Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:19 issue:8

Article
Cooling and Heating a Greenhouse in Baghdad by a Solar Assisted Desiccant System
تبريد وتدفئة بيت زجاجي في بغداد بأستخدام منظومة امتزازية تعمل بمساعدة الطاقة الشمسية

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Abstract

Modeling the microclimate of a greenhouse located in Baghdad under its weather conditions to calculate the heating and cooling loads by computer simulation. Solar collectors with a V-corrugated absorber plate and an auxiliary heat source were used as a heating system. A rotary silica gel desiccant dehumidifier, a sensible heat exchanger, and an evaporative cooler were added to the collectors to form an open-cycle solar assisted desiccant cooling system. A dynamic model was adopted to predict the inside air and the soil surface temperatures of the greenhouse. These temperatures are used to predict the greenhouse heating and cooling loads through an energy balance method which takes into account the soil heat gain. This is not included in conventional methods. The results showed satisfactory agreement with published papers. Also, the results of heating and cooling loads obtained revealed good agreement with those obtained from conventional methods when the soil heat gain is included. Two identical collectors in series of total area of 5.4m2 were employed as a heating system which provides an outlet air temperature of 30 oC at air mass flux of 0.06 kg/s.m2 at midday in January. While, a 65 oC outlet air temperature was achieved for the same mass flux at midday in August. The desiccant cooling system was operated in five operating modes; the ventilation mode and four recirculation modes with 20%, 50%, 70%, and 90% recirculation. The simulation results showed that a regeneration temperature of 60-70 oC is satisfactory for a cool supply air temperature of about 19.5 oC. Also, it was noted that 20-30 % recirculation of return air would result in suitable indoor greenhouse conditions for most periods of system operation. In addition, the coefficient of performance COP of the system was high compared with the conventional vapor compression systems.


Article
Experimental Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Confined Porous Media Heated From Side

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Abstract

Transient three-dimensional natural convection heat transfer due to the influences of heating from one side of an enclosure filled with a saturated porous media, whereas the opposite side is maintained at a constant cold temperature, and the other four sides are adiabatic, were investigated in the present work experimentally. Silica sand was used as a porous media saturated with distilled water filled in a cubic enclosure heated from the side, using six electrical controlled heaters, at constant temperatures of (60, 70, 80, 90, and 100oC). The inverse side cooled at a constant temperature of (24oC) using an aluminum heat exchanger, consisted of 15 channels feeded with constant temperature water. Eighty thermocouples were used to control the heated and cooled sides, and to measure the temperature in the entire enclosure. Experimental results showed that the heat transfer regime was mainly conduction for all Rayleigh numbers with small influence of convection for Ra=42 and greater for Ra=55. This effect increased with the angle of inclination of the enclosure. Numerical and experimental results showed a good agreement. There was a rapid increase in the temperature at the entire media at the early time, reduced gradually until the steady state condition reached. This temperature and heat transfer to and from the porous media, were increased as the Rayleigh number and/or inclination angle increased. The Nusselt number increased directly with the angle of inclination up to and then decreased. Correlation equations are obtained from the experimental investigation, showed the change of the average and local Nusselt number with time, distance, Rayleigh number, and the inclination angle.


Article
Boron Removal by Adsorption onto Different Oxides
أزالة ألبورون بالأمتزاز بعدة أكاسيد

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Abstract

A research was conducted to determine the feasibility of using adsorption process to remove boron from aqueous solutions using batch technique. Three adsorbent materials; magnesium, aluminum and iron oxide were investigated to find their abilities for boron removal. The effects of operational parameters on boron removal efficiency for each material were determined. The experimental results revealed that maximum boron removal was achieved at pH 9.5 for magnesium oxide and 8 for aluminum and iron oxide. The percentage of boron adsorbed onto magnesium, aluminum and iron oxide reaches up to 90, 42.5 and 41.5% respectively under appropriate conditions. Boron concentration in effluent water after adsorption via magnesium oxide comply with the allowable concentration according to WHO and the Iraqi drinking water guidelines, i.e. below 0.5 mg/l. Aluminum and iron oxide yield effluent water with boron concentration more than allowable limits. Accordingly, magnesium oxide is more suitable as adsorbent for boron removal from water; for its high adsorbent capacity and high removal ability for boron compared with aluminum and iron oxide.


Article
Removal of Copper Ions onto Walnut Shells by Using Batch and Continuous Fluidized Bed
ازالة ايونات النحاس بواسطة قشور الجوز باستخدام مفاعلات الدفع المتقطع والمستمر

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Abstract

An agricultural waste (walnut shell) was undertaken to remove Cu(II) from aqueous solutions in batch and continuous fluidized bed processes. Walnut shell was found to be effective in batch reaching 75.55% at 20 and 200 rpm, when pH of the solution adjusted to 7. The equilibrium was achieved after 6 h of contacting time. The maximum uptake was 11.94mg/g. The isotherm models indicated that the highest determination coefficient belongs to Langmuir model. Cu (II) uptake process in kinetic rate model followed the pseudo-second-order with determination coefficient of 0.9972. More than 95% of the Cu(II) were adsorbed on the walnut shells within 6 h at optimum agitation speed of 800 rpm. The main functional groups responsible for biosorption of Cu(II) onto walnut shell were hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxylate, carboxylic acids, alcohols groups, and aromatic compounds. In continuous system, fluidized bed column at 20 , and pH 7 was carried out to study the effects of various parameters like (flow rate, bed depth, and initial concentration). The time of breakthrough was 97 min when the initial concentration (Co= 20mg/l), bed depth (L=10cm), and flowrate (Q=10l/h).


Article
A Modified 2D-Checksum Error Detecting Method for Data Transmission in Noisy Media
طريقة تدقيق الجمع ثنائي الابعاد المعدلة في أكتشاف أخطاء نقل البيانات في الوسط الصاخب

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Abstract

In data transmission a change in single bit in the received data may lead to miss understanding or a disaster. Each bit in the sent information has high priority especially with information such as the address of the receiver. The importance of error detection with each single change is a key issue in data transmission field. The ordinary single parity detection method can detect odd number of errors efficiently, but fails with even number of errors. Other detection methods such as two-dimensional and checksum showed better results and failed to cope with the increasing number of errors. Two novel methods were suggested to detect the binary bit change errors when transmitting data in a noisy media. Those methods were: 2D-Checksum method and Modified 2D-Checksum. In 2D-checksum method, summing process was done for 7×7 patterns in row direction and then in column direction to result 8×8 patterns. While in modified method, an additional parity diagonal vector was added to the pattern to be 8×9. By combining the benefits of using single parity (detecting odd number of error bits) and the benefits of checksum (reducing the effect of 4-bit errors) and combining them in 2D shape, the detection process was improved. By contaminating any sample of data with up to 33% of noise (change 0 to 1 and vice versa), the detecting process in first method was improved by approximately 50% compared to the ordinary traditional two dimensional-parity method and gives best detection results in second novel method.


Article
Laminar Free Convection In Horizontal Annulus Filled With Glass Beads And With Annular Fins On The Inner Cylinder
الحمل الحر الطباقي في محتوى حلقي افقي مملوء بكرات زجاجية بوجود زعانف متصلة بالأسطوانة الداخلية

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Abstract

An experimental and numerical study has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer by natural convection and radiation in a two dimensional annulus enclosure filled with porous media (glass beads) between two horizontal concentric cylinders. The outer cylinders are of (100, 82 and70mm) outside diameters and the inner cylinder of 27 mm outside diameter with (or without) annular fins attached to it. Under steady state condition; the inner cylinder surface is maintained at a high temperature by applying a uniform heat flux and the outer cylinder surface at a low temperature inside a freezer. The experiments were carried out for an annulus filled with glass beads at a range of modified Rayleigh number (4.9 ≤ Ra≤ 69), radiation parameter (0


Article
Water Recovery from Brine Solution by Forward Osmosis Process
استرجاع الماء من المحاليل الملحية باستخدام عملية التناضح الامامي

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the possibility of utilization a forward osmosis desalination process as an alternative method to extract water from brine solution rejected from reverse osmosis process. Experiments conducted in a laboratory–scale forward osmosis (FO) unit in cross flow flat sheet membrane cell yielded water flux ranging from (0.0315 to 0.56 L/m2.min) when using CTA membrane, and ranging from (0.419 to 2.785 L/m2.min) for PA membrane under 0.4 bar. Two possible membrane orientations were tested. Sodium chloride with high concentrations was used as draw solution solute. The effect of membrane orientation on internal concentration polarization (ICP) was studied. Two regimes of ICP; dilutive and concentrative were described and characterized and their governing equations were applied. Also the effect of draw and feed solution concentrations and flow rate were studied. It was found that the experimental water flux were lower than the theoretical water flux. Using of PA membrane under pressure was resulted in a higher flux of desalinated water than when CTA used alone without pressure under the same operating conditions.


Article
Simultanous Electricity Production and Wastewater Ttreatment in a Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculeted with Anaerobic Sludge
معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي وانتاج الطاقة الكهربائية معا في خلية الوقود الاحيائية بأستخدام الخبث البايولوجي اللاهوائي

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Abstract

In order to reduce the environmental pollution associated with the conventional energy sources and to achieve the increased global energy demand, alterative and renewable sustainable energy sources need to be developed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a bio-electrochemical innovative technology for pollution control and a simultaneous sustainable energy production from biodegradable, reduced compounds. This study mainly considers the performance of continuous up flow dual-chambers MFC fueled with actual domestic wastewater and bio-catalyzed with anaerobic aged sludge obtained from an aged septic tank. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency up to 89% was obtained for wastewaters having an average initial COD concentration of 350 mg/L. Stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 170 mW/ m2.


Article
Performance Study of AODV, GRP and OSPFv3 MANET Routing Protocols Using OPNET Modeler
دراسة كفاءة بروتوكولات المانيت المتنقلة (AODV, GRP, OSPFv3) باستخدام برنامج المحاكاة الاوبنيت

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Abstract

A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes, that forms on the fly a temporary wireless multi-hop network in a self-organizing way, without relying on any established infrastructure. In MANET, a pair of nodes exchange messages either over a direct wireless link, or over a sequence of wireless links including one or more intermediate nodes. For this purpose, an efficient routing protocol is required. This paper introduced performance study of three of MANET protocols (AODV, GRP and OSPFv3). This study was one of the newer studies because wireless communication played an important role in today’s application and the field of mobile ad hoc network becomes very popular for the researchers in the last years. This study was done using OPNET Modeler v14.5 and the comparison between the protocols was done in terms of throughput, routing traffic received, traffic sent, load and delay with increased number of mobile nodes from 10, 25 and 50 mobile nodes. The results showed that AODV (reactive routing protocol) was better in delay and had smaller load and smaller throughput than GRP (reactive and proactive routing protocols) and OSPFv3 (proactive routing protocols).


Article
Design and Implementation of a Multiplier free FPGA based OFDM Transmitter
تصميم و بناء مرسلة بدون (Multiplier) تعتمد نظام مزج تقسيمات التردد المتعامدة باستعمال تقنية مصفوفة البوابات المنطقية القابلة للبرمجة

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Abstract

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient multi-carrier technique. The core operation in the OFDM systems is the FFT/IFFT unit that requires a large amount of hardware resources and processing delay. The developments in implementation techniques likes Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies have made OFDM a feasible option. The goal of this paper is to design and implement an OFDM transmitter based on Altera FPGA using Quartus software. The proposed transmitter is carried out to simplify the Fourier transform calculation by using decoder instead of multipliers. After programming ALTERA DE2 FPGA kit with implemented project, several practical tests have been done starting from monitoring all the results of the implemented blocks (VHDL code) and compare them with corresponding results from simulation system implemented in matlab 2010a. The results of these practical tests show that the suggested approach gives a significant improvement in reducing complexity and processing delays (45 nsec) in comparison with the conventional implementations of OFDM transmitter.

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