Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
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Table of content: 2013 volume:12 issue:2

Article
Partial Purification and Estimated some Characterization of protease from prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) leaves and used it in some applications
تنقية أنزيم البروتييز جزئيا من أوراق نبات الخس الشوكي (Lactuca serriola L.) وتحديد بعض صفاته واستعماله في بعض التطبيقات العملية

Authors: Mohammed. A. Al-Soufi
Pages: 1-18
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Abstract

Abstract: Acetone powder was used to extracted protease from (Lactuca serriola L.) Prickly lettuce leaves. Enzyme content of crude extract was concentrated by gradual addition of ammonium sulfate at 40-80% saturation, then partial purification of gel filtration chromatography by sephacryl S-200. The enzyme specific activity, purification fold and yield were 51.37 unit/mg, 6.30 and 77.55 respectively. The molecular weight was 31000 Dalton as determined by gel filtration. The results were showed that optimum pH of the purified enzyme by used casein as a substrate was 8.5 while the enzyme was stable at a wide range of pH that between 4-10. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 60ºC and the enzyme was stable at 55ºC for 30 min. The results refer to increase in enzyme activity when treated with Mg, Ca and Zn 114.09, 128.63 and 118.43 respectively while treatment with Co and Hg lead to lose near 50 and 95% from enzyme relative activity, but these activity was not high affected when using all of phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), Pepstatin and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) that 94.37, 96.27 and 91.93 respectively, while the enzyme relative activity was 105.37 when used β-mercaptoethanol, but used Iodoacetic acid lead to get 22.76% form original enzyme activity. The chemical enzyme modification by using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) that activated with Cyanuric chloride (CC) lead to increased of enzyme relative activity alkaline pH value and high temperature degree. The results of application study refer to the ability to use protease in dehairing from cow skin after soaked for 24 hours, and when enzyme was used with commercials detergents. It was noticed that the non modified enzyme had (89, 84, 82, 76 , 69%) from its original activity, while the modified enzyme at 72% had (94, 86, 85, 82, 76 , 74%) from its original activity after incubation at 50ºC for 30 minutes with commercial detergents like Persil, Bonux, Ariel, Tide and Alwazir respectively.


Article
Effect of Abiotic Stimulaterson Ajmalicine production from leaves induced callus of Catharanthusroseus L. G. Don in vitro
تأثيرالمحفزات اللاحيوية في انتاج الاجماليسين من الكالس المستحث من اوراق نبات عين البزونCatharanthusroseus L.G. Don خارج الجسم الحي

Authors: Sami K. M. Ameen1,Emad H.Jassim2
Pages: 19-33
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Abstract

Abstract: An experiment on the effect of Stimulates L-Tryptophan ,salicylic acid and NaCl on leave induced callus on Ajmalicine production of Catharanthusroseus was conducted from February 2011 to May 2012. Callus induction was achieved by culturing true leaves of the plant on MS supplemented with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1mg / L Kin. The best medium to maintains callus was MS medium modified with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg / L Kin. When different levels are added to MS medium for each L-Tryptophan 0,200,300,400 mg /L andsalicylic acid 0, 0.5,1, 1.5 mg /L and NaCl 0,1,2,3,4 g /L in split experimental and the medium supplement with 30 g/ L sucrose as control. The results showed medium supplement with 200 mgL of L-Tryptophan and 1 mg L of salicylic acid gave the highest quantity of Ajmalicine it was 26.18, 75.02 µg/100 fresh weight of callus respectively. The concentration 3 g/ L0f NaCl gave the addition of Ajmalicine production equal to11.27 µg/100 fresh weight of callus while the concentrations of Ajmalicine derived from the leaves of the plants discarded in the Pot were lowest than the concentrations produced by the callus grown in vitro. The concentration of Ajmalicine was 0.047µg/100 fresh weights of leaves.


Article
Using HPLC-ECD for the Comparison between Effects of Tranylcypromine and LY134046 on the Brain Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
استخدام HPLC-ECD لمقارنة تأثير الترانيل سايبرومين وLY134040 على كل من ادرينالين ونورادرينالين الدماغ

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:The effects and turnover of central adrenaline (Ad) has not been studied comprehensively as of noradrenaline (NA) and other amines. Effects both of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)- and phenylethanolamine N- methyl transferase (PNMT)- inhibitors were evaluated on the levels of Ad of certain brain regions, and compared with that of NA. The levels of the amines and metabolite in brain tissue extracts of male Wister rats i.p. administered either LY134046 or tranylcypromine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography- electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) and their changes from the controls were examined using the Student's unpaired t-test. The detection of Ad was at 2 nanoamper (nA) sensitivity, while of NA 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine was at 10nA (LY134046) or 20nA (tranylcypromine). LY134046 causes significant decrease in the Ad levels of hypothalamus (-47%) and of brainstem (-73%) but was not detected in hippocampus or striatum both of the LY134046 and the controls. In contrast LY134046 causes significant increase in the dopamine and DOPAC of all tested brain regions, and in the NA of hypothalamus only (+70%). Tranylcypromine significantly increases the levels of NA and dopamine in all tested brain regions, whereas the Ad levels only increased in hypothalamus (+58%) and brainstem (+67%) but it was below the detection level in hippocampus or striatum. Though, DOPAC decreased in all the regions. The results indicates much higher tissue levels of the NA and DOPAC substances compared with the Ad and confirm the suggestion that the pharmacology of central Ad is analogous to that of central NA, with the exception of its synthesis. The significant decrease in the DOPAC of all brain regions though is more difficult to explain it could indicate that the LY134046 might also act on dopamine uptake sites which needs to be investigated.

Keywords

LY134046 --- tranylcypromine --- Ad --- NA --- dopamine --- hypothalamus --- brainstem


Article
Immunohistochemical Distribution of Prolactin Secreting Cells and Anti-S100 Cells in the Pituitary of the Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and Guinea pig Cavia porcellus
التوزيع الكيمياء نسجي مناعي للخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين والموجبة لبروتينOryctolagus cuniculis في الغدة النخامية للارنب S-100 Cavia porcellusمم وخنزير غينيا

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Abstract

Abstract: The objective of the current study was to determine the immunohistochemical distribution and density of prolactin secreting cells and Anti-S100 cells of the pituitary gland in rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus and guinea pig, Cavia porcellus. The Immunohistochemical study indicated that prolactin-secreting cells were arranged in single, double or triple groups in the rabbit pituitary gland while they were mostly single cells in guinea pig. In both animals PRL-secreting cells were polymorphic in shape with centric or acentric nucleus. The Anti S-100 cells were scattered in pairs distalis. The S-100 positive cells sometimes had cytoplasmic processes between endocrine cells. Although PRL-secreting cells represent high percentage (44%) in the rabbit. There was no significant increase with t-value 1.11 and the probability was more than 0.05. Anti S-100 cells significally increased (54%) in guinea pig with t-value 2.46 as compared with the rabbit and the probability less than 0.05.


Article
Antioxidant activity of Cinnamic acid against Trichlorfon in mice
فعالية تضاد الاكسدة لحامض السيناميك على بقايا مبيد تريكلوروفان في الفئران المختبرية

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Abstract

Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the toxic ,oxidant and antioxidant effects of cinnamic acid in comparison with Vitamin C towards the reduce effect of trichlorfon pesticide ,which is a chemical compound that damage hepatic cells and has mutagenic effects. The effect was studied in mice and the bioassay system depended on evaluating the enzymatic activity of two antioxidant enzymes: Catalase and Glutathione Reductase .Two concentrations of pure cinnamic acid 60 and 30 mg/ body weight were evaluated to choose the suitable concentration . In order to use it in the interaction experiments included two types of treatment pre-Trichlorfon and post – Trichlorfon to determine the mechanisms of pure cinnamic acid which showed no toxic and oxidant effects in biological system and it showed highly performance in preventing and reducing the oxidant stress influences of trichlorfon. It was increased the catalase and glutathione reductase antioxidant activity especially in dose 30mg/ body weight. The positive effect was higher when pure cinnamic acid was used as post- trichlorfon treatment and to less extent in pre –Trichlorfon treatment. The cinnamic acid can be considered as an antioxidant compound and Desmutagen in the first degree and Bioantimutagen in the second degree


Article
Assessment of Genetic Effects of Bacterial Cells After Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiation Using RAPD Technique
تقييم التأثيرات الوراثية للخلايا البكتيرية بعد التعرض لأشعة الهاتف النقال باستخدام تقنية RAPD

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Abstract

Abstract: In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic effects of the DNA of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria after exposed to various durations (15, 30, and 45 min) of radiofrequency (RF) radiation used in cellular phone communications at a frequency of 900 MHz compared with control (unexposed). Genomic DNA were obtained from all bacterial cells, then amplified individually by RAPD technique with fourteen different 10-mer arbitrary primers. Change in the genome revealed by RAPD technique included variation in band intensity; loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. The results display that exposition to various durations of mobile phone radiation induced great changes in RAPD profiles of genomic DNA of bacterial cells compared with control and genomic DNA of E. coli bacteria was more affected than S. aureus. In addition, the results demonstrated that RAPD technique is useful for detection of alterations in the DNA produced by mobile phone radiation.


Article
Determination of serum pepsinogen I and II level at high risk for stomach cancer
تحديد مستوى ارتفاع المصل مولد الببسين المستوى الأول والثاني في خطر الاصابة بسرطان المعدة

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Abstract

Abstract The levels of pepsinogen (PG) I and the PGI/II ratio are useful serologic markers for chronic atrophic gastritis. This study evaluated the performance and clinical implications of these markers in patients undergoing endoscopy. This study was carried at the gastrointestinal unit at AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. Blood samples with antral biopsies were obtained from 127 patients who were complaining from gastroduodenal disease. Patients included 64 with chronic gastritis and 30 with gastric carcinoma. A further 33 healthy persons, uninfected with H.pylori were involved as a control group. Every gastric biopsy examined by histology and rapid urease test. In addition, patient's sera were screened for the presence of H.pyloriIgG antibodies, serum level of PGI and PGII. According to the histological data it was demonstrated that the adenocarcinoma patients were more prevalent than other type of gastric cancer. There was a significant p<0.05 increased level of pepsinogen I and II in the serum of patients that infected with H.pylori, and the ratio SPGI/SPGII was reduced when compared with the subjects who were uninfected with H.pylori. The mean level of SPGI was significantly lower p<0.05 in patients with gastric carcinoma than patients with normal mucosa and chronic gastritis. However, the serum PGII increased significantly p<0.05 in gastric carcinoma, with lower ratio. In conclusion low serum PGI and lower ratio SPGI/SPGII might be used as a marker for predicting of gastric cancer.


Article
Study of Lavandula officinalis L. buds of flowers extracts activity against some species of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of bacteria
دراسة فعالية مستخلصات براعم ازهارLavandula officinalis L. على بعض أنواع البكتريا ذات المقاومة المتعددة للمضادات الحيوية والمعزولة سريريا

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Abstract: The aims of this study were to determine chemical composition and Qualitative phytochemical analysis as well as antibacterial activity of Lavandula officinalis L. flower bud extracts on the growth of some species of pathogenic bacteria. Results showed that percentages of crude proteins, crude fiber, total minerals ash, crude fats, total carbohydrates were 6.34, 8.94, 9.2, 6.71 and71.05% respectively . Results in ug/g showed that copper, lead, magnesium and iron values were 0.1141, 0.0077, 4.2003, 4.1330 respectively while cadmium and cobalt were not detected. The Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of methanol extracts revealed many bioactive chemical constituents including tanninis, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, phenol, and the absence of steroids. The presence of these phytochemicals may justify the observed antibacterial activities in the current study. The antibacterial activity of the aqueous, methanol and extracts of L. officinalis against some pathogenic bacterial strains viz Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium by employing well diffusion techniques and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Methanol extract showed the highest inhibition zone (15-20) mm at 200mg/ml concentration, but using aqueous extract there was no of inhibition zone was observed with any organism. MIC of 25mg/ml was found for the methanol extract against all bacteria tested compared to the control indicating the presence of broad spectrum antibacterial compounds. The presence of these compounds in L.officinalis corroborates the antimicrobial activities against resistant bacterial strains. It is concluded that L. officinalis could be a potential source of active antimicrobial agents.


Article
Pulsed laser ablation synthesized silver nanoparticles induce apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell line and possess minimal defect in mice brains
دور جسيمات الفضة النانوية المصنعة بطريقة القلع بالليزر النبضي على حث الموت المبرمج في خط خلايا سرطان الأرومة الدبقية البشري (سرطان الدماغ المتعدد الأشكال ) دون الحاق ضرر في دماغ الفئران في الجسم الحي

Authors: Amer Talib Tawfeeq
Pages: 92-106
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Abstract

Abstract: In this research we have assessed the antiproliferative activity of silver nanoparticles (SNP) synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. Shape and particle size distribution of the synthesized nanoparticles was characterized with atomic force microscope (AFM) surface plasmon resonance was determined with UV-Vis spectroscopy. A silver nanoparticles concentration in the prepared liquid was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of three different concentrations 15, 30 and 60 µg/ml of SNP against human glioblastoma cell line (AMGM) was assessed with MTT assay. Possibilities of apoptosis induction were inspected using acridine orange/ ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Toxicity of the synthesized SNP on normal brain cells was assessed in vivo using BALB/c mice. These results indicated that SNP was able to inhibit AMGM growth due to induction of apoptosis and their damage effect toward normal brain cells were at minimal according to histotoxopathological inspection.


Article
Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b analysis of Semidwarf wheat cv. Uruq produced by Induced Mutation
التحليل الجيني لصنف الحنطة شبه القصير اوروك المستنبط باستخدام الطفرات الوراثية

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Abstract: there are many genes associated with dwarfing growth in bread wheat. Two genes in particularRht-B1b and Rht-D1b were used for identification of dwarfism in many wheat varieties. In this study PCR technique was used for identification of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b in parent cv. Inia-66 and mutant genes in semidwarf cv. Uruq. Two sets of primers were used for identification of mutants genes in semidwarf cv. Uruq and its parent Inia-66 genes. The results showed that cv. Uruq contains the dwarf gene Rht-D1 which is absent in the parent cv.Inia-66. RAPD-PCR performed in order to establish a molecular marker for cv. Uruq. A specific band was observed in cv. Uruq but absent in cv. Inia-66. These results proved that Uruq is semidwarf wheat at the molecular level.


Article
Chromosomal analysis and maternal age risk in some Down syndrome patients
التحليل الكروموسومي وخطورة عمر الامومة لبعض مرضى متلازمة داون

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Abstract: Chromosomal analysis was done on 50 clinically diagnosed Down syndrome patients. The karyotype analysis revealed that 88% (44 of 50 cases) with trisomy 21, having three copies of chromosome 21. In 2% (one case) translocation was observed, one copy of chromosome 21 was translocated to another chromosome 21 and in 10% (5 cases) there was a mosaicism for a trisomic. The higher percentage (72%) of cases was found between 21-34 years. 26% of cases were found with ages above 35 years. Only 2% of cases were found with maternal age between18-20 years and Down syndrome is more frequent in males than in females.

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