Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:19 issue:5

Article
Bearing Capacity of Shallow Footing on Compacted Filling Dune Sand Over Reinforced Gypseous Soil

Authors: Bushra Sahal. Al-busoda --- Rusol Salman
Pages: 532-542
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Abstract

Existence of these soils, sometimes with high gypsum content, caused difficult problems to the buildings and strategic projects due to dissolution and leaching of gypsum by the action of water flow through soil mass. In this research, a new technique is adopted to investigate the performance of replacement and geosynthetic reinforcement materials to improve the gypseous soil behavior through experimential set up manufactured loaclally specially for this work. A series of tests were carried out using steel container (600*600*500) mm. A square footing (100*100) mm was placed at the center of the top surface of the bed soil. The results showed that the most effective thickness for the dune sand layer with geotextile at the interface, within the tested range, was found to be almost equal to the width of foundation. Therefore, under this depth, the soil was reinforced with geogrid and geotextile. It can be shown that (Collapse Settlement Reduction Factor) increases to (72%) when using two layers of geogrid and one layer of geotextile under depth of replacement equal to the width of footing. In addition, the results showed that the bearing capacity increases to (1.5-2.0) time under concentric loads and (2.5-3) under eccentric loads after replacement and reinforcement of gypseous soil.


Article
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation with Different Length of Piles Under Static Loads
دراسة عملية وتحليلية للاسس الحصيرية المدعمة بالركائز مختلفة الاطوال تحت الاحمال الساكنة

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Abstract

In order to understand the effect of (length of pile / diameter of pile) ratio on the load carrying capacity and settlement reduction behavior of piled raft resting on loose sand, laboratory model tests were conducted on small-scale models. The parameters studied were the effect of pile length and the number of piles. The load settlement behavior obtained from the tests has been validated by using 3-D finite element in ABAQUS program, was adopted to understand the load carrying response of piled raft and settlement reduction. The results of experimental work show that the increase in (Lp/dp) ratio led to increase in load carrying capacity by piled raft from (19.75 to 29.35%), (14.18 to 28.87%) and (0 to 16.49%) , the maximum load carried by piles decrease from (9.1 to 22.72%), (15.79 to 47.37%) and (44 to 81.05%) and the response of settlement piled raft decrease from (16.67 to 23.33%), (9.09 to 39.39%) and (30%) with increase the number of piles from 4 to (6 and 9) and (length of pile / diameter of pile) ratio increase to (14.14 and 21.2), respectively. The numerical and model test results are found to be in a good agreement.


Article
Flotation Method for Selective Separation of Lead and Zinc from Simulated Wastewater
طريقة التعويم للفصل الانتقائي لعنصري الرصاص والخارصين من المياه الملوثه

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Abstract

In this paper flotation method experiments were performed to investigate the removal of lead and zinc. Various parameters such as pH, air flow rate, collector concentrations, collector type and initial metal concentrations were tested in a bubble column of 6 cm inside diameter. High recoveries of the two metals have been obtained by applying the foam flotation process, and at relatively short time 45 minutes . The results show that the best removal of lead about 95% was achieved at pH value of 8 and the best removal of zinc about 93% was achieved at pH value of 10 by using 100 mg/l of Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a collector and 1% ethanol as a frother. The results show that the removal efficiency increased with increasing initial metal concentrations in the alkaline conditions while it decreased in the acidic condition. Increasing air flow rate up to 1000 ml/min enhanced the separation efficiency. Selective flotation experiments were also conducted in the presence of metal ion mixture solutions. It was possible to separate lead and zinc under suitable condition, successful removals reached about 84% and 81% for lead and zinc respectively . It was observed that the first order equation fitted the data as good and better than any of the other equations.


Article
Design and Analysis of Electro-Hydraulic Servo System for Speed Control of Hydraulic Motor
تصميم وتحليل منظومة الكترو- هيدروليكية مغلقة للسيطرة والتحكم في سرعة محرك هيدروليكي

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Abstract

In this study, the electro-hydraulic servo system for speed control of fixed displacement hydraulic motor using proportional valve and (PID) controller is investigated theoretically ,experimentally and simulation . The theoretical part includes the derivation of the nonlinear mathematical model equation of (valve – motor ) combination system and the derivation of the transfer function for the complete hydraulic system , the stability test of the system during the operation through the transfer function using MATLAB package V7.1 have been done. An experimental part includes design and built hydraulic test rig and simple PID controller .The best PID gains have been calculated experimentally and simulation, speed control performance tests for the system at different thermal conditions for hydraulic oil have been done , Simulation analysis for (EHSS) using Automation Studio package V5.2 have been done . Comparison was made between experimental work and simulation work .The experimental results show good performance for (EHSS) using simple (PID) controller at hydraulic oil temperature around (60 – 70 ) and good speed response and performance for hydraulic motor with constant rotation speed (700) rpm with different load disturbance applied on the hydraulic motor .


Article
Effect of Cryogenic Trteatment on the Tensile Properties of Carbon Dual Phase Steel
تأثير المعاملة الزمهريرية على خواص الشد للصلب الكربوني ثنائي الطور

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate tensile properties of low and medium carbon ferrite -martensite dual phase steel, and the effect cryogenic treatment at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 ºC) on its properties. Low carbon steel (C12D) and medium carbon steels (C32D & C42D) were used in this work. For each steel grade, five groups of specimens were prepared according to the type of heat treatment. The first group was normalized, the second group was normalized and subsequently subjected to cryogenic treatment then tempered at (200 ºC) for one hour, the third group was quenched from intercritical annealing temperature of (760 ºC) to obtain dual phase (DP) steel, the fourth and fifth groups were both quenched from (760 ºC), but the forth group was subjected to cryogenic treatment and the fifth group was subjected to cryogenic then tempered at (200 ºC) for one hour. Mechanical tests were carried out which includes, tensile, hardness, as well as microscopic examination. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and ductility for DP were correlated to martensite volume fraction. The yield and tensile strength (σy, σu) of (DP) for the three steels, were higher than those of normalized condition, and increased after cryogenic treatment. These values, for the three steel grades, decreased after tempering at temperature 200 ºC. Tempering of (DP) steel at 200ºC for one hour, after cryogenic treatment, causes the reappearance of yielding point for steels (C12D) and (C32D) while no such a change noticed in (C42D) steel. The results have shown that hardness of (DP) increased after cryogenic treatment for the three steel grades.


Article
Experimental Study of Power Increase Transient in Heat Generation Systems Simulated By Immersed Heat Source
دراسة تجريبية للحالة العابرة لزيادة الطاقة في انظمة التوليد الحرارية من خلال تمثيله بمصدر حراري مغمور

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Abstract

Theoretical and experimental investigations of the transient heat transfer parameters of constant heat flux source subjected to water flowing in the downward direction in closed channel are conducted. The power increase transient is ensured by step change increase in the heat source power. The theoretical investigation involved a mathematical modeling for axially symmetric, simultaneously developing laminar water flow in a vertical annulus. The mathematical model is based on one dimensional downward flow. The boundary conditions of the studied case are based on adiabatic outer wall, while the inner wall is subjected to a constant heat flux. The heat & mass balance equation derived for specified element of bulk water within the annulus and solved by using Laplace method to determine the variation of bulk water temperature. The experimental investigation included a set of experiments carried out to investigate the temperature variation along the heat source for power increase transient of (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of its nominal value during and after reaching the steady state condition. Estimation of the boiling safety factor is predicted and compared with the theoretical values. Reliable agreement between experimental and theoretical approaches is reached. The later showed that the elapsed time required for the clad surface temperature to reach its steady state values after each transient is less than that related to bulk water temperature. New correlation for prediction of critical heat flux, CHF based on inlet water temperature and water mass flux are investigated and compared with CHF correlations obtained from previous researches. Specific recommendations concerned with preventive measured required to eliminate the effect of boiling crisis are concluded based on theoretical and experimental results related to transients setting times obtained from each case study


Article
Field Study of Novel Storage Tank of Solar Water Heating System
دراسة ميدانية لخزان جديد مستخدم في منظومة شمسية لتسخين الماء

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Abstract

In this paper thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics were investigated experimentally for a new type shell-helical coiled tube heat exchanger used as a storage tank of closed loop solar water heater system. Triple concentric helical coils were made of copper tubes of (12.5mm OD and 10mm ID) with coils diameter of (207, 152.2, 97mm) for outer, middle and inner coils respectively. The experiments were carried out during a clear sky days of (March and April 2012). The parameters studied in this work are: history of average temperature of shell side of the storage tank, collector heat gain, heat rejected from coils to shell side of the storage tank, collector efficiency, thermal effectiveness of the heat exchanger )storage tank), and pressure drop. These parameters were studied at four different circulating mass flow rates of (1.8, 3, 6, 9 l/min) and for two consuming modes of supply water namely no withdrawal, and continuous withdrawal of (1 l/min). The results show that stratification temperature in the storage tank is increased for no withdrawal compared with water withdrawal, also the shell side average temperature increases with increased solar time. Collector efficiency is increased with increasing circulation flow rates, also increases with water withdrawn from storage tank. The pressure drop decreases with the increase of solar radiation .


Article
Evaluation of Convective Heat Transfer and Natural Circulation in an Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
تقييم أنتقال الحرارة بالحمل الطبيعي و معدل التدفق لمجمع شمسي ذو أنابيب مفرغة

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The evacuated tube solar collector ETC is studied intensively and extensively by experimental and theoretical works, in order to investigate its performance and enhancement of heat transfer, for Baghdad climate from April 2011 till the end of March 2012. Experimental work is carried out on a well instrumented collector consists of 16 evacuated tubes of aspect ratio 38.6 and thermally insulated tank of volume 112L. The relation between convective heat transfer and natural circulation inside the tube is estimated, collector efficiency, effect of tube tilt angles, incidence angle modifier, The solar heating system is investigated under different loads pattern (i.e closed and open flow) to evaluate the heat loss coefficient from tank and tubes, test the collector with various aspect ratios (32.9 and 27.2). The enhancement in collector performance is studied by using two reflectors (Flat Plate and Curved Plate) and nanofluid (Water-AL2O3).Theoretical work is run by software (Fluent 6.3), to compute the velocity and temperature profiles within the tube, for different tube diameters, effect of tube junction angle and stagnant region in the bottom of the evacuated tube. The experimental results shows that the heat loss coefficient for tube is W/m2.K and for tank is W/m2.K, the maximum collector temperature is 79°C in winter and 99°C in summer, while that belong to nanofluid collector is 99°C in winter. The best tilted angle (optimum) of evacuated tube is 41° annually. The collector efficiency increased when using nanofluid of (1, 0.6, 0.3)% volume fraction as(28.4, 6.8, 0.6)% respectively. The efficiency decreases as (33, 62)% when decreasing tube aspect ratio from 38.6% to 32.9% and 27.2% respectively. An increase of (16.9 and 7.08)% in collector efficiency is obtained when using curved and flat plate reflectors respectively. From simulation the best junction angle of the tank is 22.5˚. The stagnant region is influenced with changing heat flux, tilted angle and aspect ratio.


Article
The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Mechanical Properties of Brass (65-35) in Single Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (SPIF)
تأثير مسار العدة على الخواص الميكانيكية في التشكيل النقطي التزايدي لسبيكة البراص35-65

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In this paper, three tool paths strategies; iso-planar, helical and adaptive have been implemented to investigates their effect on the mechanical properties of Brass 65-35 formed by single point incremental sheet metal forming process. To response this task, a fully digital integrated system from CAD modeling to finished part (CAD/CAM) for SPIF process has been developed in this paper. The photo-micrographs shows an identical grain formation due to the plastic deformation of the incremental forming process, change in the grain shape and size was observed. It's found that the adaptive tool path play a significant role to increase the hardness of the formed specimen from (48 to 90 HV) and the grain texture of the formed specimen found as round shape, while the hardness is increased in little amount from (48 to 74 HV) in the specimen formed using helical and it’s grain texture was found as needle shape


Article
Thermo-hydrodynamic Analysis of Misaligned Journal Bearing Considering Surface Roughness and Non-Newtonian Effects
التحليل الثرموهيدروديناميكي للمسند المقعدي باعتبار تاثيرات المحاورالغير متحدة والتصرف اللانيوتوني

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This paper presents a numerical simulation for the combined effect of surface roughness and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on the performance of misaligned journal bearing. The modified Reynolds equation to include the effect of non-Newtonian lubricant and bearing surface roughness has been formulated. The model accounts for the lubricant viscosity dependence on temperature and shear rate. In order to make a complete thermo-hydrodynamic analysis (THD) of rough surface misaligned journal bearing lubricated with non-Newtonian lubricant, the modified Reynolds equation coupled with the energy, heat conduction equations, the equation related the viscosity and temperature with appropriate boundary conditions have been solved simultaneously. The performance characteristics of the bearing were presented with different roughness parameter for the pressure, temperature, load carrying capacity, misalignment moment and friction force. The computer program prepared to solve the governing equations of the problem has been verified by comparing the results obtained through this work with that published by different workers. It has been found that the results are in a good agreement .The results obtained in the present work showed that the surface roughness characteristics of opposing surfaces and its orientation play an important role in affecting the per-formance parameters of the bearing. It has been shown that the load in rough aligned journal bearing is higher than that in rough misaligned journal bearing for all surface roughness patterns (γ). An increase in load has been calculated and found to be 29.5% for the bearing with moving roughness while it becomes 32% for the bearing with stationary roughness.

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