Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:11

Article
The Impact of Materials’ Technology on Sustainability of Buildings
أثر تكنولوجيا المواد على إستدامة الأبنية

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Abstract

The evolution in materials’ technology in the last decades resulted in interesting projects that aimed at preserving the environment and energy and reduce pollution. They have been taken the principles of environmental design as a basis for architectural thought, starting from the early stages of the design process ending in choosing appropriate building materials to achieve sustainable buildings, but these trying are limited in our local environment and there isn’t demanded seriousness. The research problem emerges in the ignorance of the environmental aspect (ecological system) when selecting building materials during design process to achieve sustainable buildings. The aim of this research is revealing the mechanisms of selecting building materials to improve the functional performance and reduce the negative effects on the environment and preserve its resources and the ecological systems as much as possible according to the following indicators: Embodied energy, recycling, durability; to assist architects and specific engineers in making decisions that have a significant impact in achieving sustainable buildings in the local environment and the possibility of application in Iraq .


Article
The Influence of Politics on Architectural Thought A Descriptive and Analytical Study of the Effect of Political Ideology on the Achieved Architecture (Berlin City as an Example)
أثْر السياسةَ على فكرِ العِمَارة دراسة وصفية تحليلية لتأثير الايديولوجية السياسية على ُمنجز العمارة، مدينة برلين إنموذجاً

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Abstract

The research investigates the political effect and its directions on the architectural thoughts and its achievements and how can this political system affect all fields of life in communities including architectural urban design. The problem of the research lies in the ambiguity effects of the ideological national directions of the Nazi Party on the architecture and urban design of the city of Berlin, then determining the aims of the research to discuss the concepts of politics and architecture and their relation to the way of thinking that plays a role in the process of design that works on property and achieving the suitable urban environments for those communities. After that, the Nazi's party's thought would be studied and analyzed, its concepts, public beliefs and its relation with renewing the city of Berlin as an example, to finish with introducing the conclusions.


Article
Replacement of Line Loads acting on slabs to equivalent uniformly Distributed Loads
أستبدال الأحمال الخطية المؤثرة على البلاطات الى احمال مكافئة موزعة بأنتظام

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Abstract

This study aims to derive a general relation between line loads that acting on two-way slab system and the equivalent uniformly distributed loads. This relation will be so useful to structural designer that are used to working with a uniformly distributed load and enable them to use the traditional methods for analysis of two-way systems (e.g. Direct Design Method). Two types of slab systems, Slab System with Beams and Flat Slab Systems, have been considered in this study to include the effect of aspect ratio and type of slab on the proposed relation. Five aspect ratios, l2/l1 of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, have been considered for both types of two-way systems. All necessary finite element analyses have been executed with SAFE Software. Data obtained from the F. E. analyses have been used in a statistical analysis using Statistic Software to derive the relation based on a Linear Regression Analysis.


Article
Effect of Transverse Base Width Restraint on the Cracking Behavior of Massive Concrete
تأثير تقييد عرض القاعدة العرضي على سلوك تشقق الخرسانة الكتلية

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Abstract

The effect of considering the third dimension in mass concrete members on its cracking behavior is investigated in this study. The investigation includes thermal and structural analyses of mass concrete structures. From thermal analysis, the actual temperature distribution throughout the mass concrete body was obtained due to the generation of heat as a result of cement hydration in addition to the ambient circumstances. This was performed via solving the differential equations of heat conduction and convection using the finite element method. The finite element method was also implemented in the structural analysis adopting the concept of initial strain problem. Drying shrinkage volume changes were calculated using the procedure suggested by ACI Committee 209 and inverted to equivalent temperature differences to be added algebraically to the temperature differences obtained from thermal analysis. Willam-Warnke model with five strength parameters is used in modeling of concrete material in which cracking and crushing behavior of concrete can be included. The ANSYS program was employed in a modified manner to perform the above analyses. A thick concrete slab of 1.5m in thickness and 10m in length was analyzed for different widths 2, 4, 8, and 10m to produce different aspect ratios (B/L) of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 respectively. The results of the analyses show an increase in cracking tendency of mass concrete member as the aspect ratio of the same member is increased due to the effect of transverse base restraint. Accordingly, such effect cannot be ignored in the analysis of base restrained mass concrete structures subjected to temperature and drying shrinkage volume changes.


Article
Multiwavelet based-approach to detect shared congestion in computer networks

Authors: Tarik Zeyad Ismaeel --- Ahmed A. Mahdi A. Kareem
Pages: 1219-1228
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Abstract

Internet paths sharing the same congested link can be identified using several shared congestion detection techniques. The new detection technique which is proposed in this paper depends on the previous novel technique (delay correlation with wavelet denoising (DCW) with new denoising method called Discrete Multiwavelet Transform (DMWT) as signal denoising to separate between queuing delay caused by network congestion and delay caused by various other delay variations. The new detection technique provides faster convergence (3 to 5 seconds less than previous novel technique) while using fewer probe packets approximately half numbers than the previous novel technique, so it will reduce the overload on the network caused by probe packets. Thus, new detection technique will improve the overall performance of computer network.


Article
Data Acquisition System for Wind Speed, Direction and Temperature Measurements

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Abstract

This paper describes the use of microcomputer as a laboratory instrument system. The system is focused on three weather variables measurement, are temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. This instrument is a type of data acquisition system; in this paper we deal with the design and implementation of data acquisition system based on personal computer (Pentium) using Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus. The design of this system involves mainly a hardware implementation, and the software programs that are used for testing, measuring and control. The system can be used to display the required information that can be transferred and processed from the external field to the system. A visual basic language with Microsoft foundation classes (MFC) is the fundamental tool for windows programming. It has been used to build a Man-Machine Interface (MMI), which was used for processing and monitoring acquisition data from environment weather

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Article
Hybrid Controller for a Single Flexible Link Manipulator
المسيطر الهجين على ذراع مرنة مفردة لإنسان آلي

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Abstract

In this study, the dynamic modeling and step input tracking control of single flexible link is studied. The Lagrange-assumed modes approach is applied to get the dynamic model of a planner single link manipulator. A Step input tracking controller is suggested by utilizing the hybrid controller approach to overcome the problem of vibration of tip position through motion which is a characteristic of the flexible link system. The first controller is a modified version of the proportional-derivative (PD) rigid controller to track the hub position while sliding mode (SM) control is used for vibration damping. Also, a second controller (a fuzzy logic based proportional-integral plus derivative (PI+D) control scheme) is developed for both vibration damping and hub position tracking. A comparison is made between the performances of these two controllers. The Hybrid controller with PD and SM shows better tracking behavior than obtained from the suggested fuzzy (PI+D)2 controller for a single link flexible manipulator.


Article
Experimental Investigation into the Heat and Mass Transfer in an Indirect Contact Closed Circuit Cooling Tower
التحقق العملي من انتقال الحرارة والكتلة في برج تبريد نوع مغلق و ذي اتصال غير مباشر

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Abstract

The heat and mass transfer coefficients of the indirect contact closed circuit cooling tower, ICCCCT, were investigated experimentally. Different experiments were conducted involving the controlling parameters such as air velocity, spray water to air mass flow rate ratio, spray water flow rate, ambient air wet bulb temperature and the provided heat load to investigate their effects on the performance of the ICCCCT. Also the effect of using packing on the performance of the ICCCCT was investigated. It was noticed that these parameters affect the tower performance and the use of packing materials is a good approach to enhance the performance for different operational conditions. Correlations for mass and heat transfer coefficients are presented. The results showed a good agreement with other published works. Correlations are showed that the spray heat transfer coefficient is a function flow rates of spray water and air as well as spray water temperature while mass transfer coefficient is a function of spray water and air flow rates only.


Article
Removal of Boron from Simulated Iraqi Surface Water by Electrocoagulation Method

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Abstract

The removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by electrocoagulation (EC) using magnesium electrodes as anode and stainless steel electrodes as cathode. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency of boron were investigated, such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, NaCl concentration, spacing between electrodes, electrode material, and presence of carbonate concentration. The optimum removal efficiency of 91. 5 % was achieved at a current density of 3 mA/cm² and pH = 7 using (Mg/St. St. ) electrodes, within 45 min of operating time. The concentration of NaCl was o. 1 g/l with a 0.5cm spacing between the electrodes. First and second order rate equation were applied to study adsorption kinetics. The adsorption process follows second order kinetic model with good correlation. The energy consumption was evaluated for the optimum operating conditions. It was in the range of 1.296 to 1.944 Kwh/m3. The overall expected increase in the operating cost of water treatment using membrane desalination facility (for example) will be about 20%.


Article
Surface Free Energy for the Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Stripping
تقييم خصائص التقشر للأسفلت السمنتي بأستخدام مبدأ الطاقة السطحية الحرة

Authors: Saad Issa Sarsam --- Esraa Thamer Al – Azawee
Pages: 1282-1297
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Abstract

Stripping is one of the major distresses within asphalt concrete pavements caused due to penetration of water within the interface of asphalt-aggregate matrix. In this work, one grade of asphalt cement (40-50) was mixed with variable percentages of three types of additives (fly ash, fumed silica, and phosphogypsum) to obtained an modified asphalt cement to resist the effect of stripping phenomena .The specimens have been tested for physical properties according to AASHTO. The surface free energy has been measured by using two methods namely, the wilhelmy technique and the Sessile drop method according to NCHRP-104 procedures. Samples of asphalt concrete using different asphalt cement and modified asphalt cement percentages(4.1,4.6 and 5.6) were prepared and tested for stripping phenomena by using Marshall Immersion method (The index of retained stability test(I.R.S) ≥75 %. When using Sessile drop method the value of surface free energy of asphalt cement grade (40-50) was about 8.8 ergs/cm2, while when using Wilhelmy technique the value of surface free energy of asphalt cement was 30.71 ergs/cm2. Finally, a mathematical relationship was obtained by using (SPSS) Software between the stripping asphalt concrete using conditioned and unconditioned specimens data (I.R.S) %, the contact angle, the total surface free energy for asphalt cement and modified asphalt cement with fume silica.

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