جدول المحتويات

مجلة كلية التربية الأساسية للعلوم التربوية والإنسانية

ISSN: 23043717
الجامعة: جامعة بابل
الكلية: التربية الاساسية
اللغة: Arabic

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

المجلة تهتم بالبحوث العلمية في المجالات التربوية والإنسانية، وهي مجلة فصلية تصدر كل ٣ أشهر، وصدر أول عدد في عام ٢٠٠٩م، تخضع البحوث المنشورة إلى تقويم علمي من قبل مختصين في مجال البحث المراد نشره قبل عملية النشر.

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معلومات الاتصال

mcbe_babylon@yahoo.com
07801733667

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: العدد: Special

Article
Quantum Mechanical study for vibration Frequencies C- C bonds for Benzo [J] Fluoranthene molecule، positive and negative radical Ions.

المؤلفون: Huda N. AL-Ani هدى نجمان العاني
الصفحات: 5-23
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الخلاصة

to their carcinogenic properties and their presence in interstellar spaces. They could become potential starting materials for petrochemical industries, being a significant component of the heavy fractions of earth oils. For these reasons considerable efforts were made to study their chemical and physical properties


Article
THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF THE SHELL NEBULAE BY USING INTERACTING WIND MODEL

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الخلاصة

Planetary Nebulae (PN) are astronomical objects made up primarily of gaseous materials. A planetary nebulae are an emission nebulae consisting of an expanding glowing shell of ionized gas ejected during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. of certain types of stars late in their life. late in their life


Article
The impact of spirals intrauterine contraceptive in serum iron concentration and total iron link capacity and saturation Turanseverin ratio
تأثير لوالب منع الحمل داخل الرحم في تركيز حديد المصل وسعة ارتباط الحديد الكلية ونسبة تشبع الترانسفرين


Article
SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL 3,3-GEM-BRANCHED-CHAIN-SUGAR DERIVED FROM D-FRACTOSE

المؤلفون: Thanaa M. Al-Mouamin ثناء المؤمن
الصفحات: 38-46
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الخلاصة

The natural occurrence of branched-chain sugar in various antibiotics has stimulated a considerable amount of research towards their synthesis. Several branched-chain sugar derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated as anti-cancer agents (2,3). Anti-angiogenesis agents and other biological activities (5,6).


Article
Evaluation of the Compton (Incoherent) and Rayleigh (Coherent) Differential Cross sections of Scattering for Iron 26Fe and Zink 30Zn by employing CSC model.

المؤلفون: Sabah M. Manullah --- Rafa'a A. Abbad --- Hussein K. Mohammed
الصفحات: 47-53
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الخلاصة

There has been more interest in obtaining reliable values of cross section for elements and compounds as well as alloys because its required in varity of applications in radiography, tomography ,space physics ,plasma physics etc.A review of literature show that the studies concern Geswar measured the total cross section for various elements in energy range of 4.5 to 20 keV. Theoretical photoelectric cross section for Z=13 are calculated by Brysk and Zerby in energy range 1 to 150 keV , they employed bound-state wave function that’s obtained by Lieberman and Cromer. Hubbell and Berger reported pair production cross sections in the fields of atomic nucleus for 11 elements over range 15 to 100 MeV these values were calculated by using Bon approximation with Bethe –Hitler high energy approximation. In present research, we use the mathematical model Cross Section Calculation (CSC) which has more applications.


Article
PROPOSED PREPROCESSING ALGORITHM FOR SIGNATURES RECOGNITION

المؤلفون: Nada Abdullah Rasheed م. ندى عبد الله رشيد
الصفحات: 54-62
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الخلاصة

Since the beginning of the computer industry, users of computers have been forced to modify their behavior to utilize these devices. User interfaces ranged from confusing to downright hostile. May be the computer should be able to read our handwriting.


Article
Calculation of Mass Attenuation Coefficients of (CrV) Alloy

المؤلفون: Rafa'a A. Abbad --- Sabah M. Amanullah --- Hussein K. Mohammed
الصفحات: 63-68
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الخلاصة

The attenuation coefficient is an important parameter which is widely used in industry agriculture, science, and technology, etc. The properties characterizing the penetration and diffusion of X-rays in composite materials such as CrV alloy are very important. Because its widely used in industry.


Article
Study the effect of partial compensation for the element Ag on the structural characteristics and surface electrical composite Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 + d superior electrical conductivity at high temperatures
دراسة تأثيــر التعويـض الجزئـي للـعنصر Ag على الخصائص التركيبية والسطحية والكهربائية للمركب Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+d الفائق التوصيــــل الكهربائي عند درجات الحرارة العاليـــــة


Article
Study the behavior of some of the minerals during direct exposure to fresh mineral bath water, and the possibility of reducing the harmful effects of this water
دراسة سلوك بعض المعادن أثناء تعرضها المباشر لمياه حمام العليل المعدنية، وإمكانية التقليل من التأثيرات الضارة لهذه المياه

المؤلفون: Nadhem Ibrahim Nasser م.م. ناظم إبراهيم ناصر
الصفحات: 79-85

Article
A study of some factors related to diabetes for the auditors of MAHAWEEL General Hospital in the province of Babylon
دراسة بعض العوامل المتعلقة بمرض السكري للمراجعين لمستشفى المحاويل العام في محافظة بابل


Article
Studying The Free Database Protection From the inputting wrong data And undesirable Information

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الخلاصة

Data collection has become a ubiquitous function of large organizations { not only for record keeping, but to support a variety of data analysis tasks that are critical to the organizational mission. Data analysis typically drives decision-making processes and in an increasing number of settings is the raison d'etre of entire agencies. Despite the importance of data collection and analysis, data quality remains a pervasive and thorny problem in almost every large organization.


Article
Characterization of Addition Copper chloride on Polystyrene

المؤلفون: Ahmed Hashim --- Bahaa Hussien --- Mohammed Hadi --- Maithem Hussein
الصفحات: 107-110
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الخلاصة

Composites are made from two or more chemically distinct and insoluble phases materials that when combined are better (stronger, tougher, and/or more durable) than each would be separately. Polymeric composite materials are widely used in weight sensitive applications due to their high strength-to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios compared with metallic materials. The weight and fuel savings offered by composite materials makes them attractive not only to the military, but also to the civilian aircraft, space, solar vehicles, and automobile industries.


Article
Study the effect of the granular size of the Iraqi Alcaalin powder and sintering temperature in the physical and electrical properties of the ceramic electrical insulator
دراسة تأثير الحجم الحبيبي لمسحوق الكاؤلين العراقي ودرجة حرارة التلبيد في الخواص الفيزيائية والكهربائية للعازل الكهربائي السيراميكي


Article
A study the 152-160Gd nuclei by the geometrical interacting boson model

المؤلفون: Mhsen Cadem motelb محسن كاظم
الصفحات: 125-137
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الخلاصة

One of the main objectives of the study of nuclear physics is to understand the structure of nuclei. Theoretically this structure is a result of interaction of many nucleons via an uncertain number of independent forces. However ,it is clear that great effort is required to deal with ,or overcome the difficulties in the determination of the behavior of all degrees of freedom of a dynamical system of such complexity ,or as a moderately heavy nucleus the alternative approach is to use certain approximations to overcome the problem (these approximations are called the nuclear models) , which use a simplified description of nuclei in terms of a number of parameters sufficiently small to provide a clear understanding of the nucleus.


Article
Classification of Large Magellan cloud Using Wavelet Transform (lifting scheme)

المؤلفون: Ebtesam Fadhel --- Ban Abed –AL-Rizak --- Nassr Abed Azez --- Ban Sabah
الصفحات: 138-144
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الخلاصة

This paper was introduce a new method of supervised classification can be achieved through our field work, study of Astronomical image the galaxy "Large Magellan cloud". In remote sensing, classification methods are usually improved by adopting multi-spectral-bands of satellite images. The problem is arising when only single band is available. In this research, the wavelet transform is adopted to generate multi-band images from the available single band. The New classification method as supervised , this classification technique depend upon statistical-features For astronomical image processing scientists.


Article
Effect substrate temperatures on the structural, morphology and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by PLD

المؤلفون: Adawiya J.Haider --- Nahida B. Hasan --- Mohammed A. Al-Amari
الصفحات: 145-151
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الخلاصة

Titanium dioxide is a wide band semiconductor which exists in three crystallographic phases: rutile , anatase and brookite. The first two polymorphs have a tetragonal symmetry and due to their strong photocatalytic properties and stability have become materials of high scientific interest. TiO2 nanostructures , as they significantly reinforce the photocatalytic properties of titanium , are commonly used in optical devices, self-cleaning protective coatings


Article
Effect Time Factor on Some Physical Properties for Polystyrene irradiation and Dissolved in Toluene

المؤلفون: Ehssan Dhiaa Jawad Al-Bermany م. احسان ضياء جواد
الصفحات: 152-169
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الخلاصة

We have studied in our research the effects of both gamma- rays and time factor on some physics properties as a function of changing some physical properties with the speed of ultrasound for Polystyrene dissolved in the toluene at (30 ± 3oC) temperature by existence the presence of air to maintain the stability of the physics properties of polymeric materials exposed to the radiation.


Article
On β –I- Continuous Mappings in Ideal Bitopological Spaces

المؤلفون: Audie Sabrie عدي صبري --- Zahir D. Al-Nafie
الصفحات: 170-176
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الخلاصة

The notion of ideal topological introduced and studied by Kuratowski[ 9],in 1992,Jankovic and Hamlett[ 8] introduced the concept of I-open sets in topological spaces ,Abd EL-Monsef et al.[ 1] further investigated I-open sets and I-continuity in 1999, Abd EL-Monsef et al.[ 2]introduced the notion of almost-I-open sets and almost-I-continuity, Hatir and Noiri[ 6] have introduced the notion of sets Recently, M. Galdas, S. Jafari and N. Rajesh[ 4] introduced the notion of pre-I-open sets in ideal bitopological space, Hatir and Noiri[ 6] have introduced the notion of these functions.


Article
On - continuous functions in topological spaces

المؤلفون: Zahir -D. Al-Nafie --- Zahir Abdul Haddi Hassan
الصفحات: 177-184
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الخلاصة

In 1986, H.Maki[9] introduced the notion of Λ- set in topological spaces. A set A is called Λ- set if it is equal to the intersection of all open super sets of A , Arenas et al.[1 ] introduced and investigated the notion of closed sets and open sets by involving Λ- sets and closed sets ,in this paper we introduced the notion of - -closed, - -closed, - -closed.

الكلمات الدلالية

On - continuous functions in topological spaces


Article
Preparation and Study Electrical properties of (PS-AgCO3) Composites

المؤلفون: Maithem Hussein --- Abbas Ibrahim --- Ahmed Hashim
الصفحات: 185-189
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الخلاصة

The study of composite materials, i.e., mixtures consisting of at least two phases of different chemical compositions, has been of great interest from both fundamental and practical standpoints. The macroscopic physical properties of such materials can be combined so as to produce materials with a desired average response. Composites have good potential for various industrial fields because of their excellent properties such as high hardness


Article
Study For Soliton propagation in Optical Fibers

المؤلفون: Abbas I.O. --- hamed I. Aboud
الصفحات: 190-201
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الخلاصة

One of the keys to the success of the ensuing photonics revolution will be the use of optical solitons in fiber optic communication systems, solitons are a special breed of optical pulses that can propagate through an optical fiber undistorted for tens of thousands of kilometers. The soliton phenomenon was first described by John Scott Russell (1808-1882) who observed a solitary wave in the Union Canal in Scotland. He reproduced the phenomenon in a wave tank and named it the "Wave of Translation". The key to soliton formation is the careful balance of the opposing forces of chromatic dispersion and self-phase modulation.

الكلمات الدلالية

Study For Soliton propagation in Optical Fibers


Article
Study of Dielectric Properties For (Calcium Oxide-poly-vinyl alcohol) Composites

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الخلاصة

The physical properties of polymers may be affected by doping, the certain structural, optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties of the selected polymer can be controllably modified owing to the type of the doping, concentration, and the way in which it penetrates and interacts with the chains of the polymer. Detailed studies of doped polymer with different dopant concentrations allow the possibility of choice of the desired properties.


Article
Effect LiCl salt concentration on micro hardness for Prepared Pure and Doped Polyaniline Salt

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الخلاصة

Among conducting polymers, a great deal of researches have been devoted to polyaniline (Pan) due to its good environmental stability, easy polymerization and low cost of monomer. Polyaniline can be synthesized by the oxidation of aniline solution in bronsted aside by chemical oxidants or electrochemically [1,2]. Polyaniline (Pan) has been reported to have the following idealized structure (Figure1).


Article
Pathological Study of Campylobacter jejuni in adult mouse model

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الخلاصة

The Gram-negative, spiral, microaerophilic bacterium, Campylobacter jejuni, has established itself as the leading cause of food- and water-borne human gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries, The spectrum of disease may range from mild, self-limiting, non-inflammatory diarrhea to severe, inflammatory, bloody diarrhea with fecal leukocytes, pyrexia, abdominal cramps and bacteraemia (33).and this gastroenteritis is sometimes followed by unprecedented complications, ranging from localized peritonitis, pericarditis, hepatitis and encephalopathy to generalised neuropathy and bacteraemia.


Article
Satisfactory study of Campylobacter jejuni bacteria in laboratory mouse model
دراسة مرضية لبكتريا Campylobacter jejuni في موديل الفأر المختبري

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الخلاصة

Microscopical view of the terminal part of the small intestine of a mouse third day after intraperitoneal injection of 108 cell/ml showing mucosal sloughing and desquamation and destruction of villi.


Article
The environment and the geographical distribution of the types of sex (Artemisia L. Asteraceae) in Iraq
البيئة والتوزيع الجغرافي لأنواع الجنس (Artemisia L. Asteraceae) في العـــــراق


Article
Artificial intelligence and applied difficulties in information technology
الذكاء الاصطناعي ومصاعب تطبيقه في تكنولوجيا المعلومات


Article
Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductors with substitution of Sr by Ag

المؤلفون: Amal. K. Jassim أمل جاسم
الصفحات: 258-264
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الخلاصة

The Bi- based superconductor system exhibit three different phases described by a general formula Bi2Sr2Can-1CunO2n+4 related to the value of (n=1,2 and 3)which are specified by names (2201- Tc ~10K ,2212- Tc ~80K and 2223- Tc ~110K).The desirable phase is the n=3 (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ) because its higher Tc.


Article
The impact of cold water extracts and boiled roots of licorice Licorice in the inhibition of toxic effect and Alttafara to drug Mitotrksi in white mice Mus Moscolos
تأثير المستخلصات المائية الباردة والمغلية لجذور عرق السوس Licorice في تثبيط الأثر السمي والتطفيري لعقار الميثوتركسيت في الفئران البيض Mus musculus


Article
Prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Treatment by Using Some Plants Extracts in Al-Hilla city Babylon province

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الخلاصة

Cryptosporidium zoonotic agents which frequently infected human as well as domestic and wild animals. It is waterborne parasites , transmitted via fecal contamination.


Article
Refractive index, band gap and Optical conductivity of PVP doped K2Cr2O7 thin films

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الخلاصة

Chalcogenide glasses are good candidates for applications in the infrared (IR) region [1,2].Chalcogenide glasses are vitreous materials having one or more of the chalcogen elements (Group VI): sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tellurium (Te). The addition of the network formers (Group IV and V) such as silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) establishes cross-linking between the tetrahedral and pyramidal units which facilitates stable glass formation [3,4]. Depending on the composition, the chalcogenide glasses are stable against crystallization and are chemically inert. They have excellent thermal stability, and are relatively easy to fabricate. In our present work we have taken the SeO2 powder and then solvent (DMF),put on stirrer for 30 min. The mixed deposited on glass substrate by casting method.


Article
The dynamic system for traffic flow on a stretch of motorway

المؤلفون: Ahmed Sabah Ahmed Al-Jilawi أحمد صباح أحمد
الصفحات: 298-307
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الخلاصة

The following is an example and explanation of the method of characteristics. Once this is explained, it is shown how to be used involving traffic flow like the conservation of cars. From there we explain the elementary model of traffic flow which is used for assumptions and the set up of traffic at a red light. We finish with an example and then the conclusions.


Article
superconductivity of Bi2-x Nax Pb0.3 Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 System

المؤلفون: Bushra. A. Aljurani بشرى الجوراني
الصفحات: 308-315
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الخلاصة

High- temperature oxide superconductivity of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O system without any rare- earth elements were discovered by Maeda et al (1) and Hermann (2),respectively. Maeda and co-workers observed a superconducting onset temperature of about 120K,which was higher than that of Ba2YCu3O7 by more than 10K.Takano et al.


Article
Prepare the lining of induction furnaces of raw materials check the properties of the lining of imported type Klundhat
تحضير بطانة للأفران الحثية من مواد أولية تحقق خواص البطانة المستوردة من نوع كلوندات

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الخلاصة

الحراريات هي مواد لها قابلية العزل الحراري لدرجات حرارة مرتفعة، ولها القابلية على المحافظة على خواصها المختلفة تحت تأثير الظروف التشغيلية المختلفة، وتمتاز بدرجة تليينها المرتفعة (Softening Boint) تصل إلى أكثر من (1540)مْ


Article
Preparation and characterization of carbon coatings thermal precipitator manner (CVD)
تحضير وتوصيف طلاءات الكاربون الحراري المرسب بطريقة (CVD)


Article
The effect of (glass, carbon) fiber and CNT on thermal properties for epoxy resin

المؤلفون: Nadia A. Ali نادية علي --- Harith I. Jafer حارث جعفر
الصفحات: 335-343
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الخلاصة

Epoxy resins are used worldwide on a large scale for adhesive, lamination, coating, casting applications, and so forth. To meet some application requirements, several approaches have been used to enhance the thermal properties of epoxy resins. Apart from that, a further requirement that has recently gained in importance's the requirement for flame resistance. Therefore, imparting flame retardancy into epoxy resins has received a lot of attention. In order to improve the flame retardancy of pure epoxy. Resins have very harmful burning characteristics


Article
تحسين المواصفات الحرارية لمتراكب الايبوكسي – تالك باودر Ep –Talc powder)) باستخدام تقنية التحليل الميكانيكي الحراري Thermo mechanical analysis (TMA).


Article
BI qualities and electromagnetic isotope effect in superconducting materials high critical temperature TC
استقصاء الصفات الكهرومغناطيسية وتأثير النظير في المواد فائقة التوصيل عالية درجة الحرارة الحرجة TC

المؤلفون: Abdul Amir Khalaf Art د. عبد الأمير خلف عرط
الصفحات: 352-360

Article
Study some of the electrical characteristics of industrial rubber (butyl rubber), carbon lions Compatible
دراسة بعض الخصائص الكهربائية للمطاط الصناعي (مطاط البيوتيل) المدعم بأسود الكاربون


Article
Effect of Thickness On Optical Behavior Of Cd2SnO4 Thin Films

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الخلاصة

The ternary oxides, like Cd2SnO4, CdSnO3 and CdIn2O4 have attractive electrical and optical Properties because of their band gaps (Eg = 2.06 eV for Cd2SnO3, Eg=2.23 eV for Cdln2O4, and Eg=2.3 eV for CdSnO3) which are bigger than for CdO (Eg=1.8 eV) itself. From these different types of cadmium stannate , the semiconductor oxides Cd2SnO4 is the more stability than others. Several workers studied various types of CdSnO like Coutts (1999) who studied Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for different uses in several applications like Cd2SnO4.


Article
Study the effect of carbon black on some rheological and mechanical properties of natural rubber using the technique of ultrasound waves
دراسة تأثير أسود الكاربون على بعض الخواص الريولوجية والميكانيكية للمطاط الطبيعي باستخدام تقنية الموجات فوق السمعية

المؤلفون: Shaima Hadi Khudair شيماء هادي خضير
الصفحات: 377-385

Article
Investigation of the Ag-BaF2-GaSb schottky diode current versus voltage, capacitance with voltage and photoelectric measurement

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الخلاصة

Schottky barrier-type devices are rectifying metal-semiconductor (M-S) structure. This device is used in microelectronics, in solar cell applications, and in chemical sensing [1]. In the Schottky model the amount of band bending is equal to the difference between the work functions, m and s of the metal and semiconductor respectively.


Article
Stability analysis of the discrete-time prey-predator holling type I with allee effect

المؤلفون: Alaa H. Lafta علاء لفتة
الصفحات: 394-400
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الخلاصة

In recent years, the study of the allee effect has attracted much attention in population dynamics. Former studies have demonstrated that allee effect can have important dynamical effects on the local stability analysis of population model [1]. It may have either a destabilizing role or a stabilizing one in the system (see, for instance.


Article
Commutativity of Left Near-Rings

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الخلاصة

Several authors have proved theorems for prime and semiprime near-rings admitting a derivations acts as a homomorphism (an anti-homomorphism) or Daif 2-derivations. In an early paper, Bell and Kappe proved that if d is a derivation of a semiprime ring R which is either an endomorphism or anti-endomorphism, then d = 0. They also showed that if d is a derivation of a prime ring R which acts as a homomorphism or an anti-homomorphism on U, where U is a non-zero right ideal, then d = 0 on R. Wang proved the following ,let n be a positive integer, N an n!-torsion free prime near-ring and d a derivation such that dn (N) = {0}.Then d (Z)={0}.Deng and Ashraf

الكلمات الدلالية

Commutativity of Left Near-Rings


Article
Nonlinear Susceptibility in Semiconductor hetrostructures

المؤلفون: Mohsin K. Al-khaykanee محسن الخيكاني
الصفحات: 410-419
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الخلاصة

The linear and non-linear optical properties of three-level systems get a great importance from both theoretical and experimental points of view. This is due to the phenomena related to these systems, like electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT), coherent population trapping (CPT) and coherent adiabatic population (CAP). In contrast to CPT which is a‘‘spectroscopic’’ phenomenon that involves only modifications to the material states in an optically thin sample.


Article
Vibrational frequencies account for one of the silicon halides in the infrared region using quasi-experimental quantum programs and manner (MNDO/pm3)
حساب الترددات الاهتزازية لأحدى هاليدات السليكون في منطقة الاشعة تحت الحمراء بأستخدام برامج الكم شبه التجريبية وبطريقة (MNDO/pm3)

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الخلاصة

لقد تم حساب جزيئات مختلفة لاخطية من نوع هاليدات السليكون Silicon halides))، إذ تعرف صيغتها العامة من الشكل (X=Halogen، (SinX2n+2. (2,1)وطبقاً لهذه الصيغة تم دراسة جزيئة (SiF4)، وذلك بأستعمال البرامج شبه التجريبية، ومن هذه الطرائق المتقدمة شبه التجريبية التي استعملت في البحث طريقة MNDO-PM3، إذ ان هذه الطريقة ترتقي الى مستويات متقدمة الى حدٍ ما، لذا فان طريقة MNDO-PM3 المحسوبة ضمن برنامج الـWinMopac7.21 جعلت هناك تقارباً كبيراً بين نتائج هذه الطريقة وبين القيم العملية المقاسة تجريبياً، وهذا التقارب كان هو المحفز الاساس لاستخدام طريقة MNDO-PM3.


Article
Measurement of the Electro-Optic Coefficients In Electro-Optic Crystals using Compensated Sénarmont System

المؤلفون: H. L. Saadon --- M. A. Rahma
الصفحات: 445-449
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الخلاصة

Electro-optic crystal have received considerable attention for many application due to their large electro-optic (EO) and nonlinear optical coefficients [1,2]. Several techniques have been designed for the characterization of the electro-optic properties of bulk samples [3,4]. The disadvantage of these systems are that it require a high ac modulated voltage (up to 300 Vp-p) and the material be made with a large EO coefficients.


Article
Partial subistiution of Hg on Tl and study the Structure and Electrical Properties of Tlx-2HgxBa2Ca2Cu3O10+δ superconductor

المؤلفون: Nihad Ali Shafeek نادية علي شفيق
الصفحات: 450-460
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الخلاصة

Superconductivity was first observed in mercury by the Dutch physicist Hieke Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911 [1]. For along time , it have been known from conductivity experiments that the electrical resistance of a metal decreased with temperature. Onnes was measuring the variation of the electrical resistance of mercury with temperature, when he was amazed to find that at 4.2K the resistance suddenly dropped to zero. He called this effect superconductivity and the temperature at which it occurs is known as the critical transition temperature at which it occurs is known as known as the critical transition temperature (Tc).


Article
Impact Demodulator Aithanola (propolis) in the treatment of skin infections caused by bacteria cationic dye grams developed in rabbits
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