Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:19 issue:12

Article
Rhythm As Creative System In Houses Architecture Comparative Application Study Between Heritage And Contemporary Houses
الإيقاع كنظام إبداعي في عمارة المساكن - دراسة تطبيقية مقارنة بين المساكن الموصلية التراثية منها والمعاصرة -

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Abstract

Rhythm is considered one of the creative concepts in the recent architectural thought; it has emerged clearly as a mean of creating the highest levels of creativity in architecture, especially in contemporary architectural movements. The importance of rhythm has emerged, especially, when the architecture , its beginnings concentrated on the principle of the links with poetic structures. Many architectural studies deal with concept of rhythm in architecture with different ways various according to the trend of each study, this show the importance of studying the concept of rhythm in the architectural field in general. This study try to focus on the utilization of rhythm as creative system in architecture of heritage and contemporary house because its important in the generation of new architectural models. The paper discusses the importance of this concept and its utilization in the designs, in order to explore the particular problem which has been represented as (The absence of a specific imagination of methods and strategies for achieving rhythm).Thus the objectives of the paper has been formed by building theoretical framework consisting of five main items of detailed theoretical field which specifies rhythm as a concept ,firstly, then the application of the important heritage and contemporary houses in Mosul Architecture as a model, concluding utilization of rhythm as creative system in Heritage and Contemporary Houses in Mosul Architecture, finally, after discussing the results to submit the conclusions in the end. The conclusion is That suitable rhythm creativity in Mosul architecture is by unit and immerge the Mosul cultural elements as new tool in steps of design process of Heritage and Contemporary Houses in Mosul.


Article
أثر المكان على السياحة

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Abstract

Most communities seek, which possesses a cultural legacy to communicate with the past and to reach the best possible legislation to help them protect their cultural. Tourism as the economic development based on the data in light distinct places, including traditional and historical environments requiring activated and revived in my adopting the concept of transnational Revival Tourism. Through the survey data in environments where conventional and (historical - Sensationalism) theoretically and practically, it was drawn from a number of indicators truth spatial phenomenon and the phenomenon depends show and try on a number of variables and interventions including historical and philosophical interpretations of those facts, in addition to theoretical and policy orientations or local government. Those indicators were tested on four samples were Aleppo castle and its surroundings, and the old city of Aleppo and its surroundings, adopted by the state of research as a cultural one and intertwined with historical and archaeological values and traditional surroundings, to explore the values underlying facts percentage-active (frozen), which show depends on the ability and activate planned and designed urban and domestic policies on the understanding and use of historian , archeologist and sociologists.The percentage values College Library 42% in the four samples relative values but they must be significant and have an impact in increasing the visibility and location in the event activated.


Article
Experimental Study of Pre-Cast Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams (Hallow Core section) Retrofitting with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)
الدراسة العملية للعتبات الخرسانيةالمسلحة العميقة المسبقة الصب والمجوفة المقطع المعززة بألياف الكاربون البوليميرية

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Abstract

Experimental programs based test results has been used as a means to find out the response of individual elements of structure. In the present study involves investigated behavior of five reinforced concrete deep beams of dimension (length 1200 x height 300 x width150mm) under two points concentrated load with shear span to depth ratio of (1.52), four of these beams with hallow core and retrofit with carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP (with single or double or sides Strips). Two shapes of hallow are investigated (circle and square section) to evaluated the response of beams in case experimental behavior. Test on simply supported beam was performed in the laboratory & load-deflection, strain of concrete data and crack pattern of those five reinforced concrete beams was recorded. Parametric studies are also conducted in this study includes the effect of hallow opening (shapes and materials), and CFRP ratio (single, double strips and side horizontal stirrups). Comparisons of test results from experimental data are based on load capacity, deflection, crack pattern and strain of concrete for all beams. From this comparison it was found that hallow effect on strength capacity i.e. decrease by about (13%) and increased in deflection and strain by about (18%, 24%) respectively compared with solid section. Also find that CFRP give more enhancements in loading capacity by about (33 to 66%) and decreased deflection for same applied load by about (26%). Test results that show when sides of beams retrofit with CFRP strip against horizontal shear increased strength by about by (20%). Finally the using double CFRP strips for hallow section gives equivalent or more than strength capacity of solid section.


Article
Bearing Capacity of a Strip Model Footing on Loose Sand Reinforced With Pomegranate Sticks Mat
قابلية تحمل موديل الاساس الشريطي على التربة الرملية الضعيفة المسلحة باستخدام حصيرة أعواد الرمان

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Abstract

A series of laboratory model tests has been carried out to investigate the using of pomegranate sticks mat as reinforcement to increase the bearing capacity of footing on loose sand. The influence of depth and length of pomegranate sticks layer was examined. In the present research single layer of pomegranate sticks reinforcement was used to strengthen the loose sand stratum beneath the strip footing. The dimensions of the used foundation were 4*20 cm. The reinforcement layer has been embedded at depth 2, 4 and 8 cm under surcharge stresses . Reinforcing layer with length of 8 and 16 cm were used. The final model test results indicated that the inclusion of pomegranate sticks reinforcement is very effective in improvement the loading capacity of loose sand. The optimal benefit in bearing capacity value was realized as the (D/B) ratio (embedded depth to footing width) equal to 0.5.The bearing capacity of a reinforced soil with single layer of pomegranate sticks at (D/B) ratio of o.5 increased by about 4 times (corresponding to S/B =10%) than that for the unreinforced case and continuous in increasing beyond that with no failure. The improvement in bearing capacity decreased with increasing depth of embedment of reinforcement layer until reach to a specified point in which the bearing capacity of a reinforced soil approximately identical with the case of no reinforcement. Also it was found that increase the length of pomegranate sticks layer has no beneficial effect on the improved the bearing capacity of loose sand.


Article
Forward Osmosis Process for the Treatment of Wastewater from Textile Industries
عملية التناضح الامامية لمعالجة مخلفات المياه من الصناعات النسيجية

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Abstract

This paper was aimed to study the efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process as a new application for the treatment of wastewater from textile effluent and the factors affecting the performance of forward osmosis process. The draw solutions used were magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and aluminum sulphate (Al2 ( SO4)3 .18 H2O), and the feed solutions used were reactive red, and disperse blue dyes. Experimental work were includes operating the forward osmosis process using thin film composite (TFC) membrane as flat sheet for different draw solutions and feed solutions. The operating parameters studied were : draw solutions concentration (10 – 90 g/l), feed solutions concentration (5 – 30 mg/l), draw solutions flow rate (10 – 50 l/hr), feed solutions flow rate (20-60 l/hr), constant pressure and temperature were maintained at 0.5 bar and 30ºC respectively. And includes operating the forward osmosis process using cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane as flat sheet for different draw solutions and feed solutions. The operating parameters studied were : draw solutions concentration (10 – 90 g/l), and feed solutions concentration (5 – 30 mg/l), constant temperature at 30ºC. It was found that water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, and feed solution flow rate and decreases with increasing draw solution flow rate and feed solution concentration for TFC and CTA. It was found MgCl2 given water flux larger than Alum. And also found that reactive red given water flux larger than disperse blue. The experiments also show that CTA membrane gives higher water flux than TFC membrane for forward osmosis operation. The increase in water flux for CTA is about 12.85% than TFC.


Article
Removal of Water Turbidity by Different Coagulants
إزالة عكوره الماء باستعمال مخثرات مختلفة

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During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants. The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of alum as a primary coagulant in conjunction with mallow, Arabic gum and okra as coagulant aids for the treatment of water samples containing synthetic turbidity of kaolin. Jar test experiments were carried out for initial raw water turbidities 100, 200 and 500 (NTU). The optimum doses of alum, mallow, Arabic gum and okra were 20, 2, 1 and 1 mg/L for100 NTU turbidity level, 35, 4, 2 and 3 mg/L , for 200NTU turbidity level and 50, 8, 10 and 8 mg/L for 500 NTU turbidity level, respectively. The optimum pH was 7 for alum, and 7.5 for mallow, Arabic gum and okra. The residual turbidity was 3.34 to 6.81 NTU by using alum as a primary coagulant with mallow, Arabic gum and okra, and pH values of the treated water by the natural coagulants were 6.1 to 7.01. The optimum dose of the natural coagulants in the present study has higher efficiency in removing high turbidity in comparison with low turbidity. Natural coagulant showed many advantages in coagulation/flocculation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable decreasing in Al2(SO4)3 consumption, and Increasing in the rate of sedimentation can be achieved.


Article
Uptake of Fluoride from Water Using Recycled Raw Beef Bone as an Environmently Freindly Waste
اعادة تدوير عظام البقر الخام كمخلفات صديقة للبيئة لازالة الفلورايد من المياه

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Excessive intake of fluoride, mainly through drinking water is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. In this study, the defluoridation capacities of locally available raw waste beef bones have been estimated. Several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existence of anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal effeciency up to 99.7% at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values > 0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, it was found that the co-existing anions had no significant effect on fluoride removal. Ion exchange and fluoride precipitation are the modes of fluoride removal.


Article
Design and Implementation of Single-Phase Boost PFC Converter
تصميم وتنفيذ محول رافع احادي الطور بتقنية تصحيح معامل القدرة

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In this paper, a single-phase boost type ac-dc converter with power factor correction (PFC) technique is designed and implemented. A current mode control at a constant switching frequency is used as a control strategy for PFC converter. The PFC converter is a single-stage single-switch boost converter that uses a current shaping technique to reshape the non-sinusoidal input current drawn by the bulky capacitor in the conventional rectifier. This technique should provide an input current with almost free-harmonics, comply with the IEC61000-3-2 limits, and a system operates with near unity power factor. The other function of the boost converter that should be accomplished is to provide a regulated DC output voltage. The complete designed system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and a hardware prototype has been built using analog devices. Simulation results and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed system.


Article
Theoretical Evaluation of Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System for a Small Meeting-Hall
دراسة نظرية لتقييم منظومة تبريد امتزازي تعمل بمساعدة الطاقة الشمسية لتكييف قاعة إجتماعات صغير

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Joudi --- Hussam Hikmat Jabbar
Pages: 1599-1618
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The performance of a solar assisted desiccant cooling system for a meeting-hall located in the College of Engineering/University of Baghdad was evaluated theoretically. The system was composed of four components; a solar air heater, a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger and an evaporative cooler. A computer simulation was developed by using MATLAB to assess the effect of various design and operating conditions on the performance of the system and its components. The actual weather data on recommended days were used to assess the load variation and the system performance during those days. The radiant time series method (RTS) was used to evaluate the hourly variation of the cooling load. Four operation modes were employed for performance evaluation. A 100 % ventilation mode and 3 recirculation modes, 30 % , 60 % and 100 % recirculation of room air. The concept of variable air volume was employed as a control strategy over the day, by changing the supply airflow rate to match the variation in the cooling load. The results showed that the reduction in moisture content at regeneration temperatures from 55 oC to 75 oC lead to adequate removal of the high latent load in the meeting-hall. Also, the 30 % recirculation of return air resulted in comfortable indoor conditions satisfying the ventilation requirements for most periods of system operation. In addition, the COP of the system was high compared with the conventional vapor compression system. It varied from 1 to 13, when considering solar energy used to regenerate the desiccant material as free energy.


Article
Application of Water Quality Index and Water Suitability for Drinking of the Euphrates River within Al-Anbar Province, Iraq
تقييم مؤشر نوعيةِ الماءِ وملائمةِ ماءِ نهرِ الفرات للشربِ ضمن محافظة الانبار،العراق

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Abstract

In this study water quality was indicated in terms of Water Quality Index that was determined through summarizing multiple parameters of water test results. This index offers a useful representation of the overall quality of water for public or any intended use as well as indicating pollution, which are useful in water quality management and decision making. The application of Water Quality Index (WQI) with ten physicochemical water quality parameters was performed to evaluate the quality of Euphrates River water for drinking usage. This was done by subjecting the water samples collected from seven stations within Al-Anbar province during the period 2004-2010 to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The ten physicochemical parameters included: pH value, Alkalinity (ALK), Orthophosphate (PO4-3), Nitrate (NO3-), Sulphate (SO4-2), Chloride (Cl-), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The average annual overall WQI was found to be 107.59 through the study period. The high WQI obtained is a result of the high concentrations of Orthophosphate and Magnesium which can be attributed to the various human activities taking place along the river banks. From this analysis the quality of the Euphrates River is classified as "very poor quality" ranging poor water at the river upstream near station (E1) and unsuitable for drinking at the river downstream near station (E7) with an annual minimum WQI of 89.34 in 2008 and maximum 112.44 in 2009. The present study demonstrated the application of WQI in estimating and understanding the water quality of Euphrates River. WQI appears to be promising in water quality management and a valuable tool in categorizing pollution sources in surface waters.


Article
Quality-Cost Analysis of Gasoline Production Process
تحليل النوعية- الكلفة لعملية أنتاج الكازولين

Authors: Lamyaa.Mohammed.Dawood --- Dhuha Kadhim Ismayyir
Pages: 1634-1646
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Process capability provides a quantitative measure for gasoline production conformance to specifications. It was measured throughout four consecutive months of the last quarter of 2011. Results revealed high percentages (up to 44%) of non conforming gasoline blends to Iraqi marketing specifications for petroleum products (2000) by inspecting 122 different samples of Iraqi regular gasoline (RON 85). Quality cost analysis as an important financial control tool was carried out to evaluate Cost of Quality (COQ) which was large due to non conforming gasoline reached up to (722.8 M.ID) in October. In this research COQ was investigated in order to identify the opportunities of gasoline quality improvements through production process. Also customers’ direct cost loss due to poor gasoline quality was verified and calculated, where amounted to its highest value (9.084960 M.ID) at November.


Article
3-D Map Producing for Groundwater Level using Kriging Interpolation Method
إنتاج خارطة ثلاثية الابعاد لمناسيب المياه الجوفية بأستخدام تقنية التخمين الإحصائي (الكريكنك)

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Groundwater is one of the main water resources in the arid and semi arid areas. Due to increasing demand for water in different purposes these resource management is very important. Prediction of groundwater depth and elevation is useful for management of the scarce water resources.The application of the spatial statistical technique (kriging) is used in this study as estimation method, The data set consists of groundwater levels measured at about 43 wells were selected in the studied area in May 2010, in an area (1350) 〖km〗^2 a part of Baghdad City. With the use of measured elevations of the water table, experimental semivariograms were fitted into many models as linear, spherical, exponential and Gaussian semivariogram. The finally selected models were used to estimate groundwater levels and estimation variance (which express the accuracy of the estimated groundwater levels) to develop corresponding contour maps.


Article
Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Thermally Modified and Non-Modified Eggshells
ازالة ايون الكروم السداسي من المحلول المائي بواسطه امتزازه بقشور البيض المعالجه وغير المعالجه حراريا

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Removal of heavy metals from waste water has received a great deal of attention. The compare Cr (VI) adsorption characteristics removing from wastewater by using thermally modified and non-modified eggshells were examined. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch process and various experimental Parameters such as effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial chromium ion concentration on percentage removal have been studied. The modification of eggshells obtained by calcination which was performed in a furnace at 800ᵒC for 2h after crushing of the dried eggshells. The adsorption of chromium ions from solutions containing different initial 〖Cr〗^(+6) concentrations (50,100,150) mg/L. The results show that all factors have a significant effect on the percentage removal of 〖Cr〗^(+6) ions from aqueous solutions and the optimum pH, weight and time of treatment are (8, 5.8), (0.5, 0.01) g and (120 ,60 ) min respectively for non-modify and modify eggshell. The present study was also aimed to evaluate the equilibrium of adsorption process using Langmuir and freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was the best for correlation of adsorption data, showing maximum capacities of 16.6 and 159 mg/g for non-modified and modified eggshells, respectively. Meanwhile, the kinetics of (〖Cr〗^(+6)) adsorption on eggshell and modified of eggshells also analyzed using pseudo-first order.


Article
Analysis and Optimum Design of Self Supporting Steel Communication Tower
التحليل والتصميم الامثل لابراج الاتصالات الحديدية المسندة تلقائيا

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The present study deals with the optimum design of self supporting steel communication towers. A special technique is used to represent the tower as an equivalent hollow tapered beam with variable cross section. Then this method is employed to find the best layout of the tower among pre-specified configurations. The formulation of the problem is applied to four types of tower layout with K and X brace, with equal and unequal panels. The objective function is the total weight of the tower. The variables are the base and the top dimensions, the number of panels for the tower and member's cross section areas. The formulations of design constraints are based on the requirements of EIA and ANSI codes for allowable stresses in the members and the allowable displacement at antenna position. The Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Technique (SUMT) is used to perform the process. Direct stiffness method is used for the analysis of the structure, with beam elements. The strain energy is used to derive the stiffness matrix for members of unsymmetrical cross section. A computer program in FORTRAN is developed to represent the tower as an equivalent beam, and generate the tower nodes and members, analysis, design and to find the optimum design. Four types of tower are studied with different load cases. The effects of earthquake and wind loadings are taken in two directions and two positions of antenna are considered in the process to seek the optimum design. The tower type of X-brace with unequal panels has the minimum weight compared with other types of tower and the optimum design is satisfied when the angle of main leg is equal to (87O).

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