Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:18 issue:12

Article
Mathematical Model for BOD in Waste Water Discharges from Al Dora Refinery in Baghdad

Authors: Shatha Dh. AL Khazraji --- Nawar O.A.Nasser
Pages: 1297-1306
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Abstract

This research consists of two parts, the first part concern with analyzing the collected data of BOD and COD values in discharge waste water from Al-Dora refinery during 2010 to find the relationship between these two variables The results indicates that there is a high correlation between BOD and COD when using a natural logarithm model (0.86 ln(COD)) with correlation coefficient of 0.98. This relationship is useful in predicting the BOD value using the COD value. The second part includes analyzing collected data from the same site in order to find a relationsip between BOD and other parameters COD, Phenol(phe), Temperature(T), Oil, Sulphat(SO4),pH and Total dissolved solids( TDS) discharged from the refinery. The results indicated that the best mathematical model is BOD= 0.786 (ln(COD))^2- 3.077E83/Exp(10T) + 1.76E+48/Exp(0.1TDS)- 5.6507/Exp(100Phe) With correlation coefficient of 0.873. The presented research demonstrates many conclusions regarding the relation between BOD and other pollutions, it is clear that the relation between BOD and COD is a direct relation, while it’s a reverse relation with other pollutions and it’s also clear that a linear model can be used to represent the relation between BOD and COD for a value of COD approximately less than (50 mg/L).


Article
Database for Baghdad Soil Using GIS Techniques
قاعدة البيانات لتربة بغداد باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

In this paper, assessing underground conditions and the engineering properties of the various strata of fourteen sites Baghdad are made. The sites are divided into two groups, one in Karkh and the other in Rusafa. Assessing the underground conditions can be occurred by drilling vertical holes called exploratory boring into the ground, obtaining soil (disturbed and undisturbed) samples, and testing these samples in a laboratory (civil engineering laboratory /University of Baghdad). From disturbed, the tests involved the grain size analysis and then classified the soil, Atterberg limit, chemical test (organic content, sulphate content, gypsum content and chloride content). From undisturbed samples, the test involved the consolidation test (from this test, the following parameters can be obtained: initial void ratio eo, compression index cc, swelling index cs , coefficient of consolidation cv , coefficient of volume change mv, maximum preconsolidation stress ,Effective overburden pressure ( and shear test (the following parameters can be obtained: undrained cohesion cu, angle of friction φ. In-situ testing was carried out by the standard penetration test in order to obtain the penetration resistance of the soil strata in a bore hole. Database for Baghdad soils is made using different GIS techniques connecting the spatial locations of those soils with their properties (ِAtterberg Limits, Specific Gravity, Grain size Analysis, Shear Strength parameters, Consolidation parameters), Borehole log, Site profile using the attribute tables, hyperlinks, metadata and SQL (System Query Language), so GIS techniques give the facilities for adding, editing and analyzing the existing data as well as the any future data of Baghdad soils.


Article
Development an Anomaly Network Intrusion Detection System Using Neural Network

Authors: Elaf Sabah Abbas --- Hamid M. Ali --- Kais Said Al-Sabbagh
Pages: 1325-1334
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Abstract

Most intrusion detection systems are signature based that work similar to anti-virus but they are unable to detect the zero-day attacks. The importance of the anomaly based IDS has raised because of its ability to deal with the unknown attacks. However smart attacks are appeared to compromise the detection ability of the anomaly based IDS. By considering these weak points the proposed system is ‎developed to overcome them.‎ The proposed system is a development to the well-known payload anomaly detector (PAYL). By combining two stages with the PAYL ‎detector, it gives good detection ability and acceptable ratio of false ‎positive. The proposed system improve the models recognition ability in the ‎PAYL detector, for a filtered unencrypted HTTP subset traffic of ‎DARPA 1999 data set, from 55.234% in the PAYL system alone to ‎‎99.94% in the proposed system; due to the existence of the neural ‎network self-organizing map (SOM). In addition SOM decreases the ‎ratio of false positive from 44.676% in the PAYL system alone to ‎‎5.176% in the proposed system. The proposed system provides 80% detection ability of smart worms that are meant to invade the PAYL detector in the PAYL system alone, due to the existence of the randomization stage in the proposed system.


Article
Different Resolution Merging Methods For Environmental Areas Extraction
استخدام طرق مختلفة في دمج الصور الفضائية لأستخلاص المناطق البيئية

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Abstract

The usage of remote sensing techniques in managing and monitoring the environmental areas is increasing due to the improvement of the sensors used in the observation satellites around the earth. Resolution merge process is used to combine high resolution one band image with another one that have low resolution multi bands image to produce one image that is high in both spatial and spectral resolution. In this work different merging methods were tested to evaluate their enhancement capabilities to extract different environmental areas; Principle component analysis (PCA), Brovey, modified (Intensity, Hue ,Saturation) method and High Pass Filter methods were tested and subjected to visual and statistical comparison for evaluation. Both visual and statistical comparison showed that High Pass Filter method have highest visual enhancement and highly maintained the quantitative information of the original image, Modified (Intensity, Hue, Saturation) method showed good visual and statistical results in comparison with PCA and Brovey method which had the lower results respectively.


Article
Optimized Zero and First Order Design of Micro Geodetic Networks

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Abstract

Precision is one of the main elements that control the quality of a geodetic network, which defines as the measure of the network efficiency in propagation of random errors. This research aims to solve ZOD and FOD problems for a geodetic network using Rosenbrock Method to optimize the geodetic networks by using MATLAB programming language, to find the optimal design of geodetic network with high precision. ZOD problem was applied to a case study network consists of 19 points and 58 designed distances with a priori deviation equal to 5mm, to determine the best points in the network to consider as control points. The results showed that P55 and P73 having the minimum ellipse of error and considered as control points. FOD problem was applied to three cases of selected network to analyzed using the objective function of A-Optimality and D-Optimality, with selected range of movement of 300m to each point in each direction. The first case was a free network, the second case was with P55 and P73 as control points, and the third case was with P42 and P44 as control points. The results showed that the third case was the optimal design with high precision.


Article
Buckling Analysis of Composite Plates under Thermal and Mechanical Loading
تحليل الانبعاج للصفائح المركبة تحت تأثير الأحمال الحرارية والميكانيكية

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Abstract

Buckling analysis of composite laminates for critical thermal (uniform and linear) and mechanical loads is reported here. The objective of this work is to carry out theoretical investigation of buckling analysis of composite plates under thermo-mechanical loads, and experimental investigation under mechanical loads. The analytical investigation involved certain mathematical preliminaries, a study of equations of orthotropic elasticity for classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT) , and numerical analysis (Finite element method), then the equation of motion are derived and solved using Navier method and Levy method for symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates to obtain buckling load by solving eigenvalue problem for different boundary conditions under different thermo-mechanical loading It Also contained a verification study of these methods with those published by other researchers. The results obtained gives good agreement which shows that maximum percentage discrepancy was 7.6152 %. The experimental investigation is to find mechanical properties at room temperature of glass-polyester such as longitudinal, transverse and shear modulus under tension test. Also, to find critical load that cause buckling under buckling test. Analytical and numerical results of critical buckling load studied the effect of Boundary conditions, No. of layers, No. of half wavelengths in y-direction, lamination angle, aspect ratio ,and thickness ratio on buckling load under different thermo-mechanical loading condition.


Article
Effect of Oscillatory Motion in Enhancing the Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Vertical Channel
تأثير الحركة الاهتزازية في تحسين انتقال الحرارة بالحمل الحر من قناة عمودية

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Abstract

This paper reports an experimental study regarding the influence of vertical oscillations on the natural convection heat transfer from a vertical channel. An experimental set-up was constructed and calibrated; the vertical channel was tested in atmosphere at 25oC. The channel-to-ambient temperature difference was varied with the power supply to the electrical heater ranging between 15W to 70W divided into five levels. Data sets were measured under different operating condition from a test rig under six vibrating velocities (VVs) levels ranging from (5-30 m/s) in addition to the stationary state. The results show that the maximum heat transfer enhancement factor (E) occurs at Rayleigh number (Ra=2.328×103) and vibrational Reynolds number ( Rev=6.365×103); this enhancement reached to (7.685%).The results also illustrated that the temperature gradient along the channel wall length was enhanced by inducing the oscillatory motion to the channel. Rayleigh and vibrational Reynolds numbers were ranging between (2.306×103 - 5.564×103) and (0.0 - 19.86×103) respectively. Finally, A correlation which summarized the effects of both Ra and Rev was determined for the Nusselt numbers.


Article
Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of the capillary tube using R-134a and R-600a
التحليل العملي والعددي على الجريان الاديباتي لموائع التثليج البديلة في الانبوب الشعري

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Abstract

In this paper, isobutane (R-600a) is used as a suitable substitute for (R-134a) when changing the length of capillary tube. And the experimental data on capillary tube are obtained under different conditions such as (subcooling and ambient temperatures) on domestic refrigerator (9ft3 size), this data shows that (R-600a) a suitable substitute for (R134a) .The test presented a model for a steady state, two-phase flow in capillary tube for vapour compression system .The numerical model depends on conservation equations (mass, energy and momentum) as wall as the equation of state for refrigerant. The solution methodology was implemented by using finite difference techniques. The system results indicate that it is possible to change the refrigeration system using (R-134a) by shorter capillary tube length about (28.6%) when using (R-600a) .The theoretical results for different variables such as(subcooling and ambient temperatures) showed a good agreement with the "ASHRAE" tables and experimental results.


Article
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams With and Without Opening
التحليلِ اللاخطّي للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة العميقة والمقواة بألياف حديد الصلب مع و بدون الفتحات باستخدام طريقة العناصرِ المحددِة

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Abstract

This paper presents a nonlinear finite element modeling and analysis of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) deep beams with and without openings in web subjected to two- point loading. In this study, the beams were modeled using ANSYS nonlinear finite element software. The percentage of steel fiber was varied from 0 to 1.0%.The influence of fiber content in the concrete deep beams has been studied by measuring the deflection of the deep beams at mid- span and marking the cracking patterns, compute the failure loads for each deep beam, and also study the shearing and first principal stresses for the deep beams with and without openings and with different steel fiber ratios. The above study indicates that the location of openings and the amount steel fiber are affects to the behavior and strength of deep beams. And also when the results of the experiments taken from the literature were compared with the results obtained from the beam modeled with ANSYS finite element program, it was shown that the results of computer model gave similar results to the experimental behavior.


Article
Effect Of Technology Based Learning As A Supplement To Traditional Technology On Student's Achievement
تأثير التعليم القائم على استعمال التكنولوجيا كمتمم للتعليم التقليدي على تعليم الطلبة

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This paper describes a practical study on the impact of learning's partners, Bluetooth Broadcasting system, interactive board, Real – time response system, notepad, free internet access, computer based examination, and interaction classroom, etc, had on undergraduate student performance, achievement and involving with lectures. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that the use of such learning techniques, tools, and strategies to improve student learning especially among the poorest performing students. Also, it gives some kind of practical comparison between the traditional way and interactive way of learning in terms of lectures time, number of tests, types of tests, student's scores, and student's involving with lectures. This paper studies the effect of using relatively new technology appearing in classroom today which is real time response system (voting system), that serves as real – time windows into each students understand of concepts. These devices can provide a foundation decision making based on data at scale never before possible as well as increasing students learning and engagement with each other as well with the lecturer, also, another new technology the "Bluetooth broadcasting system" is applied which is one of the moderate technique towards M- learning, this tool is used to transfer audio, video, text, notes, etc to the mobile of the students as well as laptop. The computer based examination, interactive board, and notepad as well as free wire and wireless internet access are used to close the digital divide and increasing technology literacy in all students which was one of the challenges, additional challenges include “social loafing,” characterized by students who work less diligently than they otherwise might, or who become frustrated by course material or technology and thus less engaged. Finally the other colleague's resistance to the use of technology in learning and its effect on students learning is discussed based on practical situations.

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