Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

Loading...
Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2013 volume:10 issue:2

Article
Taxonomical and Comparative morphological study for two wild species of the genus Chaenorhinum (D.C.) Reichb. (Scrophulariaceae) in Iraq.
دراسة تصنيفية مظهرية مقارنة لنوعين من انواع الجنس Chaenorhinum (D.C) Reichb. (Scrophulariaceae) النامية بريا في العراق.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: Comparative morphological study has been treated for two species of the genus Chaenorhinum (D.C.) Richb., These species were: 1. Chaenorhinum calycinum 2. Chaenorhinum rubrifolium (Robill. & cast. Ex Lam. & DC.) Fourr. The genus belong to the family Scorphulariaceae. Morphological characters has been studies for: root, stem, leaves, flowers (calyx, corolla, androcium including filaments and anthers, gynocium including ovary, style and stigma), fruits and seeds also has been characterized. Key for there two species presented using some quantitative characters. Other characters like shape of fruits and seeds were used too, and they were of a useful taxonomic value


Article
The Histological Effect of Aeromonashydrophila on liver of male albino mice
التأثير النسجي لبكتريا Aeromonashydrophila في كبد ذكور الفئران البيض

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: Two hundred of stool samples from different age groups(less than 5 to 40 years) were collected from Al-Elwea , Al-Kendy , Children welfare and Baghdad Teaching hospital from September 2009 to May 2010 . Using the isolation methods & diagnostic laboratory tests, Aeromonashydrophila was isolated according to the growth on MacConkey , blood &TCBS agar . The sensitivity test for diagnostic antibiotic O129 was done , also by biochemical test using api20E . The percentage of isolation for Aeromonashydrophila was 5% for all patients . The hemolysin assay was also done to select the proper isolate for the study . The isolate 2 showed high activity for hemolysin at its 640 unit/ ml by using human blood . The LD50 was detected and found it was 1010 bacterium / mouse when orally administrated in this study using 28 male of albino mice age 6-8 weeks and weight 20-25 g were divided into 4 group (7 mice / groups and were orally administrated with 0.2 ml of inoculums 104 , 106 , 108 bacterium / mouse) for 10 days . These results show pathological changes in liver after 10 days . The changes include congestion ,hemorrhage , degeneration & necrosis . Tha bacteria Aeromonashydrophila had a wide spread & can infect all age groups & it had a negative effect on liver


Article
انواع ديدان الوحل ( Oligochaeta: Naididae: Tubificinae ) من بيئات مائية مختلفة ضمن مدينة بغداد / العراق
Sludge worms species (Oligochaeta: Naididae: Tubificinae) From Different Aquatic Habitat in Baghdad / Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present investigation is concerned primarily with sorting and identification of subfamily Tubificinae from River Tigris and some water surface in Baghdad /Iraq . For this purpose six study sites were chosen, including a Al- Kadhemyia drainage canal, North Baghdad; three sites on the shore of River Tigris; in addition to site in Al-Jaish canal , East Baghdad, finally the sixth site was from pond in Al-Zawra'a park , within the center of Baghdad .These sites were characterized by sediment rang from clay, silty-clay to silty with a percentage of organic matter ranged between 0.7% - 9.9% . According to water temperature, salinity and pH values, they were nearly identical in all study sites, the water temperature was ranged through the study period between 12.5 – 300 C , while electrical conductivity and salinity values were ranged beteen 733.5-1227.5 μs ,which equivalent to 0.469-0.787 ‰ salinity. All sites were slightly alkaline ,so the pH values were ranged between 7.5-8.1. 3628 individuals were sorted from 24 samples collected from different study sites.. Twelve species were identified belonging to seven genera, including , Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, L. claparedeianus, .L. profundicola, . L.udekemianus , L. silvani, Tubifex tubifex, Branchiura sowerbyi, Potamothrix. 2013 )2( مجلة بغداد للعلوم مجلد 10 982 bavaricus, , P. hammoniensis, Psammoryctide moravicus, Monopylephorus irroratus, and Rhyacodrilus coccineus. The result revealed that Al-Jaish canal and Tigris River / al-Sarafyia were considered as the richest sites according to the number of species recorded, where 8 species were recorded in each of them, but Al-Jaish canal had higher individual number of 1346 individuals , followed by Al-Kadhemyia drainage canal recorded only three species with high total individual number of 606 individual. The lowest total individual number was recorded in Tigris River / Al- Zaafaranyia of 326 individual. L. hoffmeisteri, records higher individuals number of 1870 individual , followed by B. sowerbyi which records 946 individual. Both species recorded highest percentage occurance of 100% followed by 79.16% recorded by L. profundicola. High densities of Tubificinae were recorded during all study period. The highest density was during March-April, reached between 2109 -534.9 ind/m2 in Tigris River sites , 7270.5 ind/m2 in Al-Jaish canal and 2419.8 ind/m2 in Al-Zawra'a pond. The .results of relative abundance revealed that L. hoffmeisteri was the dominant species in site Tigris River/Al- Jaderyia, and abundant in other study sites. B. sowerbyi was abundant in all study sites, while other species were recorded between few to rare species except L. udekemianus which was abundant in site Al-Jaish canal, and T. tubifex in site Tigris River / Al- Zaafaranyia.


Article
The Effect of Sodium Selenite on Fertility of Albino Male Mice Treated with Hexavalent Chromium
تأثير سيلينيت الصوديوم Sodium selenite في خصوبة ذكور الفئران البيض المعاملة بالكروم سداسي التكافؤ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg ) on fertility of mature albino mice treated with hexavalent chromium (1000 ppm) . 32 mice were divided into four groups : control group / group exposed to hexavalent chromium (1000 ppm) / group treated with sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg) and exposed to hexavalent chromium (1000 ppm) / group treated with sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg) alone . The experiment lasted for 35 day . The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in sperm motility , concentration , percentage of live sperm and testosterone concentration with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in group treated with hexavalent chromium in comparison with control group . The results also showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sperm motility , concentration , percentage of live sperm and testosterone concentration with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the percentage of abnormal sperm in group treated with Sodium selenite and exposed to hexavalent chromium in comparison with group exposed to hexavalent chromium . The group treated with Sodium selenite alone showed an improvement in all parameters studied except the percentage of abnormal sperms which showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease .


Article
Production of specific brucellin to diagnose Brucellosis
انتاج بروسلين خاص للكشف عن مرض البروسيلوسز

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

act : A soluble cytoplasmic antigen (Brucellin) was prepared from Brucella melitensis Rev1 and used to diagnose brucellosis in experimentally infected mice with virulent strains of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus two weeks after infection. The best result was obtained with the third peak of the four peaks. All four peaks were used as antigen for skin test in a group of mice two weeks after vaccinated with S19 vaccine and the best result was obtained with third peak. All four peaks were also used as antigen for skin test in a group of mice previously vaccinated with Listeria monocytogenes live attenuated vaccine. All four fractions of the extracted brucellin antigens exhibited a negative skin test result in Listeria monocytogenes experimentally vaccinated mice.


Article
Measurement Radon Concentration in Imported and Local Wood Using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors
قياس تركيز غاز الرادون المشع في الخشب المستورد والمحلي باستعمال كاشف الاثر النووي للحالة الصلبة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: The aim of the present work is to measure radon concentration in wood. Solid state nuclear track detectors of type CR – 39 was used as measurement device. Eight different samples of imported and local wood were collected from markets. Samples were grinded, dried in order to measure radon concentrations in it. Cylindrical diffusion tube was used as detection technique. Results show that the higher concentration was in Iraqi sample 1 which recorded (14.02 ± 0.9) Bq / m3, while the less was in Emirates Sample which recorded (5.35 ± 1.2) Bq / m3. From the present work, all wood samples were with lowest concentrations of radon gas than other building materials.


Article
Derivation Power Sums of Even Integer Number Formula
اشتقاق صيغة مجموع الأعداد الطبيعية الزوجية للقوى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper included derivative method for the even r power sums of even integer numbers formula to approach high even (r+2) power sums of even integer numbers formula so on we can approach from derivative odd r power sums of even integer numbers formula to high odd (r+2) power sums of even integer numbers formula this derivative excellence have ability to used by computer programming language or any application like Microsoft Office Excel. Also this research discovered the relationship between r power sums of even integer numbers formula and both formulas for same power sums of odd integer numbers formula and for r power sums of all integer numbers formula in another way.


Article
Inhibitory Effects of Chalcone on the Replication of Poliovirus in Vitro
التأثير المثبط لمركب الجالكون على تكاثر فايروس شلل الاطفال في الزرع النسيجي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The compound chalcon originally is extracted form some plant and herbs, the studies of the antiviral activity of this compound were done in two cell line cultures the L2OB and RD, the compound relatively non toxic to both cell lines of the concentration of 32μg/ml or less ,the compound have significantly anti poliovirus activity in both L2OB cell line and RD cell line, we find that the concentration of 0.03 μg/ml or more inhibit the 100TCDID50 of the poliovirus .The therapeutic index(TI)used in this study to evaluate the drug activity ,( TI is the ratio of dose of drug which is just toxic to the cells to the does which is just inhibit the viral multiplication, if this index more than one the margin of safety of drug is according great ) .In this study the TI of chalcone against poliovirus is 266,therefore this compound if used in man have little or no side effect.


Article
Detection of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Serum from Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
التحري عن داء السكري النمط الثاني في مصول النساء المصابات بمتلازمة المبيض المتعدد الاكياس

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorder. To determine the metabolic disorders in women with PCOS, (25) women with PCOS ages (15 - 47) years have been investigated and compared with (20) healthy individuals. All the studied groups were carried out to measure fasting blood sugar, (anti-GAD Ab, anti β-islet cell Ab by IFAT) and measured insulin level by ELISA. There was significant elevation in the concentration of fasting blood sugar than in control groups (p ≤ 0.05) and there was negative results for anti-GAD Ab and anti β-islet cell Ab by IFAT test for serum of women with PCOS, while there was significant differences in the insulin level for women with PCOS compared with control groups (p ≤ 0.05), these indicated that women with PCOS are at high risk for type -2 Diabetes mellitus and reflecting insulin resistance.


Article
Bacterial Isolates and Their Antibiograms of Burn Wound Infections in Burns Specialist Hospital in Baghdad
المُمْرِضات البكتيرية لأخماج جروح الحروق وأنماط حساسيتها الدوائية في مستشفى الحروق التخصصي في بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A total of 54 out of 67 (80.59%) of burn wound swab showed growth of one, or two, or three bacterial pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen, isolated in 48.14% of swab samples, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (31.48%), Staphylococcus aureus (27.77%), Acinetobacter baumanii (14.81%), Escherichia coli (7.40%), and Citrobacter freundii, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter cloacae, with 1.85% isolation percentage for each. All bacterial isolates were tested against 19 antibiotics, and showed multi-drug resistance to 10 antibiotics, or more. The most effective antibiotics were the fifth-generation cephalosporin, ceftobiprole, and and antibiotic combinations, as Ceftazidime / clavulanic acid, and Cefoperazone /sulbactam, and newer generation fluoroquinolone, levofloxacin, and gemifloxacin, which are attractive candidates to be the basic antibiotics in establishment of new hospital policy in Iraq for treatment of burn wound infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria


Article
Preparation and Purification of Copper Metal from Dross Scrap of the State Company for Electrical Industries by Electrochemical Technique.
تحضير وتنقية معدن النحاس من الخبث المعدني الناتج من مخلفات الشركة العامة للصناعات الكهربائية بتقنية الكيمياء الكهربائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The copper metal was prepared and purified from dross scrap by electrochemical technique, using insoluble inert anode made of lead. The scrap was dissolved in 6M HCl. Cations of Al, Mn ,Ni, As, and Zn were separated by passing the solution of dross through strong basic anion exchanger (IRA 400) Column ,while the iron and copper were retained on column and then separated them by more dilute hydrochloric acid (0.005M) . Iron separated from copper by precipitating as basic ferric acetate and then heated to 600°C for one hour to obtain ferric oxide. Copper precipitated as copper nitrate hydroxide from acid solution at PH(4.5-5.5). The copper nitrate hydroxide has been recrystalized by ethanol and dionized water and then heated to 900°C for one hour to obtain copper oxide. The copper metal has been prepared from copper oxide by electrochemical technique. The copper nitrate hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, copper oxide and pure copper have been identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and elemental analysis by using flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques.


Article
Extraction and Determination of Amygdaline in Iraqi Plant Seeds Using the Combined Simple Extraction Procedure and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
استخلاص وتقدير الأمكدالين في بذور النبات العراقي بالاستخدام المشترك لطريقة التصعيد وكروماتوغرافيا السائل العالي الاداء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract : In this study, amygdaline in Iraqi plant seeds was extracted and isolated from their seeds matrix using reflux procedure and subsequently identified and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reversed phase column of LC-18 (150mm x 4.6mm, 5μm )with actonitrile :water ( 50 : 50 ) as mobile phase at flow rate of ( 0.5 mL/min ) and detection at wavelength of 215 nm.The experimental results indicated that the linearity of calibration is in the range of 1.0-30.0 mg L-1amygdaline with the correlation coefficient of 0.9949. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for amygdaline were of 0.88 and 2.93 mg L-1 in standard pure sample. The mean recovery percent is 97.34±0.58 at 95% confidence interval and relative standard deviation in the range of 1.19-2.08 %. The content of amygdaline in plant samples was 4.60± 0.47 g /100 g, and 0.27±0.029 g/100g of apricot and citrullus colocynth respectively.


Article
Evaluation of ELectrolytes in Adult Patients with Acute Leukemia before and after Chemotherapy
تقييم مستوى الشوارد في مصل دم المرضى البالغين المصابين بابيضاض الدم الحاد قبل وبعد العلاج الكيمياوى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: Leukemia is a cancer of early blood forming cells. Most of them are cancers of white blood cells , however some leukemias start in other blood cell types.Electrolytes have modulatory effects on several biological mechanisms in the body namely as stabilizers,element of structures, essential element for hormonal function and also co-factors for a number of enzymes.In this study serum electrolytes levels were measured in patients with acute leukemia (AL) disorders before and after chemotherapy(anthracycline, doxorubicin, cytarabine ,prednisone, vincristine and doxorubicin) during one month and compared with that of control group. Blood samples were obtained from (43) patients (28 males and 15 females) aged (15-55)years;juset before and after chemotherapy. The control group contained samples from (40) healthy volunteers (26 males and 14 females) aged (15-55) years.Serum electrolytes levels(sodium Na+1,potassium K+1,calcium Ca+1,chloride Cl-1,magnesium Mg+2and phosphate PO4-3) were estimated using flame atomic absorbtion photometry. Serum levels of Na, K,Ca and Cl were significantly decreased in patients before chemotherapy in comparasion with that of control group. The mean concentration of serum phosphoruse and magnesium in acute leukemia patients was non significant compared with that of control group. In this study, determination of serum electrolytes in leukemic patients indicates an abnormal metabolic process in these patients


Article
Comparison of The Effect of Aqueous Extracts of two Plants, Origanum Vulgare L. and Fenugreek Seeds with Anticancer Drug Cis-Platin on the Growth of Cancer Cell Lines
مقارنة تأثير المستخلصات المائية لنباتي المردقوش Origanum vulgare L. وبذور الحلبة Fenugreek seeds مع العقار المضاد للسرطان السز بلاتين على نمو الخطوط الخلويه السرطانيه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study involved the effect of the aqueous extracts of two plants, Origanum vulgare L.(1), Trigonella Foenum Graecum L. (Fenugreek) seeds(2) on the growth of cancer cell lines. Rhabdomyo sarcomas (RD) of human cell line and female intestine cells of Albino mice (L20B) in vitro System. These extracts were compared with the known anticancer drug Cis-platinum(Cis-Pt) as a positive control. The phytochemical tests were used for screening the active compounds in plants. The inhibition activity assay was used as a parameter of the cytotoxic effect of these extracts. Cancer cell lines were treated with four concentrations of Cis-platin, 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 μg/ml for 72 hour exposure time. The same concentrations were used for the other extracts. This study found that the two aqueous extracts (1,2) have a cytotoxic effects on cancer cells as could be seen from their effects on inhibition percentage and the significant differences (p<0.05) which were observed for each extract (1,2) by the increased the inhibition percentage as the concentration was increased. The higher level of inhibition(51.63%) was obtained from 250 μg/ml of Origanum vulgare extract (1) on RD line and 51.41% on cell line L20B at the same concentration. The cytotoxic effects of extract 1 and 2 on cancer cell line L20B were similar to that on RD cell line.There are no significant differences between two cancer cell line in all used concentrations. The strong relationship which to be found between the concentrations and the two aqueous extracts (1,2) comparable with Cis-Pt drug.


Article
Synthesis and Characterizationof Some New Phenolic Schiff Bases Derivatives
تحضير وتشخيص بعض مشتقا ت قواعد شيف الفينولية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Starting from bis (4,4'-diamino phenoxy) ethan(1), a variety of phenolicschiff bases (methylolic, etheric, epoxy) derivatives have been synthesized. All proposed structure were supported by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR Elemental analysis, some derivatives evaluated by thermal analysis (TGA).


Article
Effects of Lead on Hemopoeitic and Iron Status in Iraqi Workers at Lead Batteries Factory
تأثير الرصاص على تكوين النسيج الدموي وصورة الحديد للعمال العراقيين في معمل بطاريات الرصاص

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of lead exposure on hemopoetic system (through the index delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase δ-ALAD activity & hemoglobin concentration (Hb) ) and on iron status (levels of iron Fe, Ferritin Fr, Total iron binding capacity TIBC, percentage of transferine saturation TF%) in 44 Iraqi worker at lead batteries factory. Workers divided into two groups: smokers(n=21) mean aged (37.33±4.82 year)and non smokers(n=23) mean aged(40.78±7.89 year) and 45 healthy subjects mean aged (33.97±5.08)as control group . Activity of δ-ALAD ratio shows significant decrease (p ˂ 0.05) ,while Hb and hematocrit Hct were non significant (p ˃ 0.05) in smoker workers more than non smoker as compared to control . The results show a non significant decrease (p ˃ 0.05) in the sera levels of iron S.Fe, TS%, Fr in all workers as compared to control , the amount of decreasing for smoker more than non smoker except ferritin levels. A significant increases in the level of TIBC in workers as compared to control, this elevation is more in smoker than non smoker workers. In smoker workers, there was a significant positive correlation between the blood lead levels BLLs and Hb, Hct,TIBC whereas a significant negative correlation was observed between BLLs and S.Fe, TS%. In conclusion, the results of this study reveal the importance of monitoring the level of iron status in smoker peoples who dealing or exposure to lead due to the probability injured with anemia and used δ-ALAD ratio to predict the efficiency of their heme synthesis as a new marker for the diagnosis of early stage of anemia.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of some Mixed Ligand Complexes Containing (8-hydroxyquinoline) and (2 - picoline) with some Metal Ions
تحضير وتشخيص بعض معقدات الليكاندات المختلطة من ) 8 هيدروكسى - كوينولين( و) 2 بيكولين ( مع بعض ايونات الفلزات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Complexes of some metal ions ( Mn(IІ ) , Co(ІІ) , Ni(ІІ) ,Cu (ІІ) , Zn(IІ) , Cd (ІІ) , and Hg(ІІ) ) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine) and 2- Picoline (2-pic ) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their FT-IR. and Uv-visible spectroscopy ,atomic absorption molar conductivity measurements and magnetic susceptibility ,from the results obtained the following general formula has been given for prepared complexes [M (oxine)2 (2-pic)2] where M = M(ІІ) = Mn , Co , Ni , Cu , Zn , Cd , Hg (oxine)- = ionic ligand 8-hydroxyquinolin (oxinato) (2- pic) = 2- picoline


Article
Synthesis of New Pyrazoline - Phenoxathiin Derivatives
تحضير مشتقات جديدة للبايرازولين فينوكسيثن

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Phenoxathiin was prepared by the reaction of diphenyl ether with sulfur in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride. This work comprised the synthesis of new phenoxathiin derivatives containing heterocyclic moieties. These heterocyclic compounds were synthesized in three groups. The first group was made up of 2-(oxoalken-1-yl) phenoxathiin derivatives (3a-3j) obtained from the reaction of 2-acetylphenoxathiin with different aromatic aldehyde in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The other two groups involved compounds produced from the reaction of (3a-3j) with hydrazine hydrate in acetic acid to get 2-(1-acetyl pyrazolin-3-yl) phenoxathiin derivatives (4a-4j), and phenyl hydrazine in the presence of piperidine to afford 2-(1-phenyl pyrazolin-3-yl) phenoxathiin derivatives (5a-5j). All these compounds of two groups above were substituted in position (5) in pyrazoline ring with different aryl groups according to aromatic aldehyde used in the preparation of the first group series compounds.


Article
Synthesis and Spectral Studies of Co(II),Ni(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) Complexes with Ligand 2-[4- Carboxy methyl phenyl azo] -4,5-diphenyl imidazole (4CMeI)
تخليق ودراسة طيفية لمعقدات Co(II),Ni(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) مع الليكاند 2 - -4] كاربوكسي مثيل فنيل ازو [ - 5.4 ثنائي فنيل اميدازول – ( 4CMeI

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A new chelate complexes of Co(II),Ni(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) were prepared by reacting these ions with the ligand 2-[4- Carboxy methyl phenyl azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole (4CMeI) The preparation were conducted after fixing the optimum conditions such as (pH) and concentration .UV- visible spectra of these complex solutions were studied for a range of (pH) and concentration which obey lampert-Beers Law.The structures of complexes were deduced according to mole ratio method which were obtained from the spectroscopic studies of the complex solutions .The ratios of metal: ligand obtained were (1:2) for all complexes..(UV-Vis) absorption spectra and The infrared spectra of the chelating complexes were studied ,this may indicate that coordination between the metal ions and our ligand takes place.The conductivity measurements , elemental analysis ,the percentage of some metal ions and the measurements of magnetic susceptibility of the complexes were determined ,Depending on these results , in addition to, We may conclude that the ligand was bidentate Also the proposed geometrical structures of the complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd (II) ions are octahedral


Article
ThermodynamicProperties of Nicotinicacid in Dilute HCl and inaqueous NaCl solutions at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15)K
الخواص الثرموديناميكية لحامض النيكوتين في الحامض المخفف للهيدروليك وكذلك في المحاليل المائية لكلوريد الصوديوم عند درجات كلفن 308.15و 303.15و 298.15و 293.15

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Apparent molar volume, Vφ, and viscosity B-coefficient of nicotinc acid in water and in aqueous NaCl solutions have been determined from density and viscosity measurements at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. The experimental density data were evaluated by Masson equation, and the derived, apparent molar volume at infinite dilution, Voφ, and the slope Sv, were interpreted in term of solute-solvent and solute- solute interactions. Transfer apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution of nicotinic acid from water to NaCl solutions at various temperatures have been calculated.The viscosity data have been analyzed using Jones-Dole equation, and the derived parameters, Jones-Dolecoefficient, B,and Falkenhagen coefficient,A, have been also interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions respectively. The variation of B coefficient with temperature, (dB/dT), was also determined, the negative values indicate that nicotinic acid in aqueous NaCl solution is structure making. The results were interpreted in terms of complex vitamin-water-co-solute (NaCl) interactions. The free energy, enthalpy, andentropy of activation were calculated using the Nightingale, Benck, and Eyring equations. Free energies of activation of viscous flow ( *1) per mole, and, ( *2) per mole,of solvent and solute, respectively, were also calculated. The effects of soluteson the structure of water were interpreted in terms of viscositiesand the thermodynamic parameters.


Article
Effect of zinc oxid on the bentonite ability for removing Methylene blue from solution
تاثير اوكسيد الخارصين على قابلية البنتونايت في ازالة المثلين الازرق من المحلول

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A batch adsorption system was applied to study the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by Iraqi bentonite and treated bentonite with different amount of zinc oxide (ZnO). The adsorption capacities of methylene blue onto bentonite were evaluated. The equilibrium between liquid and solid phase was described by Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. Langmuir and Freundlich constants have been determined. The separation factor or equilibrium parameter, RL which is used to predict if an adsorption system is favourable or unfavourable was calculated for all cases.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles Derived From 9-Fluorenone
تخليق وتشخيص 4،3،0 اوكسادایازولات مشتقة من 9 فلورینون

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In the present work, 9-fluorenone-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) was prepared from 9-fluorenone-2-carboxylic acid and then converted into the acid hydrazide (2). Compound (2), is the key intermediate for the synthesis of several series of new compounds such as substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (3-6) were synthesized from the condensation of different substituted benzoic acids with compound (2) using POCl3 as condensing agent. Treatment of compound (2) with formic acid gave the N-formyl hydrazide (7), which upon refluxing with phosphorous pentoxide in benzene yielded the corresponding 5-(9-fluorenone-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (8). Reaction of hydrazide (2) with phenyl isocyanate to give N-phenyl semicarbazide derivative (9), then this compound (9) convert to 5-(9-fluorenone-2-yl)-N-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amine (10) via intramolecular cyclization by syrup H3PO4. Also the hydrazide (2) was treated with CS2/KOH afforded 5-(9-fluorenone-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (11). Compound (11) was used to react with various alkyl halides and secondary amines to give 5-(9-fluorenone-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-alkyl thiol (12-15) and 5-(9-fluorenone-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-N-alkyl (16-19) derivatives respectively.


Article
Design and Construction Optical Pumping System
تصميم وبناء منظومة ضخ ضوئي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this work the design and construction of optical pumping system was presented. The parameters of the pumping source to obtain discharge current density sufficient to shift the flash lamp spectrum towards uv portion of spectrum were measured.The current density was supplied to the flash lamp must be greater than 4000Amp./cm2 to obtain the spectral range wavelength lies between 0.2 and 0.35m. The current density was obtained by a capacitor 50F, at 7KV discharge voltage. The applied electrical energy to the flash lamp was more than 1200 J, and the current density was around 5000 Amp./cm2.The electrical parameters of the flash lamp were calculated. The impedance parameters(K0) from the voltage and the peak current pulse was measured in range equal to 57, while the damping factor() was 1.3. The energy of the flash lamp was around 75% from the input electrical energy. The external trigger circuit was limited the increase the applied voltage, which is responsible for the damping factor.


Article
Computational Optimization of the Radial and Spiral Distortion Aberration Coefficients of Magnetic Deflector
التصميم الامثل لمعاملات زيغي التشويه الشعاعي والتشويه الحلزوني للحارف المغناطيسي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: The optimum design of the magnetic deflector with the lowest values of the radial and spiral distortion aberration coefficients was computed. The optimized calculations were made using three models, Glaser bell-shaped, Grivet-lenz and exponential models. By using the optimum axial field distribution, the pole pieces shape which gave rise to those field distributions was found by using the reconstruction method. The calculations show that the results of the three models coincide at the lower values of the excitation parameter. In general the Glaser- bell shaped model gives the optimum results at the whole range of the excitation parameter under investigation. The negative values of the spiral distortion aberration coefficient appears in the results at the same case, therefore the designer can use it as corrector in other optical systems which suffer from this type of aberration


Article
Comparison of Maximum Likelihood and some Bayes Estimators for Maxwell Distribution based on Non-informative Priors
مقارنة مقدر الارجحية العظمى وبعض مقدرات بيز لتوزيع ماكسويل وفقا لدوال أسبقية لامعلوماتية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, Bayes estimators of the parameter of Maxwell distribution have been derived along with maximum likelihood estimator. The non-informative priors; Jeffreys and the extension of Jeffreys prior information has been considered under two different loss functions, the squared error loss function and the modified squared error loss function for comparison purpose. A simulation study has been developed in order to gain an insight into the performance on small, moderate and large samples. The performance of these estimators has been explored numerically under different conditions. The efficiency for the estimators was compared according to the mean square error MSE. The results of comparison by MSE show that the efficiency of Bayes estimators of the shape parameter of the Maxwell distribution decreases with the increase of Jeffreys prior constants. The results also show that values of Bayes estimators are almost close to the maximum likelihood estimator when the Jeffreys prior constants are small, yet they are identical in some certain cases. Comparison with respect to loss functions show that Bayes estimators under the modified squared error loss function has greater MSE than the squared error loss function especially with the increase of r.


Article
Some Probability Characteristics Functions of the Solution of Stochastic Fredholm Integral Equation Contains a Known Sine Wave Function
بعض دوال المزايا الاحتمالية لحل معادلة فريدهولم التكاملية والعشوائية الحاوية على دالة موجة الجيب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, some probability characteristics functions (moments, variances, convariance, and spectral density functions) are found depending upon the smallest variance of the solution of some stochastic Fredholm integral equation contains as a known function, the sine wave function

Table of content: volume: issue: