Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:10

Article
The Characteristics of the Traditional Urban Configuration of Arab-Islamic Cities through Form and Moral Values: Al-Kadhimiya as a Case Study
سمات الهيئة الحضرية التقليدية للمدينة العربية ما بين الشكل والقيَم المعنوية: مدينة الكاظمية كحالة دراسية

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Abstract

This paper studies the main characteristics of the traditional urban configuration of Arab cities, as an important built heritage, discussing the approach adopted with such configuration at the local level, and examines its ability to preserve the character of the city, as well as, its responsiveness to the recent requirements of its society that constantly change; in order to reach the appropriate procedures to deal with the traditional urban configuration of the Iraqi city to achieve a vital cultural communication with the vernacular built heritage, by dealing with the Form-Moral Values structure. Due to its importance within other traditional Iraqi cities, the research chose Al-Kadhimiya as a case study, so it discusses and compares three projects in the competition of developing the surrounding area of Al-Kadhimiya Shrine, in 2009, considering these projects as a clear indication of the recent local approach in dealing with traditional urban configuration. The research reveals a relationship between the type of the traditional urban configuration’s Form-Moral Values bond, and the type of procedures used for it, which could form a vital type of traditional Arab city urban configuration, that keeps the essential characteristics, and in the meantime, responds to the recent demands of the society.


Article
Use of Gis for Creating a Project Management Data Base in Baghdad Al-Rissfa
استخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لإنشاء قاعدة بيانات لإدارة المشاريع في محافظة بغداد (الرصافة)

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Abstract

The main objective of resources management is to supply and support the site operation with necessary resources in a way to achieve the required timing in handing over the work as well as to achieve the cost-realism within the budget estimated. The research aims to know the advantage of using GIS in management of resources as one of the new tools that keep pace with the evolution in various countries around the world also collect the vast amount of spatial data resources in one environment easily to handled and accessed quickly and this help to make the right decision regarding management of resources in various construction projects. The process of using GIS in the management and identification of resources is of extreme importance in the process of planning, programming, management and cost of resources and therefore a scientific follow-up cost and time to projects construction different as that fact indicates an urgent need to use new tools to help the process of projects within clear curriculum and assess the benefit of those Tools according to what is available in the same field As a result of the steps used in the application of research methodology it has been achieved to prove the benefit of using geographic information systems for better management and resource planning for various projects which help to reduce the duration of the project and help Italy national on the speed-up the execution and provides a new environment for the management of the vast quantity of spatial data in one place which make it easy to handle and to update. It is therefore necessary to develop a culture of management of construction projects and take advantage of the methods and techniques and modern ways in an attempt to catch up with progress in the field of Construction in the world

Keywords


Article
Effect of Fire Flame (High Temperature) on the Self Compacted Concrete (SCC) One Way Slabs

Authors: Ammar A. Hammadi --- Amer F. Izzat --- Jamal A. Farhan
Pages: 1083-1099
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Abstract

Experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of fire flame (high temperature) on specimens of one way slabs using Self Compacted Concrete (SCC). By using furnace manufactured for this purpose, twenty one reinforced concrete slab specimens were exposed to direct fire flame. All of specimens have the same dimensions. The slab specimens were cooled in two types, gradually by left them in the air and suddenly by using water. After that the specimens were tested under two point loads, to study, the effect of different: temperature levels (300ºC, 500ºC and 700ºC), and cooling rate (gradually and sudden cooling conditions) on the concrete compressive strength, modulus of rupture, flexural strength and the behavior of reinforced concrete slab specimens and comparing the results with specimens without burning (reference specimens). The results showed that, the concrete compressive strength, concrete modulus of rupture and the flexural strength decreases while the maximum (central) deflection increases with increasing the fire flame temperature. For suddenly cooled specimens the residual flexural strength is less than that of gradually cooled specimens while the deflection is greater. For slabs with 20 MPa concrete strength and gradually cooled, the residual bending strength percent is 81.5%, 75% and 62.3% ,while the increase in central deflection is 5%, 33%, and 105% at burning temperature 300ºC, 500ºC and 700ºC respectively. For suddenly cooled specimens of the same strength and exposed to the same temperatures above the residual flexural strength is 77.9%, 68.3% and 58.3% while the increase in central deflection is 25%, 52%, and 118% respectively. When the strength of concrete specimens increase, the residual flexural strength experiences small increase and the increase is of lower rate in the central deflection for 300 ºC and 500 ºC burn temperatures while the decrease is significant for 700 ºC burning temperature.


Article
Fatigue Analysis of Hip Prosthesis

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Abstract

The present work covers the analytical design process of three dimensional (3-D) hip joint prosthesis with numerical fatigue stress analysis. The analytical generation equations describing the different stem constructive parts (ball, neck, tour, cone, lower ball) have been presented to reform the stem model in a mathematical feature. The generated surface has been introduced to FE solver (Ansys version 11) in order to simulate the induced dynamic stresses and investigate the effect of every design parameter (ball radius, angle of neck, radius of neck, neck ratio, main tour radius, and outer tour radius) on the max. equivalent stresses for hip prosthesis made from titanium alloy. The dynamic loading case has been studied to a stumbling case. The load has been applied on the cap tip as a concentrated load distributed on the interface of ball and socket. The results show that the decreasing of max. Fatigue stress by (175) MPa could be obtained by increasing the outer tour radius from (10)mm to (15) mm and that will change the max. Fatigue zone location from the tour section to the neck. The ball radius and neck angle must be as lower as possible to decrease the fatigue stresses. The most dominate parameter to increase the safety factor is the radius of neck.


Article
Removal of 4-Chlorophenoles from Simulated Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes

Authors: Yasmen Abdul Mustafa --- Ahmed Hameed Shihab
Pages: 1115-1127
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Abstract

The degradation and mineralization of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated in this work, using both of UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton UV/H2O2/Fe+3 systems. The reaction was influenced by the input concentration of H2O2, the amount of the iron catalyst, the type of iron salt, the pH and the concentration of 4-CP. A colored solution of benzoquinon can be observed through the first 5 minutes of irradiation time for UV/H2O2 system when low concentration (0.01mol/L) of H2O2 was used. The colored solution of benzoquinon could also be observed through the first 5 minutes for the UV/H2O2/Fe+3 system at high concentration (100ppm) of 4-CP. The results have shown that adding Fe+3 to the UV/H2O2 system enhanced the rate of 4-CP oxidation at a molar ratio of H2O2/Fe+3/4-CP equals to 13/0.4/1 by a factor of 7. This reduced the consumption of H2O2 by a factor of 6 and the irradiation time required for complete degradation was reduced by a factor of 6. The experimental results have shown that the optimum reagents for a complete degradation of 4-CP(50ppm) were H2O2.=0.005mol/L, Fe+3=0.16*10-3 mol/L under acidic condition (pH=3) and irradiation time of 15 min for the UV/H2O2/Fe+3 system with a molar ratio of H2O2/Fe+3/4-CP equals to 13/0.4/1.


Article
Investigation Parameters of Resistance Spot Welding For AA1050 Aluminum Alloy Sheets
أستقصاء متغيرات لحام مقاومة النقطة لصفائح سبيكة الالمنيوم AA1050

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Abstract

The parameters of resistance spot welding (RSW) performed on low strength commercial aluminum sheets are investigated experimentally, the performance requirements and weldability issues were driven the choice of a specific aluminum alloy that was AA1050. RSW aluminum alloys has a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld comparing with welding steel alloys sheet, due to the higher thermal conductivity, higher thermal expansion, narrow plastic temperature range, and lower electrical resistivity. Much effort has been devoted to the study of describing the relation between the parameters of the process (welding current, welding time, and electrode force) and weld strength. Shear-tensile strength tests were performed to indicate the weld quality. A weld lobe diagrams were constructed to evaluate the weldability of three sheet thicknesses of this alloy. Most appropriate welding time and electrode force are 5 cycles and 1.75-2.25 kN respectively. The ranges of the weldability are 14-28, 18-30, and 22-32 kA for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet thicknesses respectively. A statistical regression analysis was used to demonstrate the relationship of the process parameters and the strength of the weldments. Two empirical equations for each thickness were proposed to estimate the shear tensile strength of the weldments, one for quadratic and the other linear relationship between the process parameters and the strength. There are no significant differences between the equations when applied to the available data.


Article
Experimental Study of a Biomechanical Behaviour of Rat Patellar Tendon
دراسة عملية للسلوك الميكانيكي الإحيائي لوتر الجرذ الرضفي

Authors: Fakhir S --- Sadiq J. Abass --- Noor Ali Sadek
Pages: 1142-1150
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Abstract

Tendon is important structure of the human body, since it can sustain tensile loading. The primary function of this tissue is to stabilize the joints they attached to it during daily activities. As well as, tendon has viscoelastic properties that can determine their response to loading and restrict the potential of injuries. One of the major points that this paper works with is the study of the biomechanical behaviour of tendon in response to tensile loading to describe their biological behaviour. Also, conclude the mathematical expression that may illustrate the tendon behaviour. All of the experiments were made in Physiology laboratories / Medical College/ Al- Nahrain University on ten rats "Rattus Norvegicus" of [108- 360] gm weight for in- vitro tensile test. So that 20 specimens were dissected from the rat knees, for the patellar tendons which always hydrated to prevent the tissue dryness. The results of the study, shows the behaviour of the tendon in response to tensile loading with two techniques; the dead loads technique and the continuous loads technique. The stress- strain relationships were also evaluated, as well as, the modified superposition theory was applied at different strain levels to the patellar tendon. The obtained results show that the modified superposition theory gives good results that are partly similar to the experimental results. Also, the tendon shows longer initial pattern than that for the ligament due to the presence of higher elastin content in the tendon than in the ligament.


Article
Effect of Steel Fibers on the Properties of Refractory Free Cement Concrete
تأثيرالالياف الحديدية على خواص الخرسانة الحرارية الخالية من السمنت الالوميني

Authors: Abeer Abdulqader Salih --- Haneen Adel mohammed
Pages: 1151-1168
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Abstract

Free cement refractory concrete is a type of refractory concrete with replacing alumina cement by bonding materials such as white kaolin, red kaolin and fumed silica. The free cement refractory concrete used in many applications like Petrochemicals, iron furnaces and cement production industries. The research clarifies the effect of steel fibers with two types crimped steel fibers and hooked steel fibers with percentages 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by volume from weight of bauxite aggregates. The additions of steel fibers with two types gave good properties in high temperatures where the specimens keep the dimension without failure and the properties made the best. the percentage of increasing for thermal conductivity was 44% for 1.5% crimped fibers and 42.8% for 1.5% hooked end fibers and the percentage increasing in bulk density of free cement refractory concrete was 30% for 1.5% crimped fibers and 27% for 15% hooked end fibers . From this study can be concluded that the best types of steel fibers which used in free cement refractory concrete is the crimped type with percentage 1.5%.


Article
Prediction of Smear Effect on the Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles
تخمين تأثير اللطخة على قابلية تحمل ركائز الدق

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Abstract

This paper deals with prediction the effect of soil remoulding (smear) on the ultimate bearing capacity of driven piles. The proposed method based on detecting the decrease in ultimate bearing capacity of the pile shaft (excluding the share of pile tip) after sliding downward. This was done via conducting an experimental study on three installed R.C piles in a sandy clayey silt soil. The piles were installed so that a gap space is left between its tip and the base of borehole. The piles were tested for ultimate bearing capacity according to ASTM D1143 in three stages. Between each two stages the pile was jacked inside the borehole until a sliding of about 200mm is achieved to simulate the soil remoulding due to actual pile driving. The results of the tests exhibited that the pile might loss 14% of its ultimate capacity when it is loaded immediately after installation. Also, it was concluded that the pile may regain of about 9% of its original capacity after 30days of its installation.


Article
Self Purification in Al-Saqlawiya Drain in Abu-Grebe
التنقية الذاتية في مبزل الصقلاوية منطقة ابو غريب

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Abstract

Surface water flow samples were collected with distances downstream over Saqlawiya main drain whose stretch of about 24.5 km. The drain travels through different land use pattern, before, flowing into Tigris River. Eight sampling points were carefully selected downstream the channel during dry season. The examined water parameters were pH, NH3, NO-3, PO=4, BOD5, COD, TDS, S.S, Cl-, SO=4, Na+, Ca+2, Mg+2, and Oil and Grease. Descriptive and inferential methods through finding the best curve fit correlation were employed in the study to test the strength of the association between water chemical characteristics and distance downstream the channel. A comparison of the values of chemical parameters at the Al-Saqlawiya Drain-Tigris River meeting shows that nine parameters (i.e. pH, NH3, NO-3, PO=4, BOD5, COD, TDS, S.S, and Oil and Grease) out of the 14 parameters under study decreased in their concentration at meeting point. In a further analysis, predictive models were obtained through using six sampling points (0. 1, 3, 5,7, 8) and leaving three (2, 4, 6) as activation function. The percentage error for the calculated values of pH, NH3, BOD5, COD, TDS, Cl-. SO=4, Na+ and Mg+2 ranges from (0.54 to 15) % which demonstrate the high predictive capacity of the models. While the high values of the determination coefficient (r higher than 0.9) for NH3, NO3, BOD5, COD, SS, Cl-. SO=4, Na+, Mg+2 and Oil and grease, demonstrate a good model capacity relating water values and distances downstream Finally the paper concludes that artificial purification efforts at the water works should be directed towards controlling the concentration of Cl-, SO=4, Na+ , Ca+2 , Mg+2 which increased with increases in distance downstream and suggests further research in the area of monitoring water quality.

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