Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:19 issue:2

Article
تحولات الدار السكني العراقي في العقد الاول من القرن الواحد والعشرين

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Abstract

This research describes Iraqi housing in the first decade of the twenty-first century, taking AL- Adhamiya as a model, depending on descriptive method of inductive approach to the study of this decade. By doing the field study for three neighborhood in Adhamiya district. Which takes in consideration the comparison between housing in the first period of the first decade of the twenty-first century with the second period of this decade: the latest decades of 21th century. And for many aspects involving areas, sizes, forming, direction of opening of housing and the function, to reach the most important transformation of Iraqi housing in the first decade of this century in order to give a picture of the residential fact for this period.


Article
Critical Evaluation of City Streets
شوارع المدن نظرة تقويمية

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Abstract

The diverse urban spaces of the streets is an important part of the city's physicist configuration and a link between architectural and civilizational communication through time starting from the historic towns down to the contemporary cities, within the proposals of the future cities. From general observations and literature review a research problem is crystallized as some directions not arbitrary rational when expansion and the growth of cities, and other measures wrong or the existence of some incorrect actions and processes related to the cities planning as a categorizing the goals and priorities in city plan.The streets were constitute a high proportion of the total area of cities, where up to over 30% in major cities. These faults are primarily a result of considering city streets as mere path for vehicular movement While pedestrian movement comes as a left over consideration.

Keywords


Article
Load Distribution Factors for Horizontally Curved Composite Concrete-Steel Girder Bridges
معاملات توزيع الأحمال على الجسور المركبة المنحنية في المستوى الأفقي

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Abstract

This paper focuses on Load distribution factors for horizontally curved composite concrete-steel girder bridges. The finite-element analysis software“SAP2000” is used to examine the key parameters that can influence the distribution factors for horizontally curved composite steel girders. A parametric study is conducted to study the load distribution characteristics of such bridge system due to dead loading and AASHTO truck loading using finite elements method. The key parameters considered in this study are: span-to-radius of curvature ratio, span length, number of girders, girders spacing, number of lanes, and truck loading conditions. The results have shown that the curvature is the most critical factor which plays an important role in the design of curved girders in horizontally curved composite bridges. Span length, number of girders and girder spacing generally affect the values of the moment distribution factors. Moreover, present study reveals that AASHTO Guide criterion to treat curved bridges with limited curvature as straight one is conservative. Based on the data generated from the parametric study, sets of empirical equations are developed for the moment distribution factors for straight and curved steel I-girder bridges when subjected to the AASHTO truck loading and due to dead loading.


Article
Investigation of Backfill Compaction Effect on Buried Concrete Pipes
تحري تاثير حدل تربة الدفن على الانابيب الخرسانية المطمورة

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Abstract

The present study deals with the experimental investigation of buried concrete pipes. Concrete pipes are buried in loose and dense conditions of gravelly sand soil and subjected to different surface loadings to study the effects of the backfill compaction on the pipe. The experimental investigation was accomplished using full-scale precast unreinforced concrete pipes with 300 mm internal diameter tested in a laboratory soil box test facility set up for this study. Two loading platforms are used namely, uniform loading platform and patch loading platform. The wheel load was simulated through patch loading platform which have dimensions of 254 mm *508 mm, which is used by AASHTO to model the wheel load of a HS20 truck. The pipe-soil systems were loaded up to pipes collapse. Pipes were instrumented with strain gauges to measure circumferential strains, in addition to dial gauges, for measurements of the pipe vertical deflections and settlement of the loading platforms. The test results indicated that flexure governed the buried pipe behavior. Flexural cracks formed slightly before the ultimate load. A comparison of soil backfill, between a loose and dense compaction, showed that the dense backfill improve largely the pipe installation and the strength of pipe-soil system.


Article
Estimation of Flexural Strength of Plain Concrete from Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
التنبؤ بمقاومة انحناء الخرسانة من سرعة النبضات فوق السمعية

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to propose mathematical expressions for estimation of the flexural strength of plain concrete members from ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements. More than two hundred pieces of precast concrete kerb units were subjected to a scheduled test program. The tests were divided into two categories; non-destructive ultrasonic and bending or rupture tests. For each precast unit, direct and indirect (surface) ultrasonic pulses were subjected to the concrete media to measure their travel velocities. The results of the tests were mointered in two graphs so that two mathematical relationships can be drawn. Direct pulse velocity versus the flexural strength was given in the first relationship while the second equation describes the flexural strength as a function of indirect (surface) pulse velocity. The application of these equations may be extended to cover the assessment of flexural strength of constructed concrete kerb units or in-situ concreting kerbstone and any other precast concrete units. Finally, a relation between direct and indirect pulse velocities of the a given concrete was predicted and suggested to be employed in case when one of the velocities is not available can be measured for other ultrasonic pulse test applications


Article
Traveling Wave Cylindrical Induction Heating System
نظام التسخين الحثي الاسطواني ذو الموجة المنتقلة

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Abstract

The paper deals with the traveling wave cylindrical heating systems. The analysis presented is analytical and a multi-layer model using cylindrical geometry is used to obtain the theoretical results. To validate the theoretical results, a practical model is constructed, tested and the results are compared with the theoretical ones. Comparison showed that the adopted analytical method is efficient in describing the performance of such induction heating systems.


Article
Improvement of Resistance Spot Welding by Surfaces Treatment of AA1050 Sheets
تحسين لحام المقاومة النقطي بمعالجة أسطح صفائح سبيكة الالومنيوم AA1050

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Abstract

Resistance spot welding (RSW) aluminum alloys has a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld, because of the problems of the non-uniform oxide layer. The high resistivity of the oxide causes strong heat released which influence significantly on the electrode lifetime and the weld quality. Much effort has been devoted experimentally to the study of the sheet surface characteristics for as-received sheet and surface pretreatment sheet by pickling in NaOH and glass-blasted with three thicknesses (0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm) of AA1050. Three different welding process parameters energy setup as a low, medium, and high were carried. Tensile-shear strength tests were performed to indicate the weld quality. Moreover, microhardness tests, macro/micrographs, and SEM/EDS examinations were carried out to analyze, compare, and evaluate the effect of surface conditions on the weldability. The as-received sheet showed a higher electrical contact resistance because of its thicker and non-uniform oxide layer. In contrast, the glass-blasted sheet showed lower value, since it has a roughest surface, which leads to easy breakdown the oxide layer. The highest average values and least scattering of the maximum load fracture are with treated sheet by pickling in NaOH, these values are 760, 1193, and 2283 N for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet thickness respectively for medium input energy. In contrast, the minimum values with glass-blasted sheet are 616, 1008, and 2020 N for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet. The microhardness profiles of the fusion zone and HAZ is the lower than the base metal for all cases. Numerical simulation with SORPAS® was used to simulate and optimize the process parameters, and it has given good results in prediction when they compared with experiments.


Article
Parallel Routing in Wireless Sensor Network
التوجيه المتوازي للشبكات التحسس اللاسلكية

Authors: Kais Al Sabbagh --- Zainab Tawfeeq Baqer
Pages: 235-242
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Abstract

The limitations of wireless sensor nodes are power, computational capabilities, and memory. This paper suggests a method to reduce the power consumption by a sensor node .This work is based on the analogy of the routing problem to distribute an electrical field in a physical media with a given density of charges. From this analogy a set of partial differential equations (Poisson's equation) is obtained. A finite difference method is utilized to solve this set numerically. Then a parallel implementation is presented. The parallel implementation is based on domain decomposition, where the original calculation domain is decomposed into several blocks, each of which given to a processing element. All nodes then execute computations in parallel, each node on its associated sub-domain. With this method power consumption by the central node which is responsible to compute routing in the network is reduced.


Article
Statistical Model for Predicting the Optimum Gypsum Content in Concrete
نماذج أحصائية لتخمين نسبة الجبس المثلى في الخرسانة

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Abstract

The problem of internal sulfate attack in concrete is widespread in Iraq and neighboring countries. This is because of the high sulfate content usually present in sand and gravel used in it. In the present study the total effective sulfate in concrete was used to calculate the optimum SO3 content. Regression models were developed based on linear regression analysis to predict the optimum SO3 content usually referred as (O.G.C) in concrete. The data is separated to 155 for the development of the models and 37 for checking the models. Eight models were built for 28-days age. Then a late age (greater than 28-days) model was developed based on the predicted optimum SO3 content of 28-days and late age. Eight developed models were built for all ages. The important results obtained from the developed models are the positive effect of C3S, C3A and C4AF on optimum SO3 content. The effect of C3A on optimum SO3 content is about twice that of C4AF. The study also showed a trend of positive and important effect of the fineness of cement except in some models and this is due to statistical overlap.


Article
Application of Wavelet Packet and S Transforms for Differential Protection of Power Transformer
استخدام تحويليتي ربطة المويجة وربطة المويجة المعدلة في الحماية التفاضلية لمحولة القدرة

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Abstract

The differential protection of power transformers appears to be more difficult than any type of protection for any other part or element in a power system. Such difficulties arise from the existence of the magnetizing inrush phenomenon. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize between inrush current and the current arise from internal faults. In this paper, two approaches based on wavelet packet transform (WPT) and S-transform (ST) are applied to recognize different types of currents following in the transformer. In WPT approach, the selection of optimal mother wavelet and the optimal number of resolution is carried out using minimum description length (MDL) criteria before taking the decision for the extraction features from the WPT tree. In ST approach, the spectral energy index and the standard deviation (STD) are calculated from the S-matrix obtained by discrete S-transform. The two approaches are tested for generating a trip signal and disconnecting the transformer supply experimentally using 1KVA, 220/110V, 50Hz, three-phase transformer. The experimental results show that the trip signal is initiated faster in WPT approach while the transformer is disconnected from the supply after a delay of 10-15msec in the two approaches due to computer interface and the relay circuit used.


Article
Experimental Investigation Utilizing Thermal Image Technique to the Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Oscillated Fins
دراسة عملية باستخدام تقنية الكامرا الحراريه لزيادة معدلات انتقال الحرارة باستخدام الزعانف المتذبذبة

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Abstract

Heat transfer around a flat plate fin integrated with piezoelectric actuator used as oscillated fin in laminar flow has been studied experimentally utilizing thermal image camera. This study is performed for fixed and oscillated single and triple fins. Different substrate-fin models have been tested, using fins of (35mm and 50mm) height, two sets of triple fins of (3mm and 6mm) spacing and three frequencies applied to piezoelectric actuator (5, 30 and 50HZ). All tests are carried out for (0.5 m/s and 3m/s) in subsonic open type wind tunnel to evaluate temperature distribution, local and average Nusselt number (Nu) along the fin. It is observed, that the heat transfer enhancement with oscillation is significant compared to without oscillation for low air inlet velocity. Higher thermal performance of triple fins is obtained compared to the single rectangular fin, also triple fins with (height=50mm and fin spacing=3mm) gives better enhancement as compared to other cases. This work shows that the piezoelectric actuator when mounted on the rectangular fins shows great promise for enhancing the heat transfer rate.

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