used : first, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, for minerals of high concentrations such as, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Ca, Li, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu. Second, flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy, for minerals of low concentrations such as, Al, Si, V, B, Pb, Co, Cd, Cr ,Si, Hg, Sn .The results showed the existence of many minerals in Negella sativa useful to human sanity with acceptable dietary allowance. On other side, the presence of harmful minerals to human sanity(Pb, Cd, Hg ) were negligible.


Article
Effect of Mulching, Manures and chemical fertilizers on anatomical characters of (Solanum tuberosum L.) potato plants
تأثير تغطية التربة والأسمدة العضوية والكيمياوية في بعض الصفات التشريحية لنبات البطاطا

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Abstract

Anatomy studies were carried out in the experimental field, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to have better understanding of the influence of mulching with black polyethylene sheets, organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the anatomy changes in potato shoot and leaves tissues. Results showed that leaves area, leaves area index and chlorophyll percentage were significantly increased by using mulching and chemical fertilizer by (7463.70 cm2, 3.97, 45.33 SPAD units) respectively. Also this treatment significantly increased total stomata number and in both lower and upper sides of the leaf by (957,721,176) stomata /mm2 respectively. But by using mulching treatment with organic manure significantly increased vessels and sieve tubes diameter by (12.5, 2.75) micron for respectively. However the control treatment significantly increased leaves thickness spongy mesophyll by (45) micron, while the palisade parenchyma thickness was significantly increased to 26.25 micron in mulching and chemical fertilizers treatment. In conclusion, the interaction between mulching with black polyethylene sheets and fertilizing with organic and chemical manure , caused same anatomy characteristic changes which increased the potatoes plant yield and the ability to drought tolerance.


Article
Study of character and diversity of vegetation (cultivated plants) in Al-aaras Tourst Island / Baghdad
دراسة صفات وتنوع الغطاء النباتي (النباتات المستزرعة) في جزيرة الاعراس السياحية / بغداد

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Abstract

Vascular plants that have been identified during the study seasons in the Island. The cultivated plants were 126 species belong to 103 genera and to 49 families of the year 2001-2002 . The natural vegetation in this Island has been subjected to a total disturbance and subsidence due to the comprehensive turbidity of the Island environment.Number of names of that natural vegetation has been mentioned in the study within the weed plants.The results of the study of the period of flowering and their attitudes show clear seasonal differences. During the cold months of winter, the number of the cultivated and the natural plants was at the rate of 15%.These kinds of flowers require high level of care to increase their numbers. While in the spring season the number of the flowering of cultivated plants reach 64%.As for the type and the nature of the Flora, the annual species were 64%, while the trees were 18%. The perennial herbs and shrubs were 11% and 13% successively. The study of the analysis of vegetation clarifies that Cynodon dactylon has the higher level of coverage and frequency among the other cultivated plants.

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Article
Effect of cultar, potassium and salinity of irrigation water on some characteristics of vegetative growth of two cultivars of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)
تأثير الكلتار والبوتاسيوم والري بالماء المالح في بعض صفات النمو الخضري لصنفين من اشجار المشمش . Prunus armeniaca L

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This experiment was conducted in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture,college of Agriculture,Baghdad University during the growing season of 2007 To study the effects of spray with three concentration of cultar(0,500,1000 mg.L-1) ,tow concentration of K2SO4(0,5g.L-1), and salinity of irrigation water with three concentration (1,2,3dS.m-1) on some characteristics of vegetative growth of two cultivars of apricot trees (Labib1 and Zienni).The age of trees was four years .The tree grafted on original of seed apricot . Afactorial trail was carry out according to randomized complete block design with arrangement of split-split with three replications. Salinity of irrigation water took main plot, potassium took sub plot and cultar took sub sub plot, cultar significantly reduced the plant height and leaves area at apercentage of( 26.77 , 24.1 and 12.33 , 15.95%) respectively in labib and zienny cultivars respectively. Weheras significantly increased carbohydrates at apercentage of (4.44,4.35%) in labib and zienny cultivars respectively. K2SO4 was significantly increased the plant hight, leaves area and carbohydrates at apercentage of (15.66,12.82, 10.36,9.10 and 2.61,2.15%) respectively in labib and zienny cultivars respectively. Irrigation water salinity was decreased the plant hight, leaves area and carbohydrates at apercentage of (25.69, 29.17,15.29,16.29 and 24.31,30.65%) respectively in labib and zienny cultivars respectively.


Article
Taxonomical study of species Zygophyllum fabago L. in Iraq.
دراسة تصنيفية للنوع Zygophyllum fabago L. في العراق

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The present study dealt with taxonomic characters of species Zygophyllum fabago L. in Iraq . this study included the exo-morphological characters which indicated that the species was sub-shrub with solid stem and swallow nodes ,with compound bifoliate and stipulate leaves, the flower is complete and perfect with clawed petals . stamen colored with scaly appendage , fruit capsule with ribs . Anatomical study of vegetative parts indicate that the sclerenchymal tissue was very diffuse in stem such as fibers and sclerides ( stone cells ) , the leaves were bifacial . The geographical distiribution of the species plants was studied . The results supported with photographs


Article
Using of Rustumiya sewage water for irrigation:1- its effect on some soil properties and corn growth
استخدام مياه مجاري الرستمية في الري : 1- تأثيرها في بعض خواص التربة ونمو الذرة الصفراء

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This study is conducted to investigate the validity of using different levels of Rustumiya sewage water for irrigation and their effects on corn growth and some of the chemical properties of the soil such as electrical conductivity and soil pH in extract soil paste , the micro nutrient content in soil and plant which are ( Fe , Mn , Zn , Cu , Cd , Pb ). Three levels of sewage water ( 0 , 50 , 100 )% in two stages were used ,the three levels of wastewater ( without soil fertilization ) were used in the first stage , Where 80 Kg N /D+50Kg P2O5 /D was added to the soil as fertilizer in the control (0%) treatment and 40 Kg N/D+25Kg P2O5/D were added to 50 and 100% levels in the second stage .Corn seeds were planted in 12kg plastic pots in Completely Randomized Block Design in three replicates . The results show a high significant increase in plant height , fresh and dry weight for all treatments in comparison with control treatment . The low added level of sewagewater in both stages gave a significant increase of plant height and fresh and dry weight . The results showed a high increased of electrical conductivity for 50 , 100% wastewater added levels for both stages compared with control treatment , The high added level 100% gave high significant increase in electrical conductivity compared with the low level of the sewagewater .Whereas the values of soil PHwere close to the neutral for all treatment.The results showed a significant increase in micro nutrients content ( which include Fe , Mn , Zn , Cu , Cd , Pb ) in soil and plant for all treatments compared with control treatment . This increase was continued with the increase of additional level of sewagewater . However all the micro nutrient were within the allowable natural limits and not reached the toxic limits in soil and plant .


Article
Effect of some plant extracts on germination and seeding of Raphanus sativus and effect on surface growth ofRhizoctonia solani
تاثير بعض المستخلصات النباتية في انبات بذور الفجل Raphanus sativus ونمو بادراته وتاثيرها في النمو السطحي للفطر Rhizoctonia solani

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The experiment was conducted to study the effect of leaves extract of Salvia sclarea , Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris with 10% and 30% concentration on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings . The effect of these extracts on infection percentage of seeds decay and surface growth of Rhizoctonia solani . The results showed that the three extracts effected significantly to reduced percentage of seeds germination, acceleration of germination , promoter indicator , infection percentage of seeds decay and surface growth of R. solani especially in 30% concentration .


Article
The Effect of Silybum marianum L. aquatic crude extracts on the cancer cell lines and normal cell line in vitro
تاثير المستخلص المائي الخام لحبوب الكلغان Silybum marinum L. على الخطوط الخلوية السرطانية والطبيعية خارج الجسم الحي invitro

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The aquatic crude extract of Silybum marianum dry grains prepared by melting them in distil water by the method of soak and shake. The effect of Silybum marianum crude extract studied in vitro on three tumor cell line the Hep-2, AMN-3 and RD for 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure, and one cell line of normal cells REF for 72 hr exposure. The results showed that the prescence of toxic effect of the aquatic crude extract on the cell lines of Hep-2, AMN-3 and RD at 10 and 100 µg/ ml upto the higher concentrations when they exposed to the extract for 48 hr. as compared with the control treatment, and when the exposure period increased to 72 hr. the toxic effect started at low concentrations (5 and 10 µg/ ml) as compared with the control group. Results comparision showed that the AMN-3 cell line was the most affected ane by the aquatic extract then the Hep-2 and RD, while normal REF was never affected. The microscopic test showed toxic effect for the low and high concentration of aquatic extract on the cells which was presented by obrious changes on the cell lines growth and loosing their distingwish cellular form.


Article
Extraction and Purification of albumin from Hunan plasma
استخلاص وتنقية الالبومين من بلازما الدم البشري

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This study includes adescription of Human serum Albumin by amodified using ion- exchange chromatography with manipulated comparison with cold ethanol precipitation method , It has been nticed that this procedure is superior orer the classical method . The Final yield by the new method 69.32% with purity of 83.42% compared with cohn which yield 60.30 % with purity of 80.7 % . The new method prored that it suitable for the pusi Fication of such material because it yield no precipitation material and it increases the Final yield of albumin solutions . • Human serum Albumin . • Albumin purification . • Ion – exchange chromatography . • Human plasma . • Albumin extraction .


Article
Effect of cottonseed oil on reproduction performance of male mice.
تأثير زيت بذور القطن على الاداء التناسلي لذكور الفئران البيض

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Oil extract of cottonseed was orally administered to male mice at doses 0%, 20% and 40% daily for 6 weeks to study their effects on male reproduction performance. The results showed that testicular weight was significantly (P<0.05) decrease, highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the diameters of seminiferous and epididymal tubules and thickness of proliferated of spermatogenic and epithelial cells layers were revealed highly significant (P<0.01) decrease as compared to the control. Administration 20% and 40% cottonseed oil to male mice for 6 weeks caused a significant (P<0.05) and highly significant (P<0.01) decrease respectively in serum testosterone concentration as compared to the control. Dose 20% oil caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of serum FSH and LH, while 40% oil caused highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the level of serum FSH and LH. Finally, cottonseed oil caused histological changes in the testicular tissues which comprise different grades of degenerations in the spermatogenic layers, large numbers of germ cells were detached and sloughed in the lumen and absence of sperms from some of seminiferous tubules in addition to widening of interstitial spaces due to presence of edema and congestion of blood vessels. Objective of the present study was to knowledge the effect of cottonseed oil on male reproduction performance of mice which comprise different parameters such as measurement of reproductive organs weight, diameters of seminiferous and epididymal tubules, reproductive hormones and histological changes.


Article
The Consumed Natural Diet of Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843) from Tigris River, Salah Al-Deen Province
الغذاء الطبيعي المتناول من قبل سمكة البلعوط الملوكي Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843) من نهر دجلة، محافظة صلاح الدين

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The foreguts of a total of 515 fish of Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843) (locally: Bala’aot Malloky) were studied. These fish were collected from Tigris River at Salah Al-Deen Province (between Al-Hagag & Yathrib) for 20 months between March and October of the next year. Detritus, plant in origin materials (19.6%, 23.0% & 24.9%); green and blue green algae, mostly Cladophora, Cosmarium and Merismpedia sp. (17.1%, 12.9% & 12.2%) and diatoms, mostly Diatoma, Chanathes, Amphora and Cyulbella sp. (16.9%, 8.8% & 8.2%) were the main food categories taken by these fishes according to occurrence (O%), volumetric methods (V%) and ranking index (R%). Debris (not part of the diet) took 45.3% of the studied fish foreguts by volume. Detritus was also the most important food category (25.9%, 18.2%, 22.9% & 19.8%, by ranking index) at all sampling stations respectively, and taken by different fish size groups (168-200, 201-300 & 301-350mm).The diet overlaps between these fish size groups and that between different sampling stations were ranged between 0.86-1.0, i.e. fish were mainly feeding on the same food organisms.


Article
Impact of Rhizobial strains Mixture, Phosphorus and Zinc Applications in Nodulation and Yield of Bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
تأثير خليط اللقاح البكتيري وكل من الفسفور والزنك في تكوين العقد الجذرية وحاصل نباتات الفاصولياء Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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Abstract

Pot experiment was carried out at the College of Agriculture – Baghdad University during autumn season, 2007. Thirteen treatments were formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of four applications of Phosphorus (0, 60, 60×2 and 120 Kg P. h-1) and three applications of Zinc (0, 25×2 mg Zn. L-1 and 50 mg Zn. Kg soil-1) along with inoculating seeds of bean with strains mixture 889 and 1865 and non-inoculated treatment, on nodulation, yield and protein content in seeds (N%). The results showed that inoculated plants exceeded on non-inoculated one in all the studied characteristics. While, P and Zn, applications at the rate of 60×2 kg/ha and 25×2 mg/L respectively, significantly, increased, nodulation, yield, protein content in seeds of bean compared to non-inoculated treatment and Control. The highest grain yield (28.86 g/plant) were obtained with the interaction treatment (60×2 kg P /ha + 25×2 mg Zn /L) with Rhizobium inoculation. So, combined application of Rhizobium inoculant along with 60×2 kg P /ha and 25×2 mg Zn /L was considered to be the suitable combination of fertilizer for inoculated bean cultivation in silty clay loam soils.

Keywords

Rhizobial strains --- Phosphorus --- Zinc --- Bean


Article
In Vivo Toxicity Study of Nerium oleander's Leaves and Flowers Aqueous Extracts in Mice (Cytogenetic, Biochemical and Hematological Study)
دراسة سمية داخل الجسم الحي لتاثير المستخلصات المائية لاوراق وازهار نبات الدفلة في الفئران (دراسة العوامل الوراثية الخلوية والكيموحيوية والدموية)

Authors: Maha F. Altaee مها فخري مجيد
Pages: 366-372
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Abstract

The present research was carried out to assess the toxic effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander leaves and flowers daily at doses of (25) mg/kg body weight for four weeks in mice. The toxicity of this plant parts was determined after two and four weeks by measuring the parameters of cytogenetic (mitotic index, micronucleus %), and serum levels of the hematological (RBC, Hb, WBC) and biochemical (GOT, GPT, ALT, AST) indexes in comparison with that of the control (normal saline), also clinical signs were determined. The results showed a significant decrease in mitotic index while an obvious raise was seen in micronucleus percentage in comparison with that of the control after the two periods of administration. More over significant marked changes was seen in the level of all the hematological and biochemical parameters when compared with the control. In addition to that, diarrhea with some organ lesions were also observed.


Article
The Role of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri in immunological response of mice infected with Escherichio coli
دور المعزز الحيوي Lactobacillus gasseri في التأثير على بعض الاستجابات المناعية في الفئران المصابة ببكتريا Escherichia coli

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Male albino mice (BalbC) were treated with Probiotcs bacteria L.gasseri only , another group were treated with E.coli only whereas the third group treated with both L.gasseri and E.coli. Results revealed that phagocytosis was increase significantly, the percentages were 59.60% , 20% and 35% in first , second and third group respectively. Hemoglobin was increase the value was 12.35 gd in the first group , 7.51 gd in the second group and 11 gd in the third group. DTH was 0.76mm in the first group , 0.20mm in the second group and 0.53mm in the third group.


Article
Studying some Immunological and Hormonal profiles in Infertile Male
دراسة بعض الجوانب المناعية للذكور العقيمين

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The present study was designed to evaluate the immunological status in a sample of Iraqi males with primary infertility and them age range18-55 years, who were attending the Centre of Infertility and in vitro Fertilization (Kamal Al-Samaraie Hospital, Baghdad) during the period December 2008 – April 2009. They were divided into three groups; 40 patients with anti-sperm antibodies (ASA), 20 patients with Asthenozoospermia (AST) and 20 patients with azoospermia (AZO). In adition to20 fertile males was as control group. The parameters of evaluations were standard seminal fluid analysis, anti-sperm antibodies and anti-mitochondrial antibodies in serum, Therefore, two types of samples were collected from each subject; seminal fluid and blood. The following results were obtained: 1. There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease count of sperms in ASA (44.6 x 106 sperm/ml) and AST (46.9 x 106 sperm/ml) patients as compared to controls (63.2 x 106 sperm/ml) but the the result with in normal limit. 2. Serum anti-sperm antibodies were positive in 100.% of ASA patients, while in AZO patients, a much lower percentage was observed (25% for serum), and a much lower percentage was observed in controls (5% for serum but these influence were not clear). In contrast, none of the AST patients were positive ASA. These results were positively correlated with the corresponding serum and seminal fluid level, and the highest level was observed in ASA patients (107.6 U/ml). These differences were statistically significant. 3. Serum AMA showed different percentages in ASA, AST and AZO patients and controls (37.5, 25.0 and 20.0, 15.0%, respectively), but these differences were not significant. However, their serum level was significantly increased in ASA patients as compared to controls (11.9 vs. 6.5 U/ml).


Article
Some A Survey Study On The Role of Women in Controlling Parasites Contaminated with Vegetables.
دراسة مسحية عن دور المرأة في السيطرة على بعض الطفيليات الملوثة للخضروات

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Three hundred samples of washing water of vegetables were collected from women aged ( 15- 6o) years from different area in Baghdad governorate and its suburbs include two rural area ( Jaddria in Baghdad university and Al –Wagif in Rashdia) and two urbane area (Mansoure and Escan) . The samples were examined by precipitation method and then by staining method ( Lugols –Iodine stain) . The percentage of infection of intestinal parasites 36.3% include 15.3% for urban area and 57.3% in rural area and a significant difference was found between those groups . .The results showed also increased in the prevalence of parasitic infection in group age (15 -30) year .Also the results showed only 109 sample infected with eight species of enteric parasites fife of them are protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica ,Giardia lamblia ,Entamoeba coli, Chilomastix mesnili and Iodamoeba butschlii) and three eggs of helminthes (Taenia saginata) and Nematoda( Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichura )Also a significant difference was found between prevalence of infection and education state .


Article
Evaluation the efficiency of Trichomonas vaginalis depending on clinical sings , direct examination ,culturing and serological test
تقييم كفاءة تشخيص المشعرات المهبلية vaginalis Trichomonasبالأعتماد على الاعراض السريرية والفحص المباشر و الزرع والفحص السريرولوجي

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The adequacy of diagnostic tests, together with trichomoniasis associated clinical symptoms, were investigated in females suffering vaginitis, and they were referred to the Gynecology Department, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital during the period December 2004 – June 2005. The total number of patients was 250 cases (age range: 18 - 52 years), and each patient was examined using a sterile speculum to obtain vaginal swabs for examination. The diagnosis with T. vaginalis was done in many methods. The direct methods included wet and stained (Leishman's stain) examinations and cultivation in different culture media (Kupferberg Trichomonas Broth Base;, Trichomonas Agar Base; TAB and Trichomonas Modified CPLM), while the indirect methods were serological detections of anti-trichomonas antibodies in the sera of patients by using of indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of this profile were as the following: 1. Out of 250 females with abnormal vaginal discharges, 15 patients (6%) were infected with T. vaginalis. 2. The sensitivity of testing methods was different. It was 66.7 and 13.3% for wet and stained examinations, respectively. In culture examinations, the sensitivity was 60, 80 and 100% for Kupferberg, TAB and CPLM media, respectively, while the sensitivity IHAT and ELISA were 40 and 73.3%, respectively. 3. The clinical sings of infection in women were discharge and itching (46.7%), discharge with itching and dysuria (20.0%), discharge only (13.3%), itching only (13.3%) and discharge with dysuria (6.7%). Therefore we can conclude that impossible to the clinical signs in diagnose of Trichomonasis because of the variation and the laboratory diagnosis is necessary especially the cultivation method.


Article
The effect of methanol and water plant extracts of Cordia myxa on Some pathogenitic bacteria and Candida albicans
دراسة فعالية مستخلص ثمرة نبات البمبر Cordia myxa المائي والكحولي على بعض انواع البكتريا المرضية وخميرة Candida albicans

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this study aimed to study the effect of Cordia myxa extract on the growth and activities of the following types of bacteria : Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus Spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes , Bacillus subtilus, and the yeast Candida albicans .the results showed an inhibitory effect of the methanol extract on both the growth and activity of the tested microbes .this was reflected by the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) of different type of bacteria and the yeast.


Article
Bacteriological and Cytological study For bronchial washes from lung cancer patients
دراسة خلوية وبكتريولوجية لسوائل تنظير القصبات لمصابي سرطان الرئة

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The study included the collection of 75 bronchial wash samples from patients suspected to have lung cancer. These samples were subjected to a diagnostic cytological study to detect the dominant type of lung cancer. It was noticed that 33 patients proved to have a lung cancer out of 75 (44%) of these, 19 cases (57.6%)were diagnosed having Squamus cell carcinoma,7cases (21.21%) showed Adenocarcinoma ,6 cases (18.18%) were having small cell carcinoma while only one case (3.03%)was large cell carcinoma .Nearly 70% of cases were correlated with smokers .Bacteria were isolated from 53 patients in which 33 isolates were associated with the cancer cases while 20 of them from non infected patients. By using different morphological ,biochemical tests followed by api20 ,the bacterial isolates correlated with cancer were diagnosed and were characterized as 12 isolates (36.36%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,6 isolates (18.18%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Pseudomonas fluorescence and Esherichia coli for each while only 3 isolates (9.09%)of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. Some of bacterial virulence factors were determined in which,24 isolates (72.7%) were capable of agglutinating red blood cells, 16 isolates (48.5%) had the ability to adhere to epithelial cells , in addition ,15 isolates (45.5%) proved to have capsule and 24 isolates(72.7%) gave a positive results in heamolysin test beside ,25 isolates (75.8%) were ß –Lactamase producers. The isolates were highly resisted Ampicillin, Amoxicillin and Cefotaxime while they were inhibited by low concentrations of Ciprofloxacin and Cefepime the 4th generation cephalosporins.


Article
The Mutagenic Effect of water Extracts of Malva parviflora by Bacterial System (part II )
القابلية التطفيرية والمضادة للتطفير للمستخلص المائي لنبات الخباز Malva parviflora باستخدام نظام بكتيري (الجزء الثاني)

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This study was carried out in order to determine the toxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects for Mallow (Malva parviflora) in comparison to its mutagenic effect of Ultraviolet (UV) because it is consider physical mutagen by using parameters for the extract pri , with , post UV exposure by using bacterial system (G-system). The used system consisted of three isolates G3 Bacillus spp., G12 Arthrobacter spp. and G27 Brevibacterium spp.. The study depended on recording survival fraction (Sx) for studying the effects and induction of Streptomycin and Refampicin resistance mutants as a genetic markers.Water Extract was prepared from fresh and dry mallow leaves, stems, flowers and roots, in optimum concentration equal to (125µg/ml) which is considered a negative control.The interactions included three types of treatments (pre, with and post –UV exposure) as a physical mutagen in order to determine the activity of this plant extracts in preventing or reducing the toxicity of the mutagen. The results of interaction effect between the optimum concentration of water extract and the mutagen on survival fraction (Sx) showed increasing in the value of the survival fraction of G-system isolates to reach normal value in comparison with positive control (UV). The results of the interaction between optimum concentration of extracts and the treatment with mutagen to induce resistance mutant for streptomycin and refampicin showed that the UV had no effect to induce resistance mutant for these two antibiotics, for the two types of treatment (with, post- UV) for all extracts, the water extract suppress or repair mutant and give protection 100% for bacterial cells, while the percentage of pre-UV treatment was (92- 97.3%).


Article
Use of Coliphages as an indicators of enteroviruses and faecal pollution in Water
أستخدام عاثيات الكولي فاج كدلائل للفيروسات المعوية والتلوث البرازي للمياه

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In spite of increasing clinical cases which caused by enteroviruses transferred by water and no documents about entericviruses in the Iraqi water standards. The use of coliphages as an indicator of enteroviruses and fecal pollution were suggested two procedures were applied . The first is Two-Step Enrichment Method and the second is Single Agar Layer Method. Both methods gives good results in Identification of coliphages through testing fifty different water samples (Tap water, Surface water and Bottled water) the study shows the presence of coliphages in fourteen samples.


Article
Comparison study between two different Environment areas regarding diarrhea causes.
دراسة مسببات الاسهال ومقارنتها بين منطقتين بيئيتين مختلفتين

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This study Achieved to search form the infections by Cholera and Diarrhea in two different areas from the side of Cultural, Social, Economical and Environmental field in Baghdad governorate, during a period from 3/10 – 3/12/2007.these were in Obiady city and Palestine street. This study included groups of patients who went to the Kindy Hospital lab. The researcher use a sample of (300) persons of different ages with range (150) persons in each city from the study city, in this study show a great different in the percentage of infection by parasites, helminthes, viruses, bacteria and vibrio cholera in the two city according to age groups, reach upper percentage by infection in age (1-10) years in Obiady city with percent (57.5 %) while was in Palestine street (16.62%) and was the infection in age group (31-40) years reach (75%) in Odiady city in comparison with Palestine street that reach ( 7.40 %) due to differences of the Economical and Environmental and Increasing service supports in Palestine street comparing with Obiady city .


Article
Cytoplasmic expression of matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP-2,MMP-9) in transitional cell carcinomaof the urinary bladder
التعبير السايتوبلازمي للانزيمات المحلله للبروتين(MMP-9,MMP-2) في سرطان الخلايا الانتقالية للمثانة البولية

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This study was designed by using 36 paraffin embedded tumor tissues obtained from TCC patients , 27 patients were males and 9 were females with male to female ratio of 3:1 . the mean patients age was 60 years (range between 35 and 97 years ) . According to the histopathological reports; malignant tissues were classified in to grades( І, І І, І І І) each one consist of 12 biopsies; and stages (Ta,T1,T2) each one consist of (3,25,8) biopsies respectively. 10 normal bladder tissues (autopsies) obtained from forensic medicine institute of 6 males and 4 females their age ranged between 36 and 65 years . All specimens undergone to Immunohistochemistry technique to investigate the cytoplasmic expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 which showed a significant increase in malignant tissues compaired with the normal tissues (P<0.05). According to the histopathological criteria of malignant tissues ; MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed a positive relation with tumor grade progression ; so cytoplasmic expression of there enzymes was increased with tumor grade increase (p<0.05) , (p<0.05) respectively From this study we conclude that overexpression of MMP-2 , MMP-9 are correlated with TCC invasion and progression .


Article
Evaluation the efficiency of different techniques for extraction and purification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)
تقويم كفاءة تقنيات مختلفة لاستخلاص وتنقية فايروس تجعد واصفرار أوراق الطماطة TYLCV

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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different techniques for extraction and purification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). An isolate of the virus free of possible contamination with other viruses infecting the same host and transmitted by the same vector Bemisia tabaci Genn. was obtained. This was realized by indicator plants and incubation period in the vector. Results obtained revealed that the virus infect Nicotiana glutinosa without visible symptoms, while Nicotiana tabaccum var. White Burley was not susceptible to the virus. The incubation period of the virus in the vector was found to be 21 hrs. These results indicate that the virus is TYLCV. Results showed that Butanol was more effective in clarification the sap and eliminate of plant proteins and chlorophyll. The use of citrate buffer at pH 8 amended with reducing agents and EDTA to prevent the oxidation of phenolic compound was found to be suitable in maintaining the biological activity of the virus during extraction. The quantity of the virus obtained was 3.05 mg/100 gm leaves with absorption ratio of 1.4 at 260/280 nm which represent standard value for TYLCV.


Article
Population Dynamics of the Terrestrial - Isopod species Armadillidium vulgare Latrielle , 1804 in AL - Jadriyia District -Baghdad - Iarq .
دراسة دينامية الجماعة السكانية لمتشابهة الأقدام الأرضية النوع Armadillidium vulgare Latrielle , 1804 في منطقة الجادرية - بغداد - العراق .

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The Present Work includes the study of the population dynamics of Armadillidium vulgare in AL- Jadiriya region in Baghdad. Monthly samples were collected using a quadrat 0.0625 m2 from November 2007 to November 2008.. The population density of A.vulgare, ranged from 880 ind/m2 in May to251 ind/m2 in January respectively. This species showed high aggregation dispersion in the study area. The sex ratio showed that the number of females were more than that of males and significantly differd (P < 0.05) during the reproductive months. Furthermore, it was found that the juveniles of species were present at most time of the year, But the large sized groups have been observed during summer and spring. And showed a positive linear correlations between the size of ovigerous females and the number of eggs and The incubation period ranged from 30 to 50 day in this species, The number of eggs per brood ranged between 9- 32 egg in this species. The cohort analysis of the populations showed that A.vulgare had three generations during the study period .The life table analysis results showed that the expected life for this species was six months. And this species had single breeding season started from April to September


Article
Effects of Organic Pollution on some Fish and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Groups in Rivers Tigris and Diyala at Baghdad Area.
تأثير التلوث العضوي على بعض أنواع الأسماك و مجاميع اللافقريات القاعية العيانية في نهري دجلة و ديالى ضمن مدينة بغداد.

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Various activities taking place within the city of Baghdad have significantly contributed to organic pollution in Rivers Tigris and Diyala. The present study aimed to assess some physical, chemical and biological aspects of six sites on Rivers Tigris and Diyala as they flow through the city of Baghdad. Monthly samples were collected for the period January to December, 2005. Marked differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of water were noted between the two rivers’ sites. Average values during the study period of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, particulate organic matter, nitrate, phosphate and total dissolved solids for Tigris and Diyala were 7.8,4.7; 2.4,10.4; 350.1,921.4;7.8,13.9;1.2,4.8;814,2176 mg / l respectively. The populations of two fish species, known to be present in polluted waters Silurus triostegus and Mystus pelusis, were also investigated. The two species markedly differed in their favored sites, and their numbers were significantly correlated with particulate organic matter. Average length and weight of Silurus triostegus and Mystus pelusius were respectively 40.1mm, 56.8gm and 15.3mm, 68.3gm for River Tigris, and 40.5mm, 67.5gm and 17.9mm, 73gm respectively for River Diyala. Average population densities of the major groups of benthic macro invertebrate fauna [Crustaceans, Annelids, Insects and Mollusks] were 1496, 2640, 2574 and 1744 individual/m2 respectively for River Tigris and 463, 2312, 2287 and 1700 individual/m2 respectively for River Diyala. Most invertebrate groups showed positive correlation with particulate organic matter. Despite the severity of organic enrichment in River Diyala, biotic conditions in its sites were rather similar, unlike sites on River Tigris where they significantly differed in many physical, chemical and biotic respects.


Article
Testing the efficiency of duckweed Lemna spp. in reducing the concentration of zinc and iron from the wastewater when increase biomass
اختبار كفاءة نبات عدس الماء Lemna spp. في خفض تركيز الزنك والحديد من مياه الصرف الصحي عند زيادة الكتلة الحية

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The study searches for the possibility of using duckweed Lemna spp. to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (zinc and iron) in the wastewater of Baghdad by culturing two different densities of the plant with a fresh weights 5 and 10 g/l and without the plant under optimum uncontrolled conditions. The result showed that there was a significant differences at the possibility level of (p 0.05) for the three treatments, as the highest percentages for zinc removal in the second day for the plant treatment of 5 g/l were 66.40%, while the highest percentage of iron removal were in the tenth days for the plant treatment 10 g/l were 80 %, and noticed that the increase of the heavy metals concentrations accumulated in the plant after being cultured in the wastewater compared to the concentration before it is cultured. Concluded from the study the superiority of the plant treatments in reducing the concentrations of heavy metals as well as the density of the plant cultured weight 10 g/l is very suitable to remove the heavy metals from the wastewater.


Article
Intracellular and Extracellular extracts activity of Oscillatoria limnetica and Chroococus minor against some Bacteria and Fangi
تأثير فعالية المركبات المنتجة من الطحلبين Oscillatoria limnetica و Chroococus minor ضد بعض البكتريا والفطريات

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In this study Oscillatoria limnetica and Chroococus minor were isolated ،purified and identification from water canal around Baghdad University Campus. The water of this canals originally from Tigris River. BG-11 culture media was used for their cultivation in suitable laboratory conditions (25c°, 200µE/m2/sec) for 16:8 hrs. Light: dark. Each culture was harvested at the end of exponential phase .Organic solvents used for extraction were Ethanol، Hexane and Methanol 95% to extract the crude active Intracellular and Extracellular substances, and evaporated down to dryness .Antibacterial and antifungal activity of these different extracts were evaluated against 6 strains of gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria in addition to fungi, Agar diffusion method was used in this evaluation. Results showed that the extracellular products which extracted by hexane and the extracellular products which extracted by ethanol from Oscillatoria limnetica were have higher antagonistic activity against bacteria and Fungi comparing with methanol extracts .However higher antibacterial and antifungal were obtained against the studied strains of comparing with methanol and ethanol extracts of the same algae products. The gram positive bacteria studied revealed higher susceptibility to attack by the intracellular and extracellular extracts comparing with the gram negative bacteria. These extracts revealed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilise and the average of inhibition zone were 26, 22 mm. for intracellular and extracellular products of O.limnetica respectively. However, C. minor intracellular products extract has the antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus with 28 mm inhibition zone


Article
Determination of environmental lead pollution in Alawi el-hilla and Bab-almudam bus stations in Baghdad city
واقع التلوث البيئي بالرصاص في مرآبي علاوي الحلة وباب المعظم للنقل العام في مدينة بغداد

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Two main grand bus national stations in Baghdad ( Alawi-alhila and Bab-almudam) were chosen as examples to determine lead effect on its drivers. This lead came from ethyl tetra lead or ethyl tri lead which used to improve gasoline quality ,so these two stations could be consider as two of the most polluted places due to gasoline burned by hundreds cars located in these stations .The determination of environmental lead pollution was measured in blood and urines drivers. Drivers were divided in two main groups due to their ages ( 30 persons in each group). The first group for men of 22-30 years old. The second group for men of 40-60 years old. Those men were carefully chosen in order to be non-fumiers or non-alcoholics persons because of the presence of lead in alcohol and cigarettes products .The results prove the presence of high pollution levels of lead in the second group : 35ug/dl in blood and 178 ug/l in urine.


Article
The mucosal and systemic immune status for diabetic and non-diabetic Dentialvcolar infected patients
الحالة المناعية الموضعية والجهازية لمرضى السكري والمرضى من دون السكري المصابين بالتهاب السن والانتفاخ

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From a group of 60 patients with dentoalveolar infections among which 10 were diabetic and 10 non-diabetic were elected as test group as well as 10 normal subjects as control group. Six Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus anginousus were diagnosed in the first and second group of the patients the immune status of the patients and control subject were tested by pathogen specific antibody titre, neotrophil NBT reduction phagocytosis and leukocyte inhibition LIF. Diabetic patients with dentoalveolar infection shows decreased specific antibody titers, subnormal neutrophil NBT phagocytic % as well as non significant LIF % in comparison non diabetic reveal high specific antibody titers against , high neutrophil NBT% and significant LIF% respectively thus diabetic indicate humoral and cellular immune suppression along the den to alveolar infection.


Article
Antibody response in Hamsters Immunized against experimental Leishmaniasis
استجابة الأجسام المضاده في حيوانات الهامستر الممنعة ضد الخمج بداء اللشمانيات التجريبي

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Direct agglutination test was used to evaluate the immunogenicity of three different antigens inoculated in hamsters as one , two and three doses which were: Group (1) inoculated with autoclaved killed Leishmania tropica , Group (2) inoculated with BCG vaccine alone while Group (3) inoculated with mixed antigens (autoclaved killed Leishmania "AKL"+ BCG).(4) Control animals inoculated with phosphate buffer saline. The maximum level of antibody titers were evaluated in animal inoculated with one , two or three dose of mixed antigens (320 , 640 and 1280) respectively when it compared with animals inoculated with corresponding doses of AKL antigen (80 , 160 and 320) respectively. While the minimum level of antibody titers were observed in animal inoculated with two and three dose of BCG (20 and 40) respectively. Our findings suggest that administration of BCG with AKL could lead to a potentially associated antibody response in animals, as well as, such response may evaluate the immunogenicity of some antigens.


Article
Curing of mice skin infections using ethanol flower extract of chamomile
معالجة جلد الفئران المصابة ببعض المسببات البكتيرية والفطرية بالمستخلص الايثانولي لأزهار البابونج

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This experiment was conducted in order to estimate azulene and apigenin in chamomile flowers. Ethanol extracts were examined singly or in combination with some drugs in their biological activity against some pathogens causing skin infection. Ethanol extract was applied at a concentration of 40 mg/ml for the treatment of induced skin infection of mice. Among the topicals used, Claforan was found the most effective on microorganisms causing skin diseases; ethanol extract was more effective than the drug Candimazole solution 1%. HPLC was used for the determination of azulene and apigenin active compounds of chamomile plant.


Article
Extraction and purification of L-Asparaginase II from local isolate of Proteus vulgaris
استخلاص وتنقية أنـزيم L-Asparaginase II المنتج مـن بكتريـا vulgaris Proteus المعزولة محلياً

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Forty one isolates of genus Proteus were collected from 140 clinical specimens such as urine, stool, wound, burn, and ear swabs from patients of both sex. These isolates were identified to three Proteus spp. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. penneri .The ability of these bacteria to produce L-asparaginase II by using semi quantitative and quantitative methods was determined. P. vulgaris Pv.U.92 was distinguished for high level of L-asparaginase II production with specific activity 1.97 U/mg. Optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined; D medium with 0.3% of L-asparagine at pH 7.5 with temperature degree 35°C for incubation. Ultrasonication was used to destroy the P. vulgaris Pv.U.92 cells then ASNase II was extracted and purified throughout several purification steps including precipitation with (NH4)2SO4(60-80%), DEAE-cellulose ion exchanger chromatography followed by Sephacryl S-300 filtration. The specific activity was 155.6 U/ mg and the purification fold was 27.3 with 10.4% yield.


Article
Phytoplankton primary production in southern Iraqi marshes after restoration
الانتاجية الاولية للهائمات النباتية لاهوار جنوب العراق بعد اعادتها

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Primary productivity and chlorophyll-a were used in this study to monitor the restoration process of southern Iraqi marshes (Al-Hewaizeh, central marshes, and Al-Hammar). The phytoplankton primary productivity was based on oxygen light/dark bottle method. Two different depths samples were taken monthly from six studied marshes stations (two stations for each marsh) during November 2005 to October 2006, while chlorophyll-a samples taken from surface water. The phytoplankton primary productivity values ranged 9.38 – 249.79 mg C/m3.hr for all marshes, its values for surface water sample ranged 11.71 – 256.24 mg C/m3.hr, while for 1m depth ranged 9.38 – 142.5 mg C/m3.hr. Chlorophyll-a values ranged between (1.1 – 21.26) µg/l indicating high values of productivity in the studied marshes comparing with other aquatic Iraqi ecosystems. Also, dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation rate were measured in this study.


Article
Environmental Study of Some Water Characteristics at Um-Al-Naaj Marsh, South of Iraq.
دراسة بيئية لبعض خصائص مياه هور أم النعاج, جنوب العراق

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Um-Al-Naaj region in Al-Hawiezah Marsh, Southern Iraq was chosen to study the environmental variations of some water characteristics during 2008, seasonally. The results showed clear seasonal changes in values of some environmental variables (temperature, depth, light penetration, turbidity, total suspended solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, reactive phosphate, reactive nitrite, and reactive nitrate), while there were no clear seasonal changes in electrical conductivity and salinity values. In addition, high nutrients concentrations and light penetration were noted. Statistical analysis showed significant positive relationship between air and water temperature; electrical conductivity and salinity. Water turbidity was significantly affected by total suspended solids. On the other hand, some of the studied variables had significant negative effects (relative relationships) to each other, when water pH and dissolved oxygen were affected by temperature; total suspended solids and turbidity affected also light penetration.


Article
Lead bioremoval by Bacillus spp. Isolated from industrial wastewater
الازالة الحياتية للرصاص بوساطة Bacillus spp. المعزولة من مياه الفضلة الصناعية

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Four samples were collected from the wastewater of State Battery Manufacturing Company (SBMC); Babylon 2 factory in AL-Waziriya district, as triplicates. Physical and chemical measurements were carried out such as temperature, pH, Lead concentrations and their ranges were: (19.5-34.5) °C, (6.1-6.4) and (4.5-6.5) mg/L, respectively. Six dominant Bacillus spp. isolates were isolated from these samples; namely, Bacillus subtilis N1, Bacillus subtilis N2, Bacillus subtilis N3, Bacillus cereus N4, Bacillus cereus N5 , Bacillus cereus N6. These isolates were capable of removing Lead from aqueous solutions in a capacity reached 27.6 ± 1.4, 10.1 ± 1.7, 74.5 ± 0.7, 8.93 ± 2.8, 8.1 ± 3.5, 1.6± 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Whereas cell walls, extracted from the same isolates, were able to remove Pb with high efficiency reached 77.7 ± 0.3, 18.6 ± 1.2, 9.5 ± 0.7, 42.4 ± 6.3, 9.9 ± 0.9, 6.7 ± 2.1 mg/L, respectively. This study showed that there is high variation (P<0.05) in the ability of the isolated bacteria for lead biosorption. However, Bacillus subtilis N3 were the most efficient (P<0.05) in uptaking the lead from its aqueous solutions in average of (74.5 ± 0.7) mg/L compared to other bacterial species. FTIR spectrum illustrated that hydroxyl groups, carboxyl, amide, and carbonyl are the major sites for Pb binding. Cell walls of B. subtilis were able to remove almost all Pb ions from the wastewater sample (4.5 mg/L) taken from the wastewater treatment unit in the State Battery Manufacturing Company.

Keywords

Lead --- bioremoval --- Bacillus --- wastewater


Article
Effect of some Organic Pollutants (furfural and toluene) on Biological Aspects of Free- living Ciliate Oxytricha falax
تأثير بعض المواد العضوية( الفورفورال والتولوين) على بعض الجوانب الحياتية للهدبي حر المعيشة Oxytricha falax

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Abstract

Samples of Oxytricha falax were collected from Tigris River by 55µ. mesh net. Culturing of O. falax were cultivated in specific conditions (DO 3-5mg/l.; W.Temp. 24±1ºC; pH: 6.8-7.5).The effect of various furfural concentration 0, 20, 40, 80,100 and 124 ppm and toluene concentration 0, 15, 30, 34.2, 34.5 and 35 ppm after two periods of treatment (24 and 48 hr.) on the physiological parameters of O. falax ciliate were observed. This study showed that the lethal concentration of furfural was 124ppm and 80ppm after 24hr. and 48hr. from treatment which killed all the individual community respectively. Furthermore the treatment of O. falax individuals with different concentrations of toluene indicated that 34.5 ppm of it caused disappearance of the individuals' population after 48hr., while the 35ppm concentration from toluene caused dead of all individuals after 24 hr. from their treatment.


Article
Distribution Of Some Heavy Metals In Water,Sediment & Fish Cyprinus carpio in Euphrates River Near Al- Nassiriya City Center South Iraq .
توزيع بعض المعادن الثقيلة في الماء,الرواسب وسمكة الكارب الاعتيادي Cyprinus carpio في نهر الفرات قرب مركز مدينة الناصرية جنوب العراق

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Abstract

The heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, pb, and Zn were determined in dissolved and particulate phases of the water,in addition to exchangeable and residual phases of the sediment and in the selected organs of the fish Cyprinus carpio collected from the Euphrates River near Al-Nassiriya city center south of Iraq during the summer period / 2009 .Also sediment texture and total organic carbon(TOC) were measured. Analysis emploing a flam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers . The mean regional concentrations of the heavy metals in dissolved (µg/l) and particulate phases (µg/gm) dry weight were Cd (0.15,16.13) ,Cu (0.59,24.48) ,Fe (726,909.4) ,Pb (0.20, 49.95) and Zn (2.5,35.62) respectively,and those for exchangeable and residual phases of the Sediment were Cd (0.2,0.1) ,Cu (13.75,16.65) ,Fe (683 , 1351 ) ,Pb (10.1,1.07) and Zn (7.3,16.75)µg/gm dry weight respectively. The heavy metals concentrations in C. carpio organs followed the trend gill > liver > kidney> muscles . The mean concentration in the muscles were Cd (ND) , Cu (0.07) , Fe (4.7) , pb (0.06) and Zn (6.4) (µg/gm) dry weight . The statistical analysis proved a significant correlation between metal concentration in the sediment and total organic carbon, also a positive correlation was proved between its concentrations in the liver organ and the water (particulate phase) . In conclusion the trace metals concentration in particulate phase were higher than its concentration in the dissolved phase . The fish organs showed variations in the metals concentration and the muscle organs showed less concentration than the other organs .

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