Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2012 volume:9 issue:3

Article
The Effect of different concentration of growth regulater on micropropagtion of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)
تاثير تراكيز مختلفة من منظمات النمو في الاكثار الدقيق لنبات Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)

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Abstract

Plant tissue culture techniques were exploited for the micropropigation of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora). Different concentrations of Benzyl adenine (BA), 6- Furfural amino purine (Kinetin), Indol butyric acid (IBA), were investigated in their effects at different micropropagation stages. Three explants (apical shoots, internodes, leaf discs) were used in this study. The effect of the interaction between BA and IBA on shoot multiplication was investigated in increasing the number of shoots on explants. Rooting was also studied after inclusion of IBA and NAA to Murashige and Skoog, 1962 culture medium (MS). During acclimatization stage, different ratios of river sand and peat moss as agricultural media were tested and plantlets survival was recorded. Maximum mean shoot number was recorded when leaf discs were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l of BA giving 6.8 shoots. Highest mean shoot length was obtained when BA at 0.1 mg/l was added to the culture medium giving 1.16 cm. Internodes achieved maximum mean shoot length reached 1.6 cm in the medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l of BA, while the same concentration of KIN extended the mean shoot length up to 1.6 cm. Shoots that transferred to MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l of IBA achieved the highest root number (5.5) with mean length of 2.5 cm and achieved 70% rooting percentage. Plantlets were acclimatized achieving 90% survival when transferred to agricultural medium consisted of rivers and peat moss at 2:1 v/v ratio.


Article
Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff)SorokinEffect of fungus Metarhizum anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin and actelic insecticide in pupa ages of 24 and 120 hours of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)
تأثير فطر Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff)Sorokin

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This study was perform to defined the effect of fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Sorokin with concentrations 5x101, 5x103 and 5x105 spore/ ml and Actelic insecticide with concentration 0.001% in pupa stages of Callosobruchus maculatus in pupa ages of 24 and 120 hours the results of the study showed the following: the highest killing rate of treated pupa in age 120 hours 100% at concentration 105 spore/ ml. observation for distortions in the adult insects from the pupa that treated with fungal concentration like wings and abdominal distortion , the concentration of fungal effect on the number of eggs that production from adults and percentage of hatching.


Article
Evaluation of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. callus genotypes for water stress tolerance using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)
تقويم تحمل تراكيب وراثية من حنطة الخبز Triticum aestivum L. للشد المائي باستخدام البولي اثيلين كلايكول PEG في خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

A fixed callus weight of 150 mg was induced from immature embryos of three bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. genotypes (Tamos 2, El-izz and Mutant 1) cultured on nutrient medium {MS) containing Polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) supplemented with concentrations (0.0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 or 12.0%) to evaluate their tolerance to water stress. Cultures were incubated in darkness at temperature of 251 C. Callus fresh and dry weights were recorded and soluble Carbohydrate and the amino acid Proline concentrations were determined. Results showed that there were significant differences in studied parameters among bread wheat genotypes of which Tamos 2 was higher in callus average fresh and dry weights which gave 353.33 and 38.46 mg/cultured tube respectively. Tamos 2 was also higher in soluble Carbohydrate and Proline concentrations which gave 189.84 and 12.30 mg/g respectively. Results also showed that there was significant reduction in callus average fresh and dry weights and soluble Carbohydrates concentration as concentrations of PEG increased in cultured medium, whereas average Proline concentration increased as PEG concentrations increased. The results also revealed significant interactions among the genotypes and PEG concentrations in all studied parameters. It can be concluded thatTamos 2 genotype showed better tolerance to drought than the other two genotypes


Article
Testing the ability of Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt 1833) Isopoda Crustaceans to decompose and consume cellulosean wastes in different ecosystems
أختبار قدرة النوع Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt 1833) ( قشريات متشابهة الأقدام) على تحليل واستهلاك المخلفات السليلوزية لنظم بيئية مختلفة

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to use individual terrestrial crustacean from Isopoda such as the species Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt 1833) as environmental cleaner and that through the test of their abilities in decomposition of residues of some cellulosean wastes such as wood pieces which contain high ratio of urban wastes, and residue of Zea mays and particularly leaves as plant waste in agricultural fields and residue of Cynodon dactylon plants which compose the main wastes in most of gardens and parks. Experiments were conducted relatively in stable laboratory conditions to ensure environmental conditions similar to crustaceans' life. The results showed presence of good efficiency of these individuals in treating such wastes as they consumed 89% of wood pieces and 59% of Zea mays leaves and 27% of residue of Cynodon dactylon plants during the period of treatment. The average of each crustacean individual to consume was 0.74, 0.49 and 0.22 gram from the material mentioned respectively. So, it is recommend to conduct further experiments on different models of agricultural and civil wastes by using different species of these organisms to carry out such studies with a broad spectrum in future to treat the wastes and pollutants of environment by biological approach.


Article
Effect of Replacing Partial of Wheat Flour by Lentil Powder on Quality Properties of Laboratory Bread
تاثير الاستبدال الجزئي للطحين بالعدس في الخواص النوعية للخبز المختبري

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Abstract

This investigation was carried out to examine the effect of replacing partial of flour by dried Lentils (Lens culinaris) to white flour in different percentages on the chemical, sensory and storage properties of the Laboratory bread. The results revealed that replacing 0% than wheat flour by lentil powder (1) control was high significan than the replacing 25 and 35% than wheat flour by lentil powder ( 4 and 5) in flavor and chewiness . The results of sensory evaluation showed that replacing 4 were high significan different than that of replacing 1 in external layer colour. Other replacing percentages, however, did not show significant differences of in comparison with control . In regards with chemical analysis of Iron and copper, it was increased as replacing percentages increased of the bread. Regarding replacig 5% (2 ) than wheat flour by lentil powder gained higher score of overall acceptance than other replacing percentages . Replacing 5 gained higher score of overall acceptance than replacing 15% (3) and 4 . It can be concluded that the best replacing from the overall acceptance of bread was 5% than wheat flour by lentil powder ,and retained its softness and flavor at - 8°c for 7 days in comparison with replacing 1 . and replacing in 5 that the best from the overall acceptance in comparison with replacing in 3 and 4 . and in percentages of Iron and copper in comparison with other replacing percentages It may be concluded that anemia people can get from consumption of this bread which is acceptable when 35 % powders were added.


Article
EFFECT OF REPLACING COW MILK WITH WHEY
تأثير أستبدال حليب البقر بحليب الصويا المستخلص بالشرش في الخواص النوعية للخبز السريع .Muffin

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The objective of study is to investigate the effect of using of Whey – Extracted Soyamilk indifferent Proportions instead of Cow s milk on Standing Height of Muffin of 5.5 cm. was reached in the treatment C ( 50% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk ) as compared with a Control treatment A (0% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) at which the Muffin height reached 4.8 cm. About the sensory evaluation , The results showed for the Flavour property , to a significant difference was found between the treatment A (0% whey – Extracted Soyamilk ) which got 6.2 degree as compared with the two treatments namely , D(75% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) and E(100% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) Which got 5.7 and 5.3 degree , respectively. For General Acceptance property , both treatments , B(25% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) and C(50% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) got 6.2 and 6.3 degree, respectively, as compared with treatment A(0% Whey – Extracted Soyamilk) which got 6.1 degree. Finally , from the above results it can be deduced that treatments C and B were the best selective treatments from the stand points of nutrition value and quality properties of Muffin.


Article
Effect of Aquatic, Alcoholic and Oily Extracts of Cocos nucifera L.on the Growth of Certain Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Wounds and Burns Infections
تأثير المستخلصات المائية والكحولية والزيتية لثمار جوز الهند Cocos nucifera L. في نمو بعض الجراثيم المسببة لالتهابات الجروح والحروق

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Three types of extracts ( aquatic, alcoholic, and oily ) were prepared from the fruits of coconuts, and a series of chemical tests were conducted in addition to the use of the FTIR equipment to determine the active locations in the prepared extracts. The results indicated the presence of active compounds (tannins, saponins, flavonoids, turbines and steroids) in the extracts prepared from the fruits of coconuts, also the antimicrobial capability of these extracts were tested on pathogenic bacteria isolated from wounds and burns infections cases. The results proved that the concentration 80 mg/ml of the aquatic extract is the minimum inhibitory concentration for the microbes: Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas fluorescence, while the concentration of 160 mg/ml is the lethal concentration for them, as for the alcoholic extract the concentration of 4 mg/ml was the minimum inhibitory concentration for these two microbes , while the concentration of 32 mg/ml was the lethal concentration to them, as for the oily extract the two concentrations of 1:1 and 1:3 were the minimum inhibitory concentration and the lethal concentration respectively for these two microbes, while for the Burkhorderia mallei microbe the concentrations of 40, 4, 6,2:1 of the aquatic, alcoholic and oily extracts respectively were the minimum inhibitory concentrations for their growth, while the concentrations 160,32,3:1 of the aquatic, alcohol and oily extract respectively the lethal concentrations to them.


Article
Study The Predation Efficiency of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)(Neuroptera :Chrysopidae) Larvae in Controlling Nymphs and Adults of Cabbage Aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera :Aphididae).
دراسة الكفاءة الافتراسية ليرقات المفترس أسد المنChrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera:Chrysopidae) (Stephens) في السيطرة على حوريات وبالغات مَـنْ اللهانة Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera:Aphididae)

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Results showed high efficiency of the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) to attack and consume nymphal instars and adults of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.).The total average of the nymphal instars consumed by the larval stage of predator were 308.67, 285.9, 198.77, 154.7 for 1st ,2nd ,3rd ,4th nymphal instars respectively .While it was 110,107.9 for apterae and alatae respectively . Also, predation efficiency increases with the progress of the larval instars up to the third (last) which was the most voracious .The 1st instar nymph consumed by the larvae of the predator were 47,80,181.67 nymphs ,with predation rate of 14.71% , 23.75% and 50.13% for 1st ,2nd and 3rd larval instars


Article
Water flow velocity and oxide film formation effect on copper pipe corrosion
تأثير سرعة جريان الماء وتكون طبقة الأوكسيد على معدل تآكل أنابيب النحاس

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An overall mathematical model for copper pipe corrosion in flowing water was derived based on mass transfer fundamentals where we introduced the effects of boundary layer velocity, bulk flow velocity and the surface oxide protective film on the corrosion rate. A set of experiments were conducted in a straight 10mm diameter copper pipe, flow of water include six velocities of maximum value 7.33m/sec at 200C and 350C. The good agreement between the calculated and experimental corrosion rate values were achieved , the agreement reached 92% .


Article
Benzoic acid concentration levels recovery in Ketchup and Sauce products available in local market.
الكشف عن مستويات حامض البنزويك في منتجات الكجاب والصاص المحلي والمستورد المتوافر في السوق المحلية

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This research is dealing with five sample of tomato ketchup products available in local market that were respectively as follows: Hello-Baghdad Iraq, Tiffany-Abu Dhabi, Melody-Dubai, Baidar-Saudi Arabia, and Altunsa-Turkey. Also it is dealing with four sample of sauce products available in local market that were respectively as follows: Hello-Baghdad, Iraq, Al-Badawi-Baghdad Iraq, Family-Baghdad, Iraq, and Hala-Amman Jordon. Analysis was performed on each sample three times and mean of the reading was taking. Samples were tested through terse and shorthand from lengthened steps. The spectrophotometric method used rely on theoretical and practical bases in extraction and diagnosis by UV spectrophotometer. This method in short notes, consisted of achievement of extraction of the ketchup and sauce aqueous solution in three steps from which benzoic acid extracted in the form of benzoate, through these steps the benzoate form was changed into benzoic acid form, so the sample aqueous solution extracted using diethyl ether and its quantity was transferred by volume. The UV absorbance curve for benzoic acid was drawn in spectral range 200-290 nm, and the spectra for benzoic acid 250-290 nm was also drawn, whereas in this range the higher absorbance at 272 nm was predicted, and the final benzoic acid solution was tested using UV spect. at this proper wavelength, so the benzoic acid reading was obtained using acid standard curve utilization. In this work was also noticed that pH values for ketchup and sauce products are differed and ranging from 2 to 5 instead of the stated values that must be between 3.5 to 4.7. The higher recorded benzoic acid concentrations in ketchup samples in this work was higher as 1315 and lower as 745 mg/Kg, and it recorded a value 255 mg/Kg which approaches allowable value stated by Iraqi standardization (250 mg/Kg). Whereas the higher recorded benzoic acid concentrations in sauce samples in this work was higher as 2695 mg/Kg, and some of which recorded a value 280 mg/Kg which approaches allowable value stated by Iraqi standardization (250 mg/Kg). In general terms the concentration levels in samples investigated were higher than allowable value stated by Iraqi standardization (250 mg/Kg).


Article
Thermoluminescence dosimetry of mixed neutron – gamma fields
قياس الجرع الاشعاعية في مجال نيوترون – كاما بواسطة الوميض الحراري (TLD)

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The method of measurement dosimetry in neutron – gamma field by using CaSo4 : Dy (PTFE) disc which has a diameter of 1.3mm and thickness of 0.2mm and using hydrogenated material as a converters of neutron to recoil protons (n-p) reaction, the discs were irradiated by neutron source (241Am-Be) with flux of 4.5х105 n/cm2s for different time to obtain different dose. The TL signals, which we have been obtained by using the converters, are increases to 71%. So we can resolve the neutron and gamma in mixed field.


Article
Preparation of PVC composite using reinforced Iraqi Bentoniet clay as a filler & study their mechanical and thermal properties
تحضير متراكب بولي فاينيل كلورايد (PVC ) باستعمال طين البنتونايت العراقي المعالج مادة ملء ودراسة خصائصه الميكانيكية والحرارية

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In this study , Iraqi Bentonite clay was used as a filler for polyvinyl chloride polymer. Bentonite clay was prepared as a powder for some certain particle size ,followed by calcinations process at (300,700,900) OC ,then milled and sieved. The selected sizes were D ~75 µm and D ~150. After that polyvinyl Al-Cohool solution prepared and used as a coated layer covered the Bentonite powder before applied as a filler ,followed by drying , milling and sieving for limited recommend sizes. polyvinyl chloride solutions were prepared and adding of modified Bentonite power at certain quantities were followed .Sheet of these variables on the mechanical and thermal properties of the prepared reinforced particular polyvinyl chloride composite Experimentally, it was found that the composite prepared by adding modified Iraqi Bentonite powder , that calcined at 700 oC as a filler have an advantage in heating insulator properties by 30 from that found for PVC as it is ,and the value of stress strength exceed by three times as that for original value.


Article
Study of Reactivity Effect on Reactor Power by Using the Neutronic- Thermohydrolic Coupling
دراسة تأثير الفاعلية في قدرة المفاعل بطريقة المزاوجة النيوترونية-الحرارية

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The study deals with reactivity insertion linear and non linear and/or Ramp reactivity expressed as a polynomial in time in the presence of two Feedback mechanisms, using the neutronic-thermohydraulic coupling in order to predict the neutron behavior as a function of time in terms of reactor power. Also, a comparative study has been achieved in the case of the presence of the feedback mechanisms. Insertion of Ramp reactivities in terms of polynomial in time to study the behavior of power and reactivity as a function of time in the presence of two feedback mechanisms (fuel and coolant) has been carried out and the results are displayed as plots, and showed this results corresponding with international results. The present study shows that the simulation of neutron time behavior is a vital tool to predict the behavior of reactivity and/or power as a function of time in case of insertion of negative or positive and/or Ramp reactivities in power reactor core for the case including feedback mechanism. Also, the simulation may be considered a unique technique to predict unexpected incident and/or accident that may occur in reactor power core in case of the availability of accurated input data.


Article
Occurrence of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Iraq
حدوث التهاب السحايا البكتيري في العراق

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This study focuses on the relative frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with culture-proven bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology has been investigated with clinical and laboratory findings in The Central Public Health Laboratory, Iraq from April to September, 2010. From (138) samples , (55) cases (39.85 %) were diagnosed by physician as bacterial meningitis, (23) cases (16.66 %) as viral menginitis , (18) cases (13.04 %) as different medical cases (e.g febrile convulsion , meningoencephalitis , epilepsy …etc) and (42) cases (30.43 %) as unidentified medical cases. For bacterial meningitis S.pneumoniae was isolated from (10) cases (18.18 %) only. The median age for bacterial meningitis was (130.75) month and the predominance was in the age group (1-20) months which appear as (42) cases (76.36 %) . Fever was the frequent presenting symptoms in (49) cases (89.09 %) , followed vomiting in (34) cases (61.81 %) , then irritability and seizures in (29 ,25) cases (52.72 , 45.45) % respectively . In bacterial meningitis , the mean for glucose and protein levels was (44 and 65) (mg/dl) respectively.


Article
Aquatic Oligochaetes of Iraq's Southern Marshes
الديدان قليلة الاهلاب المائية في اهوار جنوب العراق

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Aquatic Oligochaetes community in the Iraqi southern marshes, Al- Hawiezah, Al-Chibayish and Al-Hammar, have been studied for the period from July 2006 to June 2007. Two sites within each marsh, in addition to a reference site located at Shatt Al-Garma, have been chosen for sample collection using Ekman dredge. The results revealed that the highest average annual density was 16800 individual / m2 recorded in Al-Hawiezah marsh, while in Al-Chibayish and al-Hammar marsh the density did not exceed 5111 individual/m2. In contrast, the density of Oligochaetes recorded in Shatt Al-Garma was about 10500 individual / m2. The highest monthly density was recorded in April 2007.The highest local percentage occurrence was 96% recorded in Al-Hawiezah marsh, while the highest average monthly percentage occurrence was recorded in January 2007.The study revealed the presence of 19 Oligochaetes species belonging to 14 genera and 4 families. Naididae was represented by 8 spp.; Tubuficidae 8 spp.; Lumbriculidae 2 spp. and Lumbricidae 1 spp. Tubificid worms formed about 73% of the total count while Naididae formed 15%, Lumbriculidae 8% and Lumbricidae 4%.Among Tubificidae, Limnodrilus was the most abundant genus composed about 35% of L. hoffmeisteri; 11.5% L. claparedianus; 8% L. profundicola and 4.7% L. maumeensis, followed by Tubifex tubifex 23%. Other species were Branchuira sowerbyi formed 15%; 2.8 and 2 % for Peloscolex velutinus and Aulodrilus pigueti respectively. Naididae worms comprised 8 species including 32% of Dero digitata, 24% of Nais variabilis, 14% of Amphichaeta sp. and 11% of each of D.obtuse and Pristina longiseta. However, D. dorsalis represented only 7.5% of the total Naididae. Few individuals of B. sowerbyi and Lumbriculus variegates, with two regenerated parts at the posterior end were also detected in some samples. This case was considered a rare observation within the population of these worms in this particular area.


Article
Studying HLA class I polymorphism in brain tumour patients
دراسة مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية ( (HLA الصنف الأول لمرضى اورام الدماغ

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The present study aimed at shed light on the association between HLA-class I antigens (A, B and Cw) and brain tumours (meningioma and glioma) in the basis of their individual frequencies or two-locus association A total of 52 brain tumour patients were enrolled in this study, with an age range of 7-68 years. The patients were divided into two clinical groups; meningioma (20 cases) and glioma (22 cases), while the remaining 10 cases represented other types of brain tumour. Control samples included 47 Iraqi Arab apparently healthy blood volunteers, with an age range of 15-50 year. Three HLA antigens showed a significant increased frequency in total patients as compared to controls. They were B13 (34.6 vs. 6.5%), B40 (15.4 vs. 2.2%) and Cw3 (15.4 vs. 2.2%). In contrast, B5 was significantly decreased (15.4 vs. 34.8%). In meningioma patients, only B13 was significantly increased (35.0 vs. 6.5%), while in glioma patients, B13 (36.4 vs. 6.5%) and Cw5 (36.4 vs. 2.2%) were significantly increased. Variations between patients and controls have been also encountered for the observed and expected HLA-two locus associations (B13-Cw3, B13-Cw5 and B40-Cw5).


Article
Determination of optimal conditions for laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus using sawdust as solid medium and its use in phenol degradation
تحديد ألظروف المثلى لأنتاج اللاكتيز من الفطر Pleurotus ostreatus بأستخدام نشارة ألخشب كوسط صلب و دور ألانزيم في تفكيك الفينول

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The ability of four local fungal isolates for extracellular laccase production has been tested with five grams 1:1(w/v) humidified sawdust as substrate in mineral salt medium. After 21 day of incubation at 25±1 ْ C and using one mycelial plug (5mm), higher level of laccase activity (0.15U/ml) and specific activity (15U/mg) were observed by Pleurotus ostreatus in comparison with other fungal isolates. The results of optimum conditions for laccase production from selected isolate showed that, the maximum laccase activity (0.55U/ml) and specific activity (55U/mg) were obtained at moisture ratio 1:3 (w/v), using 3 mycelial plugs (5 mm), after 15 days incubation period at 25±1 ْ C. The results of phenol degradation by crud laccase revealed that, 100% degradation of phenol occurred after 24 hr of incubation at 25 ْ C using shaking water bath except at 200mg/l, the remaining phenol was 10.13%.


Article
Paramyxoviruses and Multiple Sclerosis
) ومرض تصلب الاعصاب المتعدد paramyxo viruses فيروسات ال (

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease characterized by periods of quiescence and exacerbation, epidemiological data suggest the notion that MS is an acquired autoimmune disease caused by environmental factors, probably infectious, in genetically susceptible individuals.The submitted research was attempted to study the possible viral (Paramyxoviruses) role in MS, the sera of 57 MS patients were assayed for anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG antibodies using ELISA technique, the results were compared in order to establish the presence or absence of a significant difference regarding both number of positive cases and antibodies titer between the two groups, the results revealed that there is no in number of measles positive cases in both MS patients and controls while a significant difference in number of positive cases of mumps and measles anti-measles IgG titer and a highly significant difference regarding mumps IgG Abs titer between the two studied groups, this may be considered as a preliminary indicator to the role of those two paramyxoviruses in MS.


Article
Study the expression level of beta 2 microglobulin gene on hepatitis C patients before and after treatment with interferon
دراسة مستوى تعبير جين beta 2 microglobulin في مرضى التهاب الكبد الفيروسي سي قبل وبعد العلاج بالانترفيرون

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This study has been carried out to evaluate the expression level of beta 2 microglobulin gene on patients infected by hepatitis C virus before and after treatment with interferon. The study included 117 hepatitis C patients comprising as 63 pre-treated patients, the range of age was between 20-65 year with a mean age of 48.12 ± 16.1 and 54 post-treated patients with age range was between 23-63 year with the mean of 46.1 ± 18.1. Also it was found that more than half of patients were located within third and fourth decade i.e. 30-49 year, with a percentage of 52.4% and 55.6 % for pre-treatment and post-treatment patients respectively. Moreover , regarding both groups, males are more than females with the ratio of ( 3.2:1) among pre-treatment group and 2:1 among post-treatment group. Further , It has been found that the concentration of β2 microglobulin was (3.425±0.943mg/L) among pre-treatment group and (1.860±0.723 mg/L) among post-treatment group with significant correlation (P=0.05). Besides that , in the present study ,It has been found the concentration of β2 microglobulin was decrease after treatment from (3.425±0.943 mg/L) to (1.860±0.723mg/L) which was statistically significant (P=0.05) , Thus β2 microglobulin can be used as a supporting marker of responsiveness to treatment with interferon in hepatitis C patients as well as indicator for monitoring the disease progression.


Article
Preparation , charactarazition and biological activity of some complexes of potassium 2-carbomethoxy amino-5- trithiocarbonate 1,3,4-thiadiazole
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض معقدات الليكاند (بوتاسيوم (2-كاربوميثوكسي امينو- 5 ثلاثي ثايوكاربونيت- 4,3,1 ثاياديازول)

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In this study a new ligand ,(potassium 2-carbomethoxy amino-5-trithiocarbonate 1,3,4-thiadiazole) (L) has been prepared from 2-carbomethoxy amino-5-mercapto 1,3,4-thiadiazole with CS2 in alkali media . The product has been isolated and characterized by appropriate physical measurements, vibrational and electronic spectroscopy. The ligand was used to prepare a number of complexes with some metal ions Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II). These complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectra, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, melting points and atomic absorption measurements. The nickel and copper complexes have an octahedral geometry while cobalt complex has a tetrahedral geometry. The nature of bonding between the metal ion and the donor atom of the ligand was demonstrated through the calculated Racah parameter and other ligand field parameters, which have been calculated by using a suitable Tanaba-Sugano diagram The biological activity of the ligand and it’s complexes have been examined against two selected microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginsa and Staphylococcus aureus using (10mM) and (5mM) in nutrient agar medium. The results were showed enhancement of activity of some complexes compared to that of the respective ligand, which were attributed to the synergetic effect between the metal ion and the ligand in addition to the difference in the structural varieties.


Article
Batch and Flow-Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Procaine HCl in Pharmaceutical Preparations Via Using Diazotization and Coupling Reaction
التقدير الطيفي لهيدروكلوريد البروكائين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بوساطة طريقتي الدفعة والحقن الجرياني بأستخدام تفاعلات الازوتة والاقتران

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Simple and sensitive batch and Flow-injection spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Procaine HCl in pure form and in injections were proposed. These methods were based on a diazotization reaction of procaine HCl with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid to form diazonium salt, which is coupled with chromatropic acid in alkaline medium to form an intense pink water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 508 nm. A graphs of absorbance versus concentration show that Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-40 and 5-400 µg.ml-1 of Procaine HCl, with detection limits of 0.874 and 3.75 µg.ml-1 of Procaine HCl for batch and FIA methods respectively. The FIA average sample throughput was 70 h-1. All different chemical and physical experimental parameters that affecting on the development and stability of the colored product were carefully studied and the proposed methods were applied satisfactorily for the determination of Procaine HCl in an injections samples using the standard addition method.


Article
Synthesis , Spectroscopic and Antibacterial Studies of Zinc(II) Complexes Derived from Salicylaldehyde, Leucylalanine and Glycylglycine
تحضير ودراسة طيفية وبكتيرية لمعقدات الزنك الثنائية والمشتقة من السالسلديهايد و ليوسيل-الانين و كلايسيل- كلايسين

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Abstract

Two Schiff base ligands L1 and L2 have been obtained by condensation of salicylaldehyde respectively with leucylalanine and glycylglycine then their complexes with Zn(II)were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses , conductivity measurement , IR and UV-Vis .The molar conductance measurement indicated that the Zn(II) complexes are 1:1 non-electrolytes. The IR data demonstrated that the tetradentate binding of the ligands L1 and L2 . The in vitro biological screening effect of the investigated compounds have been tested against the bacterial species Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia coil , Klebsiella pneumaniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method . A comparative study of inhibition values of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes indicated that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands . Zinc ions are proven to be essential for the growth-inhibitor effect. The extent of inhibition appeared to be strongly dependent on the initial cell density and on the growth medium .


Article
Influence of Fluoride Addition on Hydroxyapatite Prepared for Medical Applications
تأثير اضافة الفلوريد على مركب الهيدروكسي ابتايت المحضر للتطبيقات الطبية

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Abstract

In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has been prepared as bioceramic material with biological specifications useful to used for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Wet chemical processing seems to form the fine grain size and uniform characteristic nanocrystalline materials by the interstice factors controlling which affected the grain size and crystallinity in order to give good mechanical and/or constituent properties similar as natural bone. Fluorinated hydroxyapatite [4-6 wt% F, (FHA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2–Fx] was developed in new method for its posses to increased strength and to give higher corrosion resistance in biofluids than pure HAP moreover reduces the risk of dental caries. The phase's and functional groups characterizations XRD & FTIR reveled the purity of the product and its free of other phases, while the morphology tests showed the compound homogeneity as fluoride interpenetrated in the compound lattice net.


Article
Study Of Factors Affecting The Thermal Conductivity Of Iraqi Bentonite
دراسة العوامل المؤثرة على الموصلية الحرارية لآطيان البنتونايت العراقية

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Abstract

Thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite is one of the most important properties where this type of clay is proposed for use as a buffer material. In this study, Lee's disc method was used to measure the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite specimens. The experimental results have been analyzed to observe the three major factors affecting the thermal conductivity of bentonite buffer material. While the clay density reaches to a target value, the measurement is taken to evaluate the thermal conductivity. By repeating this procedure, a relationship between clay dry density and thermal conductivity has been established in specimens after adjusting the water contents of the bentonite by placing its specimens in a drying oven for different periods. So relationships of thermal conductivity with each of these major factors (clay density, water content, and sand volume fraction) are established in this study. The relevance of these relationships be analyzed together using experimental data on many compacted bentonites.


Article
Evaluation of the Compton (Incoherent) and Rayleigh (Coherent) Differential Cross Sections of Scattering for Rhodium 103Rh45 and Tantalum181Ta73 by Employing CSC model
حساب مساحة المقطـــع العرضي التفاضلي لاستطارتي كومـــــــبتن (غير المتشاكهة ) ورايــــلي ( المتشاكه ) لعنصري الروهيديوم 103Rh45 والتانتالوم181Ta73 باستخدام نموذج CSC الرياضي

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Abstract

The differential cross section for the Rhodium and Tantalum has been calculated by using the Cross Section Calculations (CSC) in range of energy(1keV-1MeV) . This calculations based on the programming of the Klein-Nashina and Rayleigh Equations. Atomic form factors as well as the coherent functions in Fortran90 language Machine proved very fast an accurate results and the possibility of application of such model to obtain the total coefficient for any elements or compounds.


Article
New Fuzzy Normed Spaces
فضاءات قيا سية ضبا بية جديدة

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Abstract

In this paper the research introduces a new definition of a fuzzy normed space then the related concepts such as fuzzy continuous, convergence of sequence of fuzzy points and Cauchy sequence of fuzzy points are discussed in details.


Article
Product of Conjugacy Classes of the Alternating Group An
حول ضرب صفوف التكافؤ بالزمرة المتناوبة An

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Abstract

For a nonempty subset X of a group G and a positive integer m , the product of X , denoted by Xm ,is the set Xm = That is , Xm is the subset of G formed by considering all possible ordered products of m elements form X. In the symmetric group Sn, the class Cn (n odd positive integer) split into two conjugacy classes in An denoted Cn+ and Cn- . C+ and C- were used for these two parts of Cn. This work we prove that for some odd n ,the class C of 5- cycle in Sn has the property that = An n 7 and C+ has the property that each element of C+ is conjugate to its inverse, the square of each element of it is the element of C-, these results were used to prove that C+ C- = An exceptional of I (I the identity conjugacy class), when n=5+4k , k>=0.

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