جدول المحتويات

مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة

ISSN: 83732222
الجامعة: جامعة ديالى
الكلية: العلوم
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

مجلة جامعة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة مجلة علمية فصلية تصدر عن كلية العلوم في جامعة ديالى وباللغتين العربية وألأنكليزية وتهدف للمساهمة في تطوير المعرفة وذلك بنشر البحوث الأصيلة والمراجعات في مختلف العلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية، بحيث تكون سجلاّ للدراسات في هذين المجالين.

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معلومات الاتصال

admin@sciencesmag.uodiyala.edu.iq
diyalajps@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2010 المجلد: 6 العدد: 1

Article
Identification of Noisy Arabic Speech Utterance using Multiwavelet Compression

المؤلفون: Taha Mohammed Hasan
الصفحات: 1-15
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الخلاصة

This paper presents a method that uses the multiwavelet transform in compressing a noisy speech signal and then, testing its effect on the reconstruction of noisy speech utterances after decompression. The ability of multiwavelet transform in compacting signal energy is employed to separate the significant signal features from the noise contribution. The proposed technique showed an improved SNR for the processed speech samples. In each performed experiment, the correlation coefficients are computed and compared to the correlation coefficient yielded by a similar compression scheme based on the cosine transform. The use of the multiwavelet based compression technique is superior in identification of noisy Arabic speech utterance especially at high input SNR values.

الكلمات الدلالية

Speech Compression --- multiwavelet Transform --- Pattern Recognition


Article
Hiding Secret Audio Message Inside Smaller Size Audio Cover
أخفاء رسالة سرية صوتية داخل غطاء صوتي أصغر حجماً

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الخلاصة

Information hiding techniques have recently become important in a number of application areas. Information hiding and cryptography are cousins in the secrecy family. Information can be hidden many different ways in audio. But, most of these ways suffer from the suitable choice of the message (andor) cover size. Nearly, all hiding techniques can not hide audio message in smaller audio cover. Therefore, this paper presents proposed system that capable from solving this problem. The proposed system depends on two main ideas. First idea is wavelet compression for secret audio message. This idea converts the secret audio message to half size at least. The second idea is masking steganography for the compressed secret audio message. This idea has the ability to hide an audio message in similar size audio cover. These two ideas are applied in transmitter side, in order to obtain the audio stegocover that hide message of double size larger than the cover. However, the reverse of these processes are applied in receiver side, in order to decompress extract the secret audio message.


Article
Effect of Data Type on Point to Point Bluetooth Link
تاثير انواع البيانات على مواقع ربط البلوتوث

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الخلاصة

This paper gives an informative overview about Bluetooth technology (which has become a standard for wireless connectivity), through connecting two computers as wireless nodes using Bluetooth technology. Three types of data (text, audio, and image) are transferred through the specified connection. Then, distance and throughput are tabulated. The practical results with the effective distance for each data type are given and discussed.


Article
Bilingual Arabic-based keyboard designed to be used with single hand
: لوحة مفاتيح عربية- نظام تعريب- نظام ترميز- الحروف العربية- سرعة الادخال

المؤلفون: عبد الكريم عكلة عبد الكريم عكلة
الصفحات: 42-60
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الخلاصة

In this research we will discuss the imprecise distribution problem of the Arabic characters on keyboards. We suggest a new Arabic-based coding scheme instead of ASCII with a new bilingual keyboard suitable for it. The number of keys in the proposed keyboard is reduced to increase the speed of input characters. The proposed keyboard is designed to be used with single hand. The second hand maybe used for supporting to press the control keys only. The suggested Arabic-based coding scheme is compressed so that each character with its vowel point is stored in single byte instead of two bytes using ASCII. In other words, we reduce the capacity needed to store the Arabic text to the half of the capacity required using ASC


Article
Audio Compression Using Fractal Coding
ضغط الصوت بأستخدام الترميز الكسوري

المؤلفون: , Huda M. Salih --- . Loay E. George
الصفحات: 61-70
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الخلاصة

Audio Fractal Compression is based on the concept of partitioned iterated function system (PIFS). It exploits the self similarity that is commonly present in audio; this similarity could exploit as a sort of redundancy to compress the audio data. Audio fractal compression finds similar patterns that exist in different scales and different places in audio, and then eliminates as much redundancy as possible. The introduced system consists of two major units; the first is the Encoding unit and the second one is the Decoding unit. In the Encoding unit, the original audio is partitioned into range blocks (non overlapping blocks) and the domain blocks are generated using down sampling with overlapping partitioning, the partitioning step is accomplished using fixed block size audio partitioning scheme. The best matched domain block (i.e., the more self-similar blocks) must be found for each range block by applying an approximate affine transformation. The compression process is finished by storing only the affine transform parameters for every range block. The task of finding self-similarities (via the matching process) is accomplished by making search overall blocks of the domain pool, this will require high computational complexity. This considered a major drawback of the fractal audio compression method. The Decoding unit is typically done by iteratively applying the affine transformations starting with randomly initialized audio data; this transformation repetition is continued until convergence is achieved. The decoding module is less computational demanding than the encoding module. The developed software was tested using four wave samples of data, and it gives encouraging compression result.


Article
Spectroscopic Study of a Typical Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (Naphthalene) and a Biological π Acceptor (Folic acid) complex
دراسة طيفية لمعقدات الهيدركربونات البولي اروماتية مع مستقبلات باي البايلوجية (حامض الفوليك)

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الخلاصة

The complexation between folic acid and a typical polyaromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene, was investigated using FTIR and UV spectra. Appearance of a new IR band at 2376 cm−1 demonstrates that NH2–C=N moiety on pterin ring in folic acid is protonated when naphthalene is introduced. The emergence of two charge transfer bands at 235 nm and 296 nm in UV difference spectra show the presence of π-π complexation between folic acid and naphthalene. These experiments confirm that naphthalene could combine with the pterin ring of folic acid through π-π donor–acceptor interaction and induce the protonation process in folic acid upon strengthening electron accepting ability of pterin ring. The results suggest that complexation between naphthalene and folic acid necessarily changes their charge distribution and the surroundings. It is inferred that not only biotransformation process of folic acid, but also the toxicity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons could be changed


Article
Effect of thickness on some optical properties of Spray pyrolysed Cdo thin films
تأثير سمك أغشية أوكسيد الكادميوم CdO)) على الخواص البصرية لهذه الاغشية

المؤلفون: Ziyad.T. Khodyar --- Lena B. Yaqo --- Zuhair H. Jawad
الصفحات: 79-88
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الخلاصة

In this research, the study of some optical properties such as, (reflectance, refractive index and dielectric constant in its two parts) were calculated of cadmium oxide thin films prepared by the chemical spray paralysis and precipitated on glass substrates heated to (723K), also, the study of the effect of thickness on these properties.


Article
Synthesis and Evaluation of Biological Activity of Several New citraconimides Substituted with Benzothiazoles
تحضير وتقييم الفعالية البايولوجية لمجموعة جديدة من مركبات الستراكونيمايد المعوضة بالبنزوثايوزول

المؤلفون: Ahmed Sa’adi Hassan --- Dr. Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi
الصفحات: 89-102
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الخلاصة

The target of the present work is to synthesize a series of new Citraconimides containing benzothiazole rings. Syntheses of these new cyclic imides were performed via two steps: The first one involved preparation a series of N-(substituted benzothiazole-2-yl) Citraconamic acids via reaction of citraconic anhydride with 2-aminobenzothiazole substituted with different substituent's. The resulted citraconamic acids were dehydrated in the second step via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate or by fusion method to afford a series of desirable N-(substituted benzothiazole-2-yl) Citraconimides. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against four microorganisms' including [Staphylococcus aurous and Streptococcus pyogenes] (Gram positive) bacteria and [E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa], (Gram-negative) bacteria respectively. The new compounds were found to exhibit good to moderate antibacterial activity .also anti fungal activity of the prepared compounds were tested against [Candida albicans] fungi and some of the tested compounds were found to exhibit good antifungal activity.


Article
Synthesis and characterization of the mixed ligand complexes (L-alanine and anthranilic acid) with some transition Ions
تحضير وتشخيص معقدات بين الليكاندات المختلطة المكونة من (الانين وحامض الانثرانيلك) مع بعض ايونات العناصر الانتقالية

المؤلفون: F.H, Ghanim --- A.T.AL-Jeboori --- T.H.AL-Noor
الصفحات: 103-110
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الخلاصة

This paper presents the synthesis and study of some new mixed-ligands complexes containing anthranilic acid and amino acid L-alanine (Ala) with some metals. The resulting products were found to be solid crystalline complexes which have been characterized by using (FT-IR,UV-Vis) spectra , melting point, molar conductivity , chloride ion content were also determin by (mohr method) and determination the percentage of the metal in the complexes by (AAS).The proposed structure of the complexes was suggested using program , Chem Office 3D(2004) .The general formula have been given for the prepared complexes : [M(A)(Ala)]. nH2O n= 0,2 AH = Anthranilic acid = C7H7NO2 AlaH = alanine = C3H7NO2 Anthranilate ion = C7H6NO2- Ala- = Alanin ate ion = C3H6NO2- M(II): Mn(II) ,Fe(II),Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) , Zn(II) and Cd(II)


Article
The optical properties of (Pb1-xSnx) system prepared by thermo chemical precipitation
الخواص البصرية لمنظومة (Pb1-xSnx) المحضرة بطريقة الترسيب الكيميائي الحراري

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الخلاصة

The (Pb1-xSnx) thin films were prepared by using the chemical spray pyrolysis method on a borosilicate glass bases at temp. (633K) . also we are study the optical properties included the recording of absorption and transmittance spectra for the films within the range (300-900nm), The optical constants such as reflectivity,extinction coefficient, refractive index ,real and imaginary part of dielectric constant have also been studied .


Article
Photo and spectra studies for Chloro- Oxo (bis (p- hydroxyl benzaldehyde) ethylene diiminato) Vanadium (V) complex
دراسات طيفية وضوئية لمعقدات الفناديوم الخماسي مع كلورو اوكسو(bis (p- hydroxyl benzaldehyde) ethylene diiminato)

المؤلفون: .Y.Ahamd --- A.E.Sultan --- A.F. Dawood
الصفحات: 125-135
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الخلاصة

In this work; Vanadium (V) chelate complex derived from tetradenate Schiff base (L) Chloro- Oxo ( bis ( p- hydroxyl benzaldehyde ) ethylene diiminato ) Vanadium (V) complex was synthesized and characterized. The photochemical decomposition is investigated by Infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. The kinetics of the photochemical reaction of this complex when irradiated with light of λ=365 nm at 25◦ C was studied in four different organic solvent ,with different polarity .These solvents were CCI4,dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),1,4 dioxane and CHCI3.It was found that the rate of photodecomposition of this complex is first order and also dependent on polarity of the solvent. The mechanism of photochemical decomposition of (VOLCI) in these solvents was elucidated by adopting the spectra technique (Uv-visible and infrared ) observations suggest that an intra oxidation –reduction reaction in this complex occur to breaking of(V-CI) bond and the formation chlorine atom and Vanadium (1v) complex(V1VOL).


Article
Extraction and determination of essential oils percentage inEucalyptus leaves using organic solventsا
ستخدام المذيبات العضوية في أستخلاص وتقدير نسبة الزيوت الاساسية والمستخلصات الاخرى لاعمار مختلفة من أوراق اليوكالبتوس Eucalyptus camadulensis

المؤلفون: منيب طاهر سلمان
الصفحات: 136-146
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الخلاصة

Eucalyptus camadulensis tree grows in most parts of Iraq, their leaves contain variable rates of essential oils and other extracts which are useful for perfume, drugs and other industries.This study, uses organic solvents, Pet.ether (40-60 Co) and aqueous alcohol (ethanol : water, 75% :25%) in the extraction with soxhlet of essential oils (non-polar) and other extracts (polar) from mature& immature Eucalyptus camadulensis Leaves grown in Kirkuk city,. The results appears that the total percentage of the extracts was 10.52%, the essential oils (2.5%, 1.2%) and the aqueous alcohol extracts (4.52%, 2.3%) in the mature& immature leaves respectively and the extractives in mature was more than immature leaves (7.02%, 3.5%).


Article
Study of irradiation effects on optical constants for thin film of (ZnO)x(CdO)1-x prepared by thermo chemical dissociation
دراسة تأثير التشعيع على الثوابت البصرية لأغشية(ZnO)x(CdO)1-x المحضرة بطريقة التحلل الكيميائي الحراري

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الخلاصة

Thin film of (ZnO)x(CdO)1-x have been prepared using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique on a borosilicate glass substrates at a temperature (723K) , the effect of gamma radiation have been studied using (Cs137) for time period (21) days . The optical properties such as: absorbtance, reflectance , extinction coefficient , real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, The study that irradiation cause decreasing in the absorptance , reflectance, extinction coefficient ,refractive index , real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant.


Article
Biosorption of Hg and Ni ions on Bakers Yeast
الامتزاز الحيوي لعناصر الزئبق والنيكل باستخدام خميرة الخبز

المؤلفون: Salah N. Farhan
الصفحات: 157-173
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الخلاصة

The present study evaluates the potential of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to remove mercury and nickel from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, initial concentration, contact time, and biosorbent dosage on biosorption capacity is studied in batch experiments. Experiment results show that metal uptake is a rapid process at pH values (5.0-6.0). Sorption isotherms are studied to explain the removal mechanisms of metal ions by fitting isotherm data into Langmuir and Freundlich equations, the biosorption of mercury and nickel from aqueous solutions on live yeast at an initial pH of (5.0-6.0) could be described by both the Freundlich and the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Pretreatment using NaOH, HCL, and ethanol enhance biosorption capacity of the yeast. It was concluded that nitric acid with low concentration of 0.05 N is effective in desorbing the biosorbed metal ions. On the other hand, sodium hydroxide solution of 0.2 M is effective in regenerating the yeast; the regenerated yeast could be used for at least six cycles of biosorption, without losing its metal removal capacity. Carboxyl, amine, and phosphate groups present in the yeast were found to be the main biosorption sites for metal ions.


Article
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of epoxy resin interpenetrating with N -phenyl maleamic acid
التحليل الحراري الوزني لشبكات راتنج الأيبوكسي المتداخلة مع N-فنيل حامض الماليميك

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الخلاصة

The present work deals with the preparation and thermal investigation of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of epoxy resin and N -phenyl maleamic acid The following monobasic amic acids were synthesized : PMA, After characterization by IR spectroscop,the IPNs were studied thermally using TGA and IGA techniques. For TGA measurements the following points were observed: The comparison of (Wt %)350 with IDT and CDT values reveal its agreement with CDT more than IDT values. this observation indicate that IDT values are not suitable measure for thermal stability.The values of IDT,CDT and (Wt%)350 are nearly almost the same in the range(25,50,80,120,180) C This behavior may be due to the inclusion of second polymer in the epoxy matrix The higher (Wt%)350 value was observed in natural medium.As well The activation energy of activation (by using Fuoss equation) was also estimated .


Article
Baterial continandion of operation room in general baqubia hospital
التلوث الميكروبي في غرف العمليات الجراحية في مستشفى بعقوبةالعام

المؤلفون: محمد طارق علي
الصفحات: 192-204

Article
Possible correlation between O-antigen serogroup of Enteropathogenic / Enteroinvasive E.coli and co infection with Giardia G.lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica as a possible pathological strategy for acute diarrhea among children of Baghdad governorate
احتمالية العلاقة مابين المجاميع المصلية للمستضد الجسماني في البكتريا المعوية

المؤلفون: , Walaa Najm Abood --- Ali Ibrahim Ali
الصفحات: 205-226
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الخلاصة

Diarrheal diseases account for approximately 2 million deaths annually in children under the age of 5years. Disease and death caused by diarrhea is a global problem, but is especially prevalent in developing countries. The aim of the present study is to determine the possible role of E.coli mainly Enter pathogenic (EPEC) serogroup (O111, O55, O26, O86, O119, O127, O114, and O142) and Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC) serogroup (O124); Giardia lambleia and Entamoeba histolytica co infections in pathology of acute diarrhea among children's of Baghdad governorate. A total of one hundred seventy presented with diarrhea that proved through clinical investigation were enrolled in this study. After microbiological examinations, Sixty four children that infected with two pathogens were selectively enrolled in this study. The minimum age of infected children was 4 months while maximum age was 116 months. Thirty four (53.1%) % out of Sixty four children were males and females represent the rest 30(46.9%). Stool samples of patients were submitted for direct microscopical examination for detection of G.lamblia and E.histolytica using wet preparation technique. Gram staining technique was applied for demonstration of gram negative bacilli. Stool culture was done using MaCconky agar for determination of E.coli. API 20E system was used for biochemical characterization of E.coli .serogrouping of E.coli was done by direct slide agglutination technique in to four types (type1 EPEC serogroup ( O111,O55,O26 ), type 2 EPEC serogroup ( O86,O119,O127), type3 EPEC serogroup ( O125,O126,O128 ), type 4 EPEC/EIEC serogroup ( O114,O124,O142 ) using Specific trivalent antisera. In this study the critical age groups were (4-20)month followed by (21-37) month and (38-54) which represent (31.25%) , (28.12%) and (25%) of infected cases . on the other hand the age group (106-122) month was consider less critical age of infection with diarrhea causative agents. Among the age group (4-20) month, infection with E.histolytica represent (21.87%) while infection with EPEC serogroup (O86, O119, O127)represent (12.5%) out of 64 infected children. infection with G.lamblia represent (6.25%) while at this age group the low detectable frequency of infection was caused by EPEC /EIEC serogroup (O114, O124, O142), (3.12 %) with no detectable frequency of infection with EPEC serogroup ( O111,O55,O26)and EPEC serogroup (O125, O126, O128). Regarding age group (21-37) month high frequency (25%) of infection with E.histolytica was recorded compared with (6.25%) for EPEC serogroup (O86,O119,O127), and EPEC /EIEC serogroup ( O114,O124,O142 ). low detectable frequency (3.12%) of infection was caused by G.lamblia .At the age group (38-54) month high frequency of infection with E.histolytica was recorded (18.75%) compared with (3.12%) for EPEC /EIEC serogroup ( O114,O124,O142 ), G.lamblia . Equal frequency of infection was recorded for EPEC /EIEC serogroup (O114, O124, O142) and G.lamblia (6.25%) in the age group (55-71) month as well as for E.histolytica (6.25%) in the age group (72-88) month and (3.12%) in the age group (106- 122) month . E.histolytica was more frequent pathogen that detected in (75%) of diarrheal cases followed by EPEC serogroup (O86, O119, O127), (21.9%), EPEC /EIEC serogroup (O114, O124, O142) and G.lamblia (18.8%) for each one. This study revealed that co infection with EPEC serogroup (O86, O119, O127) and E.histolytica represent (15,62%),while co infection with EPEC / EIEC serogroup ( O114,O124,O142) and G.lamblia represent (9.73%).on the other hand co infection with EPEC / EIEC serogroup (O114,O124,O142)and E.histolytica represent (9.73%).This study revealed that there was positive linear relationship between age of infected children and infection with EPEC serogroup (O86, O119, O127) (r=.367;p=.039. strong negative linear relationship between EPEC / EIEC serogroup ( O114,O124,O142 ) and E.histolytica infection( r= -.462;p=.008) as well as between G.lambelia and E.histolytica infection (r=-.832;p=.000) .This study concludes that there is a possible correlation between O-antigen Serogrouping and coinfection with EPEC / EIEC, EPEC, G.lambelia and E.histolytica.


Article
Microbial Contamination in the Surgical Theaters in Baquba General Hospitals
انتشار الطفيليات الخارجية على الأغنام المحلية في بغداد

المؤلفون: Mohammed, T.A
الصفحات: 227-245
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الخلاصة

Medical contamination in the operation surgical theaters is considered a major and a very important cause of acquired nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of microbial contamination in the operation surgical theaters in Baquba General Hospital in Diyala province, and the source of the probable contamination, so (700) swabs were collected from four different operation theaters, swabs were taken in duplicate from different surfaces, equipment, and antiseptic solutions before and after surgical operation, cultured on different cultured media, culture characteristics were examined; isolates identification was confirmed by biochemical tests. During the period of this study (April- June- August) incidence of positive cultures was 17.71%, 13.71%, and 12% respectively, with a statistically significant increase (P> 0.05) in April, where the total gram negative bacterial isolates was 57.25% ,56.25%,and 78.57% respectively with a statistically significant increase (P> 0.05) along the study period . Also, the total gram positive bacterial isolates was 38.7%, 39.57%, and 20.23% respectively, whereas the Candida albicans was recorded the following percentages of isolation 4.03%,4.16%,and 1.19% respectively with a statistically significant increase (P> 0.05) in April .Coliforms were given the highest isolation percentages 35.45%,37.48%,and 42.85% respectively. E.coli, the most representative pathogen of coliforms was the most common isolated pathogen by reaching 17.74%, 20.83%, and 23.80% respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was ranked the second in April and June, recording 29.83%and 27.08%respectively, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was placed in the second rank in August recording 23.80%. Generally, a clear decrease in the percentage of bacterial and fungal positive cultures was marked towards summer months, with an obvious prominence of the gram negative bacteria, also the results that concerning distribution of different microbial isolates in June and August were showed to a great extent the same pattern of microbial distribution which observed in April.


Article
انتشار الطفيليات الخارجية على الأغنام المحلية في بغداد

المؤلفون: حليم حمزة حسين --- عالية يوسف يعقوب
الصفحات: 231-245
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الخلاصة


Article
بعض التاثيرات الماعية لمستخلص زهرة الدفلة الحمراء Nerium oleander في ذكور الفئران البيض Mus musculus .

المؤلفون: ابتسام بداي حسان
الصفحات: 246-258
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الخلاصة

The present study was designd to shed some light on the immunological effects of the flower extract of Nerium oleander. The effects of the extract on the immuno- suppressive action of the drug Mytomicine-C were also investigated in vivo using albino muose (Mus musculus) . The immunological tests included total and differential counts of leucocytes, phagocytic index of peritoneal cells and specific activity of adenosine deaminase in thymic cell homogenate. Three doses of flower extract were tested , they were (11,22,33mg/kg) did not show negative effects on the activity of immune system of laboratory animals. In contrast, an obvious ectivating effects of this extract were observed regarding the activation of the immune system. This effect was dose – dependent as shown above.


Article
study adifferent temperature effect on funyicamsing rot on green green peans afterstored
دراسة تأثير درجات الحرارة المختلفة على الفطريات المسببة للتعفن في الفاصوليا الخضراء بعد الخزن

المؤلفون: محمد صادق حسن --- حسين علي سالم
الصفحات: 259-274
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in the cold storage unit , Horticultural Department and the Plant Protection Department laboratories, College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad , Abu-Ghraib , during the seasons 2004and 2005. The results showed that isolation of the genera Alternaria , Aspergillus , Penicillium , cylindrocarpon , Rhizopus , Sclerotinia from green bean pods stored under temperatures of 12 – 18 , 8 , 4oC. Netted bags decreased frequency rate of Alternaria sp in sterilized and non sterilized pods under the three temperature (12-18 , 8 , 4)o C. the above mentioned treatment displayed the lower frequency rate of Aspergillus sp for sterilized and non sterilized pods under (12-18) o C and non sterilized pods under 4 o C on the other hand , under 8 oC temperature no infection was occurred for non sterilized pods treatments .The genus Penicillium sp was not found in sterilized pods kept either in polyethylene bags with 32 holes or netted bags and storied under 12-18oC . It also was not found in the netted bags for sterilized fruits under 4oC .The genus Cylindrocarpon sp did not found in sterilized and non sterilized pods kept in polyethylene or netted bags and stored at room temperature (12 – 18)oC , while the lower frequency rate of this genus was found in non sterilized pods kept in netted bags stored in 8o and 4o C. the paper bags less frequency rate was recorded for Alternaria sp after 13 days from the storage date . The treatment of fine cotton bags had the lowest frequency rate of both Aspergillus sp and Cylindrocarpon sp after 13 days from the storage date. Penicillium sp did not appear in pods kept in stiroform boxes , while the genus Sclerotinia sp did not appear in pods kept in both paper bags and cottony bags under 4 + 1o C. Sterilized pods kept in netted bags showed lower percent of microbial decay of (10.0 , 15.0 and 6.6%) after (6 , 15 , 21) days at (12 – 18 , 8 and 4 o C ) respectively . The pods in striform boxes had the lowest percent of microbial decay which was 11.5% after 11 days from storage date. In the treatment of stiroform boxes no pelling off was found in the fruits as this treatment was characterized by maintaining the highest value of chlorophyll pigments (a , b , total) in the fruits which was 0.0047 , 0.0021 , 0.0068 respectively after 13 days from storage date . part of M.Sc. thesis of First Author


Article
EFFECT OF HONEY ON SOMATIC (O) AND FLAGELLAR (H) ANTIBODIES TITER IN TYPHOID FEVER PATIENTS
تاثير العسل على المستضد الجسماني o والسوطيH

المؤلفون: Ammar Riyadh Qasim
الصفحات: 275-285
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الخلاصة

This study aimed to determine the honey effect on typhoid fever (TF) patients those which their serum samples assayed and were positive to widal test. In this study, (117) cases male and female with age between (9-50) years, during the period from 30/1 to 1/7 at 2009. Kit- antigen had been used which produced by (Plasmatec Laboratory Product Ltd) to perform widal test by slide method. The results showed that there were (100) of (117) were positive to widal test. Positive cases were divided to two equal groups. First group were treated by effective antibiotics against salmonella species bacteria that cause TF. While second group were given honey in addition to antibiotics treatment for three weeks. Then, the second test was performed for both groups. The results showed that the percent of patients those treated by antibiotics only and had been response (decreasing in titer of antibodies) were (30%) & (56.3) for both somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens, While the cases those not response to treatment were (70%) & (43.7%) for both (O) and (H) antigens. The second groups those were treated by antibiotics in addition to honey. Percent of patients those had been response were (68.7%) & (76.2%) for both (O) and (H) antigens. While the cases those not response were (31.3%) & (23.8%) for both (O) and (H) antigens. From these results, the effect of honey with antibiotics in treatment of typhoid fever patients fever was very clear.


Article
A study of health comprehension about the cholera among a slice of University of Baghdad employee
دراسة الوعي الصحي حول مرض الكوليرا عند شريحة من الموظفين في جامعة بغداد

المؤلفون: Sinai Waleed سناء وليد --- Maysaa Kadhdom مايسه كاظم
الصفحات: 286-291
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الخلاصة

A total of 98 person that participate in this survey (study group), 79% of them were female and only 21% were male, they were divided into two age groups; 81% of them were among 20-40 year and 19% were 41-60 year; meanwhile the control group recorded 73% female and 27% male, there were 73% of them in the first age group and 27% in second age group In this study, the risk factors were divided into three major points: routes of the disease transmission, symptoms of the disease and the causative agent . According to the route of transmission they were divided into Three routes: via water which is consider the main source of the disease transmission, through food and through both (water and food) which considered the second likely possible rout of transmission, only 37% of the study group criminated water meanwhile 62% of the answers were directed towards both (water and food). As far as concern the control group answers; 33% criminated water and 54% considered that the disease transmission is through water and food. The symptoms of the disease: they were divided into three symptoms: fever and chills; which they are general signs for many diseases, bloody diarrhea; an important feature for parasitic infection and watery diarrhea; a characteristic sign of cholera infection. 72% of the study group chooses the watery diarrhea and amazingly that 90% of the control group know the significant sign of the disease. The causative agent were divided into bacteria, virus, and parasite; 56% of the study group chooses bacteria as the cause of infection, meanwhile 47% of the control group considered the disease causes by bacteria. Both groups (study and control) had recorded relatively same answers regarding the virus as causative agent (28% and 30%) respectively


Article
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Diyala province during 2003-2008
أظهرت الدراسة ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد البائي كان خلال العام 2004 ( 5,5 لكل 100 حالة ) ، كذلك وجد ان اعلى انتشار لفايروس الكبد الجيمي كان خلال نفس العام ( 2،5 لكل حالة 1000 ) . وكان اعلى انتشار لكلا النوعين خلال شهر نيسان من نفس العام ، وظهر فرق معنوي عالي بالنسبة لالتهاب الكبد الفايروسي البائي بين الاعمار ( 20 – 29 ) ، في حين كان الفرق المعنوي العالي بالنسبة الى النوع الجيمي للاعمار (30- 39 ) . ك1لك اظهر الذكور فرق معنوي عالي عند مقارنتهم بالأناث .

المؤلفون: Abbas A. Al-Duliami --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan --- Azher S. Al-Jebori
الصفحات: 292-302
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الخلاصة

Background: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are largely depend on the rate of chronic carrier in the community and the predominant route of infection. Objectives: to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection in Diyala province during the period from 2003 to 2008. Materials and methods: This study was conducted for the period from 1/February/2003 to 30/April/2008. Data were extracted from records of the virology unit in the Public Health Laboratory in Baquba. Data were translated to computerized data base and statistically analyzed. Results: The highest annual prevalence rate of HBV infection was found in 2004 (5.5/1000 tested samples) and highest annual prevalence rate of HCV infection was found in 2004 (2.5/1000 tested samples). The HBV and HCV positive cases were peaked in April months. The HBV positive cases were significantly higher among the age group (20-29) years (p <0.001). The HCV positive cases were significantly higher among the age group (30-39) years (p < 0.001). There is no association between HBV and HCV positivity rates and the district of residence. The HBV and HCV positivity rates were significantly higher (p= 0.009) in males compared to females. Conclusion: Although the annual seroprevalence of HBV is slightly decline, the annual seroprevalence of HCV is increased. Strengthening of surveillance system is recommended.


Article
Design of Magnetic Lens Depending on Mathematical Shape Function
تصميم عدسة مغناطيسية بالاعتماد على الدالة الرياضية للشكل

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الخلاصة

A suggested new mathematical function has been used for representing the axial magnetic flux density distribution along the optical axis of the magnetic lens. The main feature of this function is that it has more than one optimization parameters to let more flexible for the designer to test more one parameter that suggested in this function to reach the best axial magnetic flux density which gives optimum objective focal properties with available reconstruction pole pieces.


Article
Effect of Polystyrene Film Thickness on Some Optical Parameters
تأثير سمك اغشية البولي ستايرين على بعض المعلمات البصرية

المؤلفون: Nadir Fadhil Habubi --- Sami Salman Chiad --- Obaida Amer Abdul Hussein
الصفحات: 314-320
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الخلاصة

Films of polystyrene of different thicknesses have been prepared by casting method. Transmission and absorption spectra have been recorded in order to study the effect of increasing thickness on some optical parameters such as transmittance absorptance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant. This study reveals that all these parameters affect by increasing the thickness.


Article
Influence of gamma radiation on optical properties of CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath technique
تأثير اشعة كاما على المعلمات البصرية لآغشية كبريتيد الكادميوم الرقيقة المحضرة بتقنية الحمام المائي الكيميائي

المؤلفون: Firas H.Ahmed --- Reem S. Khaleel --- Muhammad H. abdul-allah
الصفحات: 321-326
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الخلاصة

We have studied the effect of gamma irradiation on the absorption spectra and the optical energy gap of CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath technique method on glass substrate. Transmittance spectra have been recorded in order to determine reflectivity, absorption coefficient , kind of transition .The optical constants such as refractive index , extinction coefficient , real and imaginary part of dielectric constant have also been studied , it was seen that all the parameters under investigation affected by gamma irradiation.


Article
Study of the Laser effect on Some of Optical Properties of (Fe2O3) thin films
تأثير المعاملة الليزرية على بعض الخواص البصرية لأغشية اوكسيد الحديديك Fe2O3

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الخلاصة

In this research, study the effect of low power laser (Q-switching) (Nd-YAG) of (200mjoule) and (1.06µm), on the some of optical properties of (Fe2O3) thin film prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method, It hase been found that laser treatment of the thin films were affected on optical properties.


Article
دراسة تأثير التشعيع على الثوابت البصرية لأغشية CuIn(SexTe1-x)2 المحضرة بطريقة التبخير الحراري في الفراغ

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الخلاصة

Thin films of CuIn(SexTe1-x)2 have been deposited on glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation of thickness (250nm) , the study of the effect of irradiation by gamma rays from ) Cs137(source on the following optical constants : Absorptions, Reflectance , Extinction Coefficient , Refractive Index , Real and Imaginary Parts of the Dielectric Constant, It was found the all these parameters were affected by irradiation.


Article
Study of the Electrical Conductivity of Zinc Oxide Thin Tilms and Zinc Oxide Thin Films Doped by Chlorine, Fluorine, Bromine and Iodine
دراسة التوصيلية الكهربائية لأغشية ,F,Br,I) Cl:(ZnO المحضرة بطريقة الترسيب الكيميائي الـراري

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الخلاصة

Zinc oxide thin films and zinc oxide thin films doped by chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine, of different ratios (0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.09) have been prepared by using the chemical spray Paralysis on borosilicate glass substrates at a temperature (673K). We were studied the electrical conductivity for the films. The results show the values of conductivity were affected by doping.


Article
Anisotropic etching of poly-silicon wafer by using CF3Br plasma
الحفـر المتبايت لعينةpoly-silicon بـاسـتخدام بـلازما CF3Br

المؤلفون: Intessar K.Abd
الصفحات: 368-374
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الخلاصة

These papers study the operation of etching poly-silicon wafer by using CF3Br plasma under condition 40mT, 1500 volt. Obtained on directional etching (anisotropic etching) with less selectivity, the directional etching caused lattice damages on the surface of the wafer.


Article
Study of Light Propagation in Atmosphere
دراسة تقدم الضوء في الجو

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الخلاصة

The propagation of coherent light in the turbulent atmosphere has been studied by writing a computer program which uses the distance travelled by the light, the wavelength and the outer scale size of turbulence.


Article
On Entire Functions Which Share One Value CM with Their First Derivative

المؤلفون: Amer H. H. Al-Khaladi
الصفحات: 381-387
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الخلاصة

In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of entire functions that share one value CM with their first derivative. The author proves that if a non- constant entire function and its derivative share the value CM and when then . This result is related to a result of Jank- Muse-Volkmann.


Article
Using Markov chain for predict the index number for the prices in Iraq
استخدام سلاسل ماركوف للتنبؤ بالأرقام القياسية لأسعار المستهلك في العراق

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الخلاصة

The indices of consumer prices is one of the oldest economic indicators and the most widespread, as they measure the net changes that occur on the prices of consumer goods and services purchased by a class of consumers during a specific time period, therefore, studying their impact on the economic situation has a great importance because of its direct relation to economic development and prosperity social. Also them prediction allows the officials authorities to develop the economy and avoid the national economic crises that are harmful to economic development. The aim of this study is to predict the direction indices of consumer prices of commodities (food - Textiles, clothing and footwear - fuel and lighting - Transport and transportation - medicines and medical services - rent) using Markov chains as one of the statistical methods to predict the data at the present time, the matrix of possible transition was estimated by using the method of “the greatest possible” which was applied to monthly data taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics and Information Technology in Iraq for the period (01/04 / 2003) to (02/01/2009) because this period represents a period of change of Iraq's political, social and economic... The results of the prediction find that all the indices of consumer prices for commodities will see a remarkable increase and then decrease (except for the rental rates which will stabilize later) in reference to the arrival of the global financial crisis to Iraq in the future.


Article
The Existence of the Approximate Solution for the Hamilton_Jacobi equation by Using the Dual Dynamic Programming

المؤلفون: Entisar A. Ali.
الصفحات: 406-426
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الخلاصة

Stability of an approximation of a minimum for a control problem of Bolza is investigated. The dual dynamic programming method is used. An -value function and a dual -value function are defined. Several properties of these functions are presented. The verification theorems are proved.

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