Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2012 volume:9 issue:2

Article
Histological study of Culex pipiens pipiens larvae and adults infected with Beauveria bassiana
التغيرات النسجية في يرقات وبالغات بعوض Culex pipiens pipiens المتسببة عن الإصابة بفطر Beauveria bassiana

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This study aimed to show the histological changes that 0ccured in Culex pipiens pipiens larvae and adults infected with Beauveria bassiana . The 4th instar larvae and adult mosquitoes were infected with B.bassiana in 10-4 spore/ml dilution, after 96 hours histological section was studied showing that the fungi infected all the body parts specially Cuticle , Epiderms, fat bodies and midgut. After 120 hours of exposure to the fungi the insect have a white appearance and covered with a thick coat of hyphea. Thus study shows biological control of B .bassiana on mosquitoes.


Article
Evaluating the Inhibitory Activity of Apigenin Extracted from Salvia officinalis leaves on the Growth of L20B Cancer Cell Line
تقييم الفعالية التثبيطية لمادة الأبجنين (Apigenin) المستخلصة من أوراق نبات الميرمية (Salvia officinalis) في نمو خلايا الخط السرطاني L20B

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Abstract

The study aimed to evaluating the inhibitory activity of apigenin extracted from Salvia officinalis leaves on the growth of L20B cancer cell in vitro, and through two incubation periods; 48 and 72 hours. Accordingly, eight concentrations (1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 micromol) of apigenin and similar concentrations of vitamin C and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were tested. The apigenin revealed its significant inhibitory potentials against the growth of L20B cell line, especially at the low concentrations (1.56, 3.13 and 6.25 micromol) and at 72 incubation period in comparison with vitamin C and CCl4.


Article
Study the effect of the mixture aquatic extract of Peganum harmala seeds and Pericarp of Punica granutum on viability of protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and in vivo
دراسة تاثير مزيج المستخلص المائي لبذور الحرمل وقشور ثمار الرمان في حيوية الرؤيسات الاولية لطفيلي Echinococcus granulosus خارج وداخل الجسم الحي

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Abstract

This study included the preparation of the mixture aquatic extracts of Peganum harmala seeds and Pericarp of Punica granutum at concentration (10+50) ،(15+55)، (20+60) mgml .To study the influence of the mixture on the percentage of vitality of the protoscolices of E. granulosus In vitro, as the vitality of protoscolices had caused complete death when the using concentration at time 120,90,60 minute respectively. Also study the effect of mixture in white mice with infectious protoscolices In vivo and study the change occurred in the averages of the weights of the liver and spleen and the averages of its distension In vivo in processed group with mixture at concentration (15+55) , (10+50)mgml ,as which was approach to the negative group and the lowering significantly of these average occurred in processed groups with mixture and about of the positive group this study at appeared the possibility of using the mixture it a capability of the mixture which caused to the prohibition of the development of the protoscolices to the secondary hydatid cyst .


Article
Effect of irrigation by saline magnetized water on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum
الإرواء بالمياه المالحة الممغنطة في إنبات البذور ونمو البادرات لحنطة الخبز Triticum aestivum L.

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Abstract

The effect of saline magnetized water irrigation on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat cultivar Iraq were studied. Irrigation water was supplemented with different levels of Sodium chloride 6, 12 or 18 mmhos/ cm in addition control treatment, and passed through a proper magnetic felid with 1000, 1250, 1500 or 2000 gaus in addition control treatment. The results showed significantly stimulated shoot development and led to the increase of germination, seedling emergence, area leaf, length of shoot and root and fresh and dry weight compared to the controls. Results also showed significant interaction between saline water and magnetized water. So, using magnetic treatment of saline water could be a promising technique for Agricultural improvement.


Article
Survey study on Cholera Disease in South Baghdad
دراســـــــــة مسحيـــــة لمــــــرض الكـــــوليـــــرا في جنـــــوب بغداد

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The study includes collection of data about cholera disease from six health centers from nine locations with 2500km2 and a population of 750000individual. The average of infection for six centers during the 2000-2003 was recorded. There were 3007 cases of diarrhea diagnosed as cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae. The percentage of male infection was 14. 7% while for female were 13. 2%. The percentage of infection for children (less than one year) was 6.1%, it while for the age (1-5 years) was 6.9%and for the ages more than 5 years was 14.5%.The total percentage of the patients stayed in hospital was 7.7%(4.2%for male and 3.4%for female). The bacteria was isolated and identified from 7cases in the Central Laboratory for Health in Baghdad. In one case of there is bacteria the patient do not suffer from the symposia of disease. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the infection of male and female and there is a significant differences of age and months of summer and winter


Article
Evaluation of the functional response of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera:Chrysopidae) larvae feeding on cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)(Homoptera: Aphididae) in laboratory
تقويم الاستجابة الوظيفية ليرقات المفترس Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera:Chrysopidae) المتغذي مختبرياً على مَـنْ اللهانة Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) Homoptera: Aphididae))

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This study evaluated the functional response of the larva of the predator Chrysoperla carnea by offering varying densities of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) . Results showed conformity with type–II functional response, where the number of prey killed approaches asymptote hyperbolically as prey density increases (declining proportion of prey killed or the inverse density dependent) till it reached the stability stage determined by handling time and predator satiation. Also, the values of attack rate and handling time changed with age progress for both predator and prey. It has been observed an increase in the attack rate and reduction in handling time with the progress of the predator age when feeding on a particular nymphal instar. The attack rates of the predator was 1.779,3.406 and 4.219 ,while handling time was 0.015,0.010 and 0.008 (days) for 1st,2nd,3rd larval instars respectively, when fed on 1st nymphal instar. Also attack rates decreased and increases handling time with the progress in the prey. The attack rates were 1.779, 1.392, 1.096 and 1.059, due to an increase in size of the predator and in the growing efficiency in hunting the prey as well as in the increase in size of the prey and in developing its ability to defend itself and escape.


Article
Studying Proteus mirabilis Typing Isolated from Urinary Tract infections
دراسة عن تنميط جرثومة Proteus mirabilis المعزولة من اصابات المسالك البولية

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Abstract

Urine specimen (253 samples) had been collected from urinary tract infections. The study showed that Proteus mirabilis was responsible for (11.85%) of the urinary tract infections. Also, the study had declared that the ratio of isolation of this bacterium from women was (7.51%) and it was higher than the ratio in both men and children which ranged (1.58%) and (2.76%) respectively. Morphological and biochemical studies had been applied to characterize this bacterium as well as other kinds of microorganisms that were isolated from urinary tract infection in this study. The study deals with typing methods such as using biotyping and typing according to Dienes phenomenon beside the succestibility to antibiotics. The results had shown that the second biotype B.T.2, the third type of Dienes phenomenon D.3 and sixth sensitive type S.3 were most familiar in causing urinary tract infections, while the third biotype was recorded as a new biotype in this study. The study was considered as a first local study that deals with Dienes phenomenon and using it in typing of this bacterium.


Article
Study of effect of non-central obscuration to obscured circular aperture on third order spherical aberration
دراسة تأثير عائق لا مركزي لفتحة دائرية معاقة على الزيغ الكروي من الرتبة الثالثة

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Abstract

In this research we have been studied the 3rd order spherical aberration for an optical system consisted of obscured circular aperture with non central circular obscuration through the calculation of point spread function (P.S.F) in presence of the obscuration in the center and comparing the obtained results with that results of moving obscuration far away from the center, where the results showed significant improvement for(P.S.F) value. The study was done of different obscurities ratios in addition to the different 3rd order spherical aberration values (W40=0.25 ,0.5 ,0.75 ,1 ).


Article
Evaluation the Levels of Serum Hormones (Progesterone, Estradiol, and hCG) in Preeclamptic IraqiPregnancies
تقييم مستوى الهرمونات في مصل النساء العراقيات ذوات مقدمة الارتعاج

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This study aimed to evaluate serum levels of steroid hormones and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in preeclamptic Iraqi pregnancies compared to those of healthy pregnancies. This study enrolled 120 pregnant women, divided into four groups: 1. 30 healthy pregnant women. 2. 37 pregnant women with mild preeclampsia 3. 53 pregnant women with severe preeclampsia 4. 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia Preeclamptic women and their severe cases but not mild cases had significantly (P<0.01) increased levels of serum hCG as compared with healthy pregnancies. By contrast, sera levels of estradiol were significantly (P<0.01) decreased in total preeclamptic groups and their severe cases but not in mild group as compared to healthy pregnant women (controls) , while there were no significant differences in the levels of serum progesterone in all preeclamptic groups as compared with controls. This study that concludes Preeclampsia is associated with increased levels of hCG hormone and decreased levels of estradiol hormone and these support the suggestion of the role of hormones in preeclampsia.


Article
Study of Some Epidemiological Aspects of Giardiasis in North of Baghdad
دراسة بعض الجوانب الوبائية للأصابة بطفيلي الجيارديا شمال مدينة بغداد

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Different factors have been examined to be related with the prevalence of Girdiasis in the north of Baghdad in human beings which were (gender, age , occupation ,family size,faecal status and presence of domestic animals) during the period from the beginning of April 2009 till the end of March 2010. This study revealed that the total rate of infection in human being was 11.66% , and no significant differences (p≤0.05) were noticed between male and female as their rates of infection were 52.32% and 47.68% respectively , as well as no significant relation was observed between faecal status and the rate of infection, the percentage of positive cases in diarrheal patients was higher than the non diarrheal patients who were 74.41 and 25.59 respectively ,while there was significant relation between the presence of domestic animals and prevalence of giardiasis (p≤0.05) ,the infectivity rate reached to 23.25% in persons who had domestic animals in their household . Also high infection rate have been recorded among children less than 10 years old which was 51.16 % when it compared with other age groups, as well as preschool children and person belong to family composed of (5-9) individual were observed to be the majority groups that infected with Giardia which were 44.18% and 50% respectively, although there were no significant relation (p≤0.05) between each of age, occupation and family size with infectivity rate of Gairdia.


Article
Influence of chemical and physical conditions on the production of bacteriocin by Aeromonas hydrophila
دراسة تاثير العوامل الفيزيائية والكيميائية على انتاجية البكتريوسين من عزلات Aeromonas hydrophila

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Aeromonas hydrophila have been isolated as a cause of a cute gastroenteritis in 23 (5.6%) of 410 patients. Other bacterial enteropathogens have been isolated from 387 patients with diarrhea, were 19 different strains. A. hydrophila occurred more commonly in children with acute diarrhea, the results showed that 18(78.26%) isolates of A. hydrophila found in children under 10 years old ,distributed to 10(43.47%) in male and 8(34.78%) in female ,and in adults with diarrhea 5 (21.73%). In the other hand, we noticed frequency of isolation was higher in male 14(60.86%) when compared with 9(39.14%) in female. Six strains of A. hydrophila have been observed to have bacteriocin activity against 12 of 23 different A. hydrophila ,as well as Staphylococcus aureas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacea and Shigella dysenteria. The results showed Bacteriocin-like substances (BLS11) had isoinhibitory activity on 10 same A. hydrophila species and heteroinhibitory activity effects on all pathogenic bacterial strains used, while BLS5 showed isoinhibitory activity on 2 same A. hydrophila species and heteroinhibitory activity by effecting on gram negative only, and BLS3& BLS12 showed activity on E. coli isolates only, and none of BLS1& BLS10(isoinhibitory activity on 1 A.hydrophila respectively) had effect on all pathogenic bacteria. Among the standard laboratory media used Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI) showed the maximum production and poor yields resulted from growth in Peptone Glyserol (PG) and Nutrient broth. We selected BLS11 to their wide range effect on same species and enteric pathogenic strains, to study the Influence of chemical and physical conditions on the production of BLS by A.hydrophila. The BLS11 preparations from A.hydrophila11 strains of A. hydrophila were tolerant to all three treatments of surfactant. In the other hand, effect of organic acid on BLS production BLS11 has been studied and showed no remarkable difference in zone of inhibition when used acetone as affecter element, while both of isopropanol and ethanol have narrow inhibition zone range when compared with control strain. These results indicated that most A. hydrophila might be harboring plasmid mediated bacteriocin like substance, and there are no relation between BLS production and number of plasmid bands present in bacteria.


Article
Staphylococcal infections among leukemic patients
اصابات البكترية العنقودية في مرضى سرطان الدم

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Abstract

Staphylococcus are cause hospital community acquired infection and they are an important cause of health –care associated infection.The Coagulase positive Staphylococcus are Staphylococcus aureus which can implicated in toxic shock syndrome. Methicillin and Vancomycin Staphylococcus aureus resistant (MRSA, VRSA) become major cause of hospital- acquired infection and community acquired infection.Coagulase negative staphylococcus emerged as major cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococci among leukemic patients since it is well known that leukemic patients are prone to be infected easily due to their immunosuppressed status. This study was undertaken between oct. 2009 and Jun 2010 at Iraqi center of hematology and medical genetics. 140 clinical specimen(aspirated wound,superficial wound,urine, blood) have deen collected carefully from leukemic patients and subjected to well known established microbiological methods for diagnosis and identification of the isolates .All isolates were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobials according to Kirby –Bauer technique. Out of 140 clinical specimen collected from leukemic patients, it was possible to obtain( 63) bacterial isolates form which(43) of Coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) and (20) of Coagulase positive staphylococci. Out of 43(CONS) isolates has been found that S.epidermidis constitutes (28)the highest of all isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility reveald that S.aureus is highly sensitive to Gentamycin (85%), Erythromycin (80%), while it is resistant to the drugs Cefotaxim (45%), Choramphenicol(40%),and Tetracycline(20%). S.epidermidis show highly sensitive to Erythromycin(100%),Vancomycin (100%), and Cefotaxim(70%) and highly resistant to the drugs Chloromphenicol(45%), Augmentin(45%),Gentamycin (10%), and Tetracycline(10%). It is concluded that S.epidemidis rankes the first( 28)among the isolates and S.aureus ranke the 2nd .All isolates were highly resistant to Chloramphenicol and highly sensitive to Erythromycine.


Article
Study of Liver and Kidney functions in non-pregnant, pregnant and preeclamptic women
دراسة وظائف الكبد والكلى عند النساء غير الحوامل و الحوامل والحوامل المصابات بتسمم الحمل

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Three groups of subjects have been divided (25/group): healthy normotensive non-pregnant women (Group A), normal normotensive pregnant women (Group B), and women with preeclampsia (Group C).The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin , creatinine , blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride , total cholesterol and glucose have been estimated in all subjects. All measured parameters were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed a significant(P<0.05) increase in serum ALT, AST, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in group B as compared to group A. However creatinine, total bilirubin and glucose levels did not show any statistical significant alterations. The women in group C showed to be associated with a significant (P<0.05) rise in all measured parameters except total bilirubin as compared to women in group A. The preeclamptic women (group C) showed significant (P< 0.05) increase in serum alanine aminotransferase , blood urea nitrogen , triglyceride , total cholesterol and glucose levels as compared to women in group B. While serum aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and creatinine levels did not show any statistical significant alteration.


Article
Copolymerization of Acrylamide with Acrylic acid
البــلمرة المـــشتركة للأكـــريل امـــايد مع حـــامض الأكــريلــيك

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Low conversion copolymerization of acrylamide AM (monomer-1) have been conducted with acrylic acid AA in dry benzene at 70°C , using Benzoyl peroxide BPO as initiator . The copolymer composition has been determined by elemental analysis. The monomer reactivity ratios have been calculated by the Kelen-Tudos and Finman-Ross graphical procedures. The derived reactivity ratios (r1, r2) are: (0.620, 0.996) for (AM / AA) systems , and found that the reactivity of the monomer AA is more than the monomer AM in the copolymerization of (AA/AM) system. The reactivity ratios values were used for microstructures calculation.


Article
Study of Cytotoxic Effect of Aqueous Extract Fenugreek(Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.S) Seeds and The New Complexes of Rh (Ш) and Pd (П) on Cancer Cell Lines
دراسة التأثير السمي الخلوي للمستخلص المائي لبذور الحلبة (Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.) Fenugreek ومعقدات الروديوم والبلاديوم الجديدة على الخطوط الخلوية السرطانية

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The effect of the aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.), Rhodium complex (Ш) with formula [RhL2CLH2O].1 1/2 ETOH and palladium (П) [pdl2].2ETOH,where L=2-hydroxy phenyl piperonalidine was studied on two cancer cell lines. The first cell line was intestine cancer of female albino mice (L20B), the second one was Rhabdomysarcomas (RD)cell line in human. The activity of the new complexes and the aqueous extract was compared to the well-known anticancer drug (cis-platin) by utilizing the in vitro system. The cell lines were treated with four concentrations of cis-platin 31.25,62.5,125 and 250 μg/ml for 72 hour exposure time. The same concentrations were used with extract and the new complexes. This study showed that the aqueous extract, Rhodium (Ш) and palladium (П) complexes have a promising anticancer cell activity as noticed from their effect on inhibition of the cancer cells . Inhibition rate was increased with concentration for the three treatments and it was found to be significant differences (p<0.05) between them.The higher level of inhibition was 84.33% at the concentration 250 μg/ml of rhodium(III) complex. Comparing the cytotoxicity of the extract and the new complexes on cancer cell lines indicated that the L20B cell line was more effective than RD line and the cytotoxicity of aqueous extract fenugreek seeds and new complexes was similar to effect of the anticancer drug cis-pt.


Article
Spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of glibenclamide in pharmaceutical formulations
طريقه تقدير الكليبنكلامايد بطريقة الفلوره في الخلطات ألصيدلانيه

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A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of glibenclamide in its tablet formulations has been proposed. The method is based on the dissolving of glibenclamide in absolute ethanol and measuring the native fluorescence at 354 nm after excitation at 302 nm. Beers law is obeyed in the concentration of 1.4 to 10 µg.ml-1 of glibenclamide with a limit of detection (LD) of 0.067 µg.ml-1 and a standard deviation of 0.614. The range percent recoveries (N=3) is 94 - 103.


Article
Batch and Flow-Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Thymol Using Procaine Hydrochloride as a New Chromogenic Reagent
التقدير الطيفي للثايمول بوساطة طريقتي الدفعة والحقن الجرياني باستخدام هيدروكلورايد البروكائين ككاشف لوني جديد

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New, simple and sensitive batch and Flow-injecton spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Thymol in pure form and in mouth wash preparations have been proposed in this study. These methods were based on a diazotization and coupling reaction between Thymol and diazotized procaine HCl in alkaline medium to form an intense orange-red water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 474 nm. A graphs of absorbance versus concentration show that Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.4-4.8 and 4-80 µg.ml-1 of Thymol, with detection limits of 0.072 and 1.807 µg.ml-1 of Thymol for batch and FIA methods respectively. The FIA procedure sample throughput was 80 h-1. All different chemical and physical experimental parameters that affecting on the development and stability of the colored product were carefully studied and the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of Thymol in mouth wash preparations.


Article
A Biochemical Study for Evaluation and Analysis of Serum Protein of Patients with Different Kidney Tumors
دراسة كيموحيوية لتقييم وتحليل البروتينات المصلية لدى مرضى الأورام الكلوية المختلفة

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The amount of protein in the serum depends on the balance between the rate of its synthesis, and that of its catabolism or loss. Abnormal metabolism may result from nutritional deficiency, enzyme deficiency, abnormal secretion of hormones, or the actions of drugs and toxins. Renal cancer is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary system, and accounts for 3% of adult malignancies globally. Total serum proteins were measured in malignant kidney tumor, benign kidney tumors, and non tumoral kidney diseases patient groups, as well as in healthy individuals. A significant decrease (p< 0.001) of total serum protein levels in patients with malignant kidney tumors when compared with those of benign tumors, non tumoral diseases, and healthy individuals. The lowest serum protein levels were found in patients with stage IV, regardless their genders. Analysis of total serum proteins using PAGE revealed clear differences in the number and shape of the bands in patients with different kidney diseases compared with healthy controls.

Keywords

Serum proteins --- Kidney --- Tumors


Article
Study the effect of polyphenols extracted from Iraqi grape seeds on glucose , MDA levels and GST activity in streptozotocin (STZ ) induced diabetic mice.
دراسة تأثير المركبات متعددة الفينول المستخلصة من بذور العنب عراقية المنشأ على مستويات الكلوكوز و المالونداي ألديهايد وفعالية الكلوتاثايون-أس-ترانسفيريز في الفئران المصابة بالسكري المحث بالستربتوزوتوسين.

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1-Objective:- Polyphenols are biochemical compounds with antioxidant activity against differences diseases related to Lipid peroxidation such as diabetes mellitus. Polyphenols distributed widely in medical plants, the aim of the study is to extract and analyze some polyphenolic compounds from grape seeds and examine their effects on (STZ) induced diabetic mice. 2-Methods:- In the present study , a group of polyphenols has been extracted from Iraqi grape seeds by ethanol and the extract has been analyzed by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ultra violet (UV) detection. Five fractions were eluted from the column : procyanidin B1, gallic acid , quercetin , catechin and epicatechin. The detection was recorded at (280 nm). The reactive action of the above polyphenols on glucose, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione – S – transferase (GST) activity was tested in (30) streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice which treated with extracted grape seeds polyphenols to examine the antioxidant effect of these compounds . Grape seeds polyphenols action on the above parameters was determined before treatment and after (1 week), ( 2 weeks) and (3 weeks) of treatment with this reactive extract. 3-Results:- The data have shown that glucose levels were increased in (30) diabetic mice (after injection with streptozotocin) compared with control group (p<0.001) but after treatment with grape seeds polyphenols , glucose levels were decreased relatively (p<0.001) after (1 week), (p<0.001) after (2 weeks) and (p<0.01) after (3 weeks) of treatment with these polyphenolic compounds. MDA levels were increased for diabetic mice (after injection with streptozotocin) compared with control group (p<0.001) but after treatment with grape seeds polyphenols , MDA levels were decreased relatively (p<0.01) after (1 week) ,(p<0.01) after (2 weeks) and (p<0.05) after (3 weeks) of treatment. GST activity was increased in diabetic mice (after injection with streptozotocin ) compared with control group (p<0.001) but after treatment with grape seeds polyphenols , GST activity was decreased relatively (p<0.01) after (1 week), (p<0.01) after (2 weeks) an (p<0.05) after (3 weeks)of treatment with these antioxidant compounds. 4-Conclusion:- Our data indicated that glucose , MDA levels and GST activity correlated positively with oxidative stress related to diabetes mellitus.


Article
Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced Epoxy Resin composites
الخواص الميكانيكية لمتراكبات أنابيب الكاربون النانومترية المدعمة لراتنج الايبوكسي

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Overlapped have been prepared from epoxy resin material added to carbon Nanotube and percentages weight (0.1, 0.05, 0.01) % Studied the mechanical properties of the composite (bending, tensile an d hardness) has been found that the Flexural and tensile modulus of the composites were higher than the pure epoxy resin this may be due to the high mechanical strength of carbon nano tube (CNT). The hardness of the epoxy carbon Nanotube composites increased and the reason is due to increased overlap and stacking between the additives and material basis, which reduces the movement of polymer molecules leading to increased resistance to scratching material and cutting, will become more resistance to plastic deformation.


Article
Mechanical properties of carrot fiber - epoxy composite
الخصائص الميكانيكية لمتراكبات الياف الجزر –ايبوكسي

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Interest has largely centered on the use of plant fibers to reinforce plastics, because these fibers are abundant and cheap. Carrot fibers (Curran) have been extracted from carrot, left over from carrot juice manufacture. The fibers of two sizes fine (50<µm) and coarse (100-150 µm) have been mixed with epoxy in four levels of loading (10, 20, 30, 40 wt %) respectively. Impact test, shore d hardness test and three point bending test of epoxy and carrot fiber-epoxy composites samples have been determined. The impact strength values of samples prepared with fine and coarse fibers increased as compared with pure epoxy sample. Hardness values increased, and the Young’s modulus values decreased with fiber content of both sizes.


Article
Applications Aspects of the Diffusion of Slow Electrons in the Ionospheric Gases
الواجهات التطبيقية لانتشار الإلكترونات الواطئة الطاقة في غازات طبقات الجو

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The paper presents the results of precise of the calculations of the diffusion of slow electrons in ionospheric gases, such as, (Argon – Hydrogen mixture, pure Nitrogen and Argon – Helium – Nitrogen) in the presence of a uniform electric field and temperature 300 Kelvin. Such calculations lead to the value Townsend's energy coefficient (KT) as a function of E/P (electric field strength/gas pressure), electric field (E), electric drift velocity (Vd), momentum transfer collision frequency ( ), energy exchange collision frequency ( ) and characteristic energy (D/). The following physical quantities are deduced as function s E/P: mean free path of the electrons at unit pressure, mean energy lost by an electron per collision, mean velocity of agitation and the collisional cross-section of the molecules. The results are presented graphically and in tabular form. This results appeared a good agreement with the experimental data.


Article
Study the spectroscopic characteristics of Rhodamine B Dye in Ethanol and Methanol mixture and Calculation the Quantum Efficiency
دراسة الخواص الطيفية لصبغة Rhodamine B في مذيب الايثانول والميثانول ومزيجهما وحساب كفائتها الكمية

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Abstract

The effect of ethanol and methanol solvent, and their mixture has been studied on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dye Rhodamine B at concentration of (10-4) Molar at room temperature. The molar absorption coefficient has been determined for mixture which was (3.223) at wave number (18181.8 cm-1), Also the Quantum Efficiency of the two solvents (ethanol and methanol) and their mixture have been calculated ,which was for mixture spectrum (38.94%) and it was larger comparing with other and solvents. The characteristics of spectrum has been determined by calculating (Δλ) of absorption spectrum for the solvents and its mixture at maximum wave number ( ) cm-1 depending on solvent polarity and the transitions between molecular energy levels in each solvent of Rhodamine B dye .


Article
Comparative study of creep and fatigue crack growth in Poly (Vinyl chloride) pipe
دراسة مقارنة لزحف وكلل نمو الشق في أنبوب كلوريد بوليفينيل

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Abstract

The Rate theory of crack growth in PVC pipe has been studied for creep and fatigue crack propagation. Rate theory function parameters, (RTFP), were estimated theoretically from exponential function parameters, (EFP), to experimental data of crack velocity versus stress intensity factor ,(V-K) diagram, to creep crack propagation . Also (RTFP) were estimated theoretically from (EFP) to experimental data of (V-ΔK) diagram to fatigue crack propagation. Temperature effect with (RTFP) was discussed. Crack velocity function denoted with stress intensity factor and temperature degrees has been determined to fatigue and creep crack propagation theoretically and comparative results this function with experimental data of (V-K or ΔK) diagram .


Article
On The Queuing System M/Er/1/N
حول نظام الطوابير M/Er/1/N

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Abstract

In this paper the queuing system (M/Er/1/N) has been considered in equilibrium. The method of stages introduced by Erlang has been used. The system of equations which governs the equilibrium probabilities of various stages has been given. For general N the probability of j stages of service are left in the system, has been introduced. And the probability for the empty system has been calculated in the explicit form.


Article
Approximate Solution of Some Classes of Integral Equations Using Bernstein Polynomials of Two-Variables
حل تقريبي لبعض أنواع المعادلات التكاملية باستخدام متعدد حدود برنستن ذات متغيرين

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Abstract

The research aims to find approximate solutions for two dimensions Fredholm linear integral equation. Using the two-variables of the Bernstein polynomials we find a solution to the approximate linear integral equation of the type two dimensions. Two examples have been discussed in detail.

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