Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:19 issue:9

Article
Rehabilitating Iraqi Schools According to the Requirements of Social Sustainability
تأهيل المدارس العراقية وفق متطلبات الاستدامة الاجتماعية

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Abstract

Recently, Social Sustainability has gained significant value as it was considered by the late studies as a principal dimension along with the environmental and economic sustainability. And because of, on the other hand, the significant social role of the school for forming the student’s personality, this research is an appeal for rehabilitating and promoting Iraqi Schools according the issue of social sustainability. As there is no evaluation for the Iraqi Schools, the research is dedicated to this problem, aiming to carry out the stated evaluation and define the design treatments needed for the rehabilitation process. To achieve this goal, a theoretical background for the concept of social sustainability, its criteria, the school and its social functions was introduced. From reviewing previous architectural practices and theoretical studies, different design treatments were extracted and structured within the level of the building itself and the outside landscape. The design treatments were, then, applied to rehabilitate a selected standard school model used by the Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate. Evaluating the proposed model, the conclusions demonstrated the possibility of rehabilitating the existing Iraqi Schools to hold most indicators of social sustainability.


Article
Eco- Industrial parks & Eco-Industrial Cities, The Possibility of Its Future Implication in Iraq
مفهوم البارك الايكولوجي الصناعي والمدينة الايكولوجية الصناعية و إمكانات تطبيقها في العراق مستقبلا

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Abstract

Recently new and multiple concepts emerged in the sustainability issues ,which transformed into number of planning and designing policies and strategies that must be committed by the designers and the relevant trends in building ,regarding Iraq and the reality of industrial areas ,especially in Baghdad, which helped to sustain few of it & emerged another with bad reflect , which for that made it clear the importance of implicating sustainable ecological planning and designing strategies provided by the concept of Eco-industrial parks and the concept of Eco-towns and the future potentials provided ,and the easiness of carrying it out which made it flexible and away to provide a base supported by it for rebuilding and rehabilitation and sustainable regeneration. Accordingly, the research looked for the sustainable planning and designing strategies for industrial areas and the potentials of applying it in Baghdad to propose future planning strategies to rehabilitate and regenerate Iraq industrial areas.


Article
Historical Paths and the Growth of Baghdad Old Center
المسارات التاريخية ونمو مركز بغداد القديم

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Abstract

Urban growth of cities is connected with three related problems, the first one, is the deterioration of the center, which is a mark for historical origin. The second is the emergence of city edge, which contradicts by the center. The third one is the rapid semi urbanism of the edge. Literature review showed that Baghdad historical center (Old Rusafa and Karkh) had grown in four morphological stages, during which main paths had been changed from those which were perpendicular to the river front to those parallel to it. Research problem is that “there is a knowledge gap about the direction and origin of paths within Baghdad old center, after its growth”. The first research hypothesis is, “the direction of paths within old Baghdad center had been changed from those perpendicular to the river to parallel to it, then to a grid system by the effect of streets cut through and bridges constructions”. The second research hypothesis is that, “New paths (streets) which had been cut through old center had an origin within the historical paths”. The research aims to verify from the change in paths direction within old center, also from the origin of new streets in relation with historical paths. Research found that some new streets within Old Rusafa and Karkh, which are parallel to the river, existed as historical paths, according to the integration genotype of this center within the four morphological stages.


Article
The Use of Bracing Dampers in Steel Buildings under Seismic Loading

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Abstract

This study focuses on the modeling of manufactured damper when used in steel buildings. The main aim of the manufactured dampers is to protect the steel buildings from the damaging effects that may result due to earthquakes by introducing an extra damping in addition to the traditional damping. Only Pure Manufactured Dampers, has been considered in this study. Viscous modeling of damping is generally preferred in structural engineering as it leads to a linear model then it has been used during this study to simulate the behavior of the Pure Manufactured Damper. After definition of structural parameters of a manufactured damper (its stiffness and its damping) it can be used as a structural element that can be added to a mathematical model of the structure. As the damping of manufactured dampers is generally greater than the damping of traditional materials, then the resulting damping matrix for the whole structure will be classified as a nonclassical damping. As most of literature on earthquake engineering have been written in terms of terminology related to mode superposition method and as this method is applicable to classical damping only. Then, this study tried to check the accuracy of the mode superposition method when applied to a structure with manufactured dampers. In this checking, approximated results of mode superposition method have been compared with more accurate results of direct integration method. From this comparison, it has been noted that the mode superposition method has different levels of accuracy depending on the relation between the fundamental frequency of the structure and the dominate frequency of the earthmotion. If the frequency of the structure is approaching to a dominate frequency of the earthmotion, then the damping effect will be important and the difference between the direct integration method and the model superposition method is increasing and vice versa.

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Article
Nonlinear Analysis on Torsional Strengthening Of Rc Beams Using Cfrp Laminates
التحليل اللاخطي للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة المقواة بألياف الكاربون البوليمرية الصفائحية تحت تأثير عزم الألتواء

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Abstract

This research is devoted to investigate the behavior and performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates under the effect of torsion. In this study a theoretical analysis has been conducted using finite element code ANSYS. Six previously tested beams are used to investigate reinforced concrete beams behavior under torsion, two of them are solid and the rest are box-section beams. Also, two beams are without CFRP reinforcement, which are used as control beams for the strengthened one, and the other four beams are strengthened with CFRP laminates with different number of layers and spacing. Numerical investigation is conducted on these beams, and comparisons between the available experimental results for these beams and numerical results from the current study are made. Conclusions from these comparisons are presented and discussed. An increase of about 15.6% in the ultimate torque for the solid beam and of about 9.8% in the ultimate torque for the box-section beam is observed after using the CFRP strips. A parametric study is carried out to study the torsional behavior of RC beams having different number of CFRP layers and concrete compressive strength; also U-wrap for the CFRP configuration is investigated.


Article
Behavior of Strengthened RC Columns with CFRP under Biaxial Bending
سلوك الأعمدةِ الخرسانية المسلحة و المُقَوّاةِ بألياف الكربون البولمرية المسلحة تحت انحناء باتجاهين

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Abstract

In this work, the behavior of reinforced concrete columns under biaxial bending is studied. This work aims at studying the strengthening of columns by using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The experimental work includes investigation of eight reinforced concrete columns (150*150*500mm) tested under several load conditions. Variables considered in the test program include; effect of eccentricity and effect of longitudinal reinforcement (Ø12mm or Ø6mm). Test results are discussed based on load – lateral deflection behavior, load – longitudinal deflection behavior, ultimate load and failure modes. The CFRP reinforcement permits a complete change in the failure mode of the columns .The effect of longitudinal reinforcement in the case of biaxial bending is more pronounced for strengthened columns than for unconfined columns.


Article
A Computerized Integrated System for Geodetic Networks Design
نظام برمجي متكامل لتصميم الشبكات الجيوديسية

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Abstract

This research presents a model for surveying networks configuration which is designed and called a Computerized Integrated System for Triangulation Network Modeling (CISTNM). It focuses on the strength of figure as a concept then on estimating the relative error (RE) for the computed side (base line) triangulation element. The CISTNM can compute the maximum elevations of the highest obstacles of the line of sight, the observational signal tower height, the contribution of each triangulation station with their intervisibility test and analysis. The model is characterized by the flexibility to select either a single figure or a combined figures network option. Each option includes three other implicit options such as: triangles, quadrilaterals, and central-point figures (which is to be subdivided into: triangle; quadrilateral, and pentagon). The model also has the property of the diverse modes of display for the output results; i.e. the results can be displayed in the shape of Two-Dimensional (2-D) and Three- Dimensional (3-D) representations. Visual Basic is the software depended as a main core in designing CISTNM to draw the suggested network in 2-D to display the network point positions and formations, and it can be linked with the available software such as ArcMap (GIS). The input data which is used as an application of the targeted geodetic surveying techniques (triangulation) is Chamchamal region as a case study in this research. The area lies in the north of Iraq. The results obtained after this application and verification, have proved that the CISTNM can perform the required task easily and accurately.


Article
Experimental Evaluation of the Performance of One-Axis Daily Tracking and Fixed PV Module in Baghdad, Iraq
التقييم التجريبي لأداء منظومة التتبع اليومي بمحور واحد والمنظومة الثابتة للوح شمسي في مدينة بغداد- العراق

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Abstract

An attempt was made to evaluate the PV performance of one-axis daily tracking and fixed system for Baghdad, Iraq. Two experimental simulations were conducted on a PV module for that purpose. Measurements included incident solar radiation, load voltage and load current. The first experiment was carried out for six months of winter half of year to simulate the one-axis daily tracking. The azimuth angle was due south while the tilt angle was being set to optimum according to each day of simulation. The second experiment was done at one day to simulate the PV module of fixed angles. It is found that there is a significant power gain of 29.6% for the tracking system in respect to the fixed one. The one-axis daily tracking was much more effective near winter solstice as compared to other months. The efficiency, fill factor for the one-axis and fixed module were 5.1%, 0.57, 4% and 0.52 respectively. Finally, it is concluded that power conditioning system is needed for load matching to improve PV performance.


Article
New Correlation for Predicting Undersaturated Oil Compressibility for Mishrif Reservoir in the Southern Iraqi Oil Fields
علاقة جديدة للتنبؤ بانظغاطية النفط الغير مشبع لمكمن المشرف في الحقول النفطية في جنوب العراق

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Abstract

Reservoir fluids properties are very important in reservoir engineering computations such as material balance calculations, well testing analyses, reserve estimates, and numerical reservoir simulations. Isothermal oil compressibility is required in fluid flow problems, extension of fluid properties from values at the bubble point pressure to higher pressures of interest and in material balance calculations (Ramey, Spivey, and McCain). Isothermal oil compressibility is a measure of the fractional change in volume as pressure is changed at constant temperature (McCain). The most accurate method for determining the Isothermal oil compressibility is a laboratory PVT analysis; however, the evaluation of exploratory wells often require an estimate of the fluid behavior prior to obtaining a representative reservoir sample. Also, experimental data is often unavailable. Empirical correlations are often used for these purposes. This paper developed a new mathematical model for calculating undersaturated oil compressibility using 129 experimentally obtained data points from the PVT analyses of 52 bottom hole fluid samples from Mishrif reservoirs in the southern Iraqi oil fields. The new undersaturated oil compressibility correlation developed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) by applying nonlinear multiple regression method. It was found that the new correlation estimates undersaturated oil compressibility of Mishrif reservoir crudes in the southern Iraqi oil fields much better than the published ones. The average absolute relative error for the developed correlation is 7.16%. Key words: Isothermal, compressibility, under-saturated, Bubble-Point, Mishrif


Article
Monitoring of the Vertical Settlement In Heavy Structures By Precise Levelling
مراقبة الهطول العمودي في الأبنية الضخمة باستخدام التسوية الدقيقة

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Abstract

Monitoring and analysing of the vertical deformations or the settlements of the structures is one of the main research fields in geodetic applications, which is considered a precise periodic measurement, made at different epochs to investigate these deformations on heavy structures. In this research, the deformation measurements were carried out on one of Baghdad University buildings,” Building of Computers Department” of dimensions (70.0 * 81.3 m.). Due to some cracks observed in their walls, it was necessary to monitor the vertical displacement of this building at some particular monitoring points by constructing a vertical network and measured in different epochs. The first epoch (zero epoch) was carried out in April 2006, the second in July 2006, the third in October 2006 and the last one in October 2012. These four epochs include precise levelling measurements were adjusted by Least Squares Adjustment with the aim of investigating the settlement of this building. The two approaches “the Global Congruency test” and “the simple test” are carried out to detect if there any deformation. These two approaches were employed in the analysis and found the difference in elevations between two epochs most be ensured and found that if the monitoring points (P1 to P4) stayed really stable, when compared with the time interval or not? Then according to the analysis procedure to determine the localization of settlement at specific points in the case may change in elevation must be applied. The results showed in two different statistical techniques a significant settlement in four selected corner points on building (P1, P2, P3 and P4). The statistics are based on the probability 95% test and the congruency test with Fisher distribution table.

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