Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2016(50) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2013 volume:10 issue:4

Article
The Ecology and geographical distribution for the species of the genus Salvia L. of labiatae in Iraq
البيئة والتوزيع الجغرافي لأنواع الجنس Salvia L. من العائلة الشفوية Labiatae في العراق

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The study included general survey of some districts of Iraq in order to determinate new distribution areas for 33 species of the genus salvia L. ,new collections obtained , new locations for many species recorded. Observed specimens in most Iraqi herbaria were studies and identified. ,the flowering period were also studied


Article
Study the Effect of Plant Pathogenic Fungi in solid media in comparison with common Fungicide
دراسة تأثير الفورفورال في نمو بعض الفطريات الممرضة للنبات في الوسط الزرعي الصلب و مقارنته ببعض المبيدات الشائعة

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Abstract

A study carried out for study effect of furfural that extracted from corn cobs by using specialized reaction system laboratory on phytopathogenic fungi: Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani in addition to biocontrol fungus Trichoderma viride were isolated from infected plants and from their rhizosphere . The preparation results of different concentrations from stock solution in concentration 1% of furflural showed that The concentration was 100 ppm of furfural was inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum46.7 % and the was in concentration 400 ppm. while the concentration 500 ppm caused inhibition 50% and 41.1% of R. solani and F. solani respectively. Whereas the concentration 500 ppm didn’t cause inhibition of M.phaseolina. The concentration 1500 ppm caused the complete inhibition of R. solani and M.phaseolina .Also the concentration 500 ppm of furfural caused46.7 % inhibition of T.viride and complete inhibition in the concentration 1500 ppm .However complete inhibition of F. solani in the concentration 2500 ppm. The concentration 25ppm active ingredient (a. i.) of Ridomil caused 100% inhibition of P. aphanidermatum, while The concentration 20 ppm active ingredient (a. i.)of Benomyl caused 100% inhibition of R. solani and M. phaseolina, and 25ppm active ingredient (a. i.) caused 100% inhibition of F.solani. There was no effect of heat treatment (121C0) on furfural activity against the fungi .


Article
The efficiency of Paecilomyce farinosus as biocontrol to larve stage on second ad sixith instar larve of Trogoderma granarium (Everts)
كفاءة الفطر Paecilomyces farinosus بوصفه عامل سيطرة حياتية على الطورين اليرقي الثاني والسادس لحشرة خنفساء الحبوب الشعرية Trogoderma granarium (Everts) مختبرياً

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the pathogenicity of Paecilomyces farinosus as biocontrol agents against Tragoderma granarium (khapra) under laboratory conditions with three concentrations ( 2.8 x 108 , 2.8 x 106 ,2.8 x104 spores/ ml). The laboratory results revealed that fungi showed it's higher pathogencity to larve stage on 2nd instar and 6th instar , although their capability differs according to the fungi concentrations this fungi caused higher mortality of 2nd larval instar 70% and 60% ,55% when it was used at concentrations 2 .8 x 106 ,2.8 x104 spores/ ml respectively. On the other hand on 6th larval instars 55% , 35% , 30% at concentrations ( 2.8 x 108 , 2.8 x 106 ,2.8 x104 spores/ ml) respectively, and the highest rate of distortions in the adult insects from the 2nd instar treatment than the adult insects from the 6th instar treatment concentration of this fungi.


Article
The influence of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in plant tissue culture experiments of Gardenia jasmenoides Ellis
تأثير مستخلص القرفة Cinnamomum zeylanicum في المزارع النسيجية لنبات الكاردينيا Gardenia jasmenoides Ellis

Authors: Sumaya F. Hamad سمية فاضل حمد
Pages: 1102-1107
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Abstract

Cinnamon plant is considered one of important medicinal plants because it is rich with many active compounds. This research is aimed to study possible effects of extract in culture media of Gardenia jasmenoides. Alcoholic extract was prepared from the bark of cinnamon at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 2.0) mg/L, then added to culture media to notice the effect of these concentrations on the growth and development of tissues and organs of Gardenia jasmenoides Ellis in vitro. Results showed the positive effect of increasing callus fresh weight and shoot proliferation from single nodes with presence of plant regulators, 5.0 mg/L Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 3.0 mg/L Benzyl adenine (BA). Results showed that extract has a slight effect on root formation with the presence of plant regulators or when it is alone.


Article
Studying the possibility of confection of hepatitis C and hepatitis G viruses in Iraqi patients
دراسة احتمالية وجود إصابة مشتركة بفايروس التهاب الكبد للنوعين G و C في المرضى العراقيين

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Abstract

The aim of this study was spot light to the possibility of confection between hepatitis C&G viruses in Iraqi patients. The groups was studied included two groups as follow: 1- first group: its (Infected group) the patients of this group have Anti-HCV abs in their serum by using Indirect ELISA technique. 2- second group: its (Control group) the persons of this group have no Anti-HCV abs in their serum by using indirect ELISA technique. The result of this study was observed there was two patients from the first group have Anti-HGVabs in their serum with infection percent 2.70%, also the same result was found in the second group wich mean there was two persons have Anti-HGVabs in their serum with infection percent 8.33% .So when we comparing these groups for obtained the confection between hepatitis Cand G virus the result was showed there was no significant differences between these groups( by using Qi-sequare). Also when we study the effect of sex on HGV infection and prevalence the result was observed that the HGV infection was found in male but not in female and there is high significant differences when we compared the infection percent between diseased group and control group ( by using Qi-sequare). The conclusion of this study there was no confection between HCV&HGV infection or there was a little or limited role in infection, and the sex factor play role in infection..

Keywords

HGV --- HCV --- Infection


Article
Effect of aqueous and alcohol (phenol) extract from cyperus rotundus on mitotic Division in tap roots of Allium cepa
تأثير المستخلص المائي والكحولي (الفينولي ) لعشب السعد Cypreus Rotundus في الانقسام الخلوي لجذور البصل

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Abstract

This study was conducted to test the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts for cyperus rotundus on the mitosis in tap roots of Allium cepa. the result of general an identical qualitative tests showed contains certain compounds that of crude aqueous and alcoholic extract, Used as five different concentrations of (10, 20.38, 56, 75) mg / ml for a period of four hours of treatment. After the chemical has been detected for some preliminary chemical compounds of the crude aqueous extract, while the alcoholic extract either phenol compound has been detected for phenols using several techniques included the use of thin layer chromatography TLC and measurement of disability factor RF and the degree of fusion and measurement of absorbance. The results showed that the crude aqueous extract and alcoholic extract and phenol their impact inhibitive as decreased normal division in all concentrations, where it decreased to 50% of the control treatment at the highest concentration also led all transcription to stop cells in metaphase at different rates and there were some chromosomal aberration including Bridges.


Article
Effect ofGarlic(Allium sativum )extract and root extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale)on growth and yield of Chick plant (Cicer arietinum)
تاثير مستخلص الثوم وجذور الزنجبيل في نمو وحاصل نبات الحمص Cicer arietium

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An experiment was conducted at botanical garden of Department of Biology ,College of Education (Ibn-AL –Haitham ,University of Baghdad during winter season of 2010 -2011.The aim of prsent study is to investigate the effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) extract and root extract of Ginger(Ziniber officinale)in two concentration of both extracts (20% and 30%)on growth and yield of (Cicer arietinum).The result showed that both extracts increased plant hight ,Chlorophyl content ,relative growth rate (RGR).Absolute growth rate (AGR),seeds yield .seed weight average ,biological yield ,carbohydrate and protein percentages in seeds,in comparsim with control plants .


Article
Effect of pop com flour replace for wheat flour on bread quality and Nutritive properties of bread
تأثير استبدال طحين الحنطة بطحين الذرة الشامية في الخواص النوعية والتغذوية للخبز ألمختبري

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Abstract

Corn (Zea mayz) is one of cereal crops which widely scatter all round the world. As the Corn milled and baked either alone or blended with wheat flour in different ratios (different conc.)for baking bread ,cookies and pastries .Pop corn (Zea mayz verta) a species of corn , which is usually eaten as a snack and can be milled and used for baking bread and cookies . Recently it has been found that pop corn is rich in antioxidants. Results from HPLC ( High Performance Liquid Chromatography ) show that pop corn flour contain polyphenols such as carotenoids ,propyl gallate ,rosmarinic acid in limited concentrations. While carnosicacid ,carnosol ,ascorbic acid and catechin were found in such conc. which is higher than in wheat flour . Pup loaf was processed by using pop corn flour replaced in conc. 5,10 and 15 % of wheat flour in bread. The result also showed that there is an increase in antioxidant content as the level of pop corn flour replacement was increased although the antioxidants could be affected with high baking temp. However, farinogram characteristics showed decreased in water absorption as the corn flour displacement was increased. In addition development time and stability curve showed slight increase with all types of blends. The sensory evaluation of different treatments of loaf showed less acceptability for the blend flour in comparison with the control. As the corn flour is not suitable in bread making if it used alone, most of sensory characters were affected negatively. However, it can be suggested that 10% of pop corn replacement is acceptable by the consumer.


Article
Bacterial Causes Tonsillitis in Children, Study the Resistance to Antimicrobials and the Effect of Clove Extracts on Selected Isolated Bacteria.
الجراثيم المسببة لالتهاب اللوزتين عند الأطفال ، دراسة مقاومتها للمضادات الحياتية وتأثير مستخلصات نبات القرنفل في عزلات منتخبة

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Abstract

In this study Isolated Pathogenic bacteria which causes Tonsillitis in Children with ages between 3-17 years. They are admitted to Central Children Hospital (Al-Karch) and Ebn-Albalady Hospital (Al-Rusafa). 200 cases were collected which include 120 Male and 80 Female. The result of the recent study shows that the isolation percentage was 40% from Male and 35% from Female. In this study Fifty six isolated were Identified, 20 were β-hemolytic Streptococcus which was Streptococcus pyogenes, formed (36%) from all isolated.6 Pathogenic bacteria were α- hemolytic Streptococcus which was Streptococcus pneumoniae formed (11%). The number of Moraxella catarrhalis bacteria was 12 formed (21%), the number of Haemophilus influenzae was 10 formed (18%).Whereas the number of Staphylococcus aureus was 8 formed (14%). The Antimicrobial Susceptility test to commonly used Antimicrobial shows that the most isolate Bacteria were sensitive to Antimicrobial ( AMC and CEP ) and Resistance to ( P and E ) with some exception. The Antimicrobial Susceptility test of Staphylococcus aureus to Oxacillin showed the predominant of Oxacillin-Sensitive S. aureus (OSSA) which form 88% whereas the percentage of Oxacillin -Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) was 12%. The effect of crude aqueous and solvent extracts of clove on selected isolated bacteria. Shows the efficiency of clove extracts which gives the biggest inhibition zones by all extracts with efficacy of methanol extract compared with the other solvents extracts. The inhibition zone was 25.2 mm fore Streptococcus pyogenes and the MIC wasMIC was 75μg/ml. 25.6 mm 75μg/ml. 24.8 mm for Streptococcus pneumoniae and For Staphylococcus aureus and MIC was 50μg/ml, whereas the inhibition zone was 22.2 mm and 22.1 mm for Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenza respectively and the MIC was 100μg/ml.


Article
Assessment of Inflammasome Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Simple Obesity: Comparative Study
تقيم فعالية الجسيم الالتهابي في داء السكري النمط الثاني والسمنة البسيطة (دراسة مقارنة)

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Inflammasome is a multiprotein oligomer complex which is the precursor procaspase-1 and is a component of the innate immune system so that this study aimed to determine the serum levels of interleukin-1β and 18 in patients with T2D and simple obesity in an attempt to clarify the role of inflammasome in these disorders. Twenty five known cases of T2D, twenty four patients with simple obesity and twenty healthy subjects were randomly recruited from AL-Kindy Teaching Hospital in Baghdad to enroll in this study. All the data about the demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements were determined in all patients, also the C-reactive protein and serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 levels were obtained from each patient. The results showed that patients who had positive C-reactive protein (≥ 6 mg/L) had significant high level of serum 1β and IL-18 levels. Concomitant significant increase in serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 was observed only in 8% (2 out of 25) of T2D. It concludes that the activity of inflammasome is observed in low percent of T2D and this activity does not related to the obesity.


Article
Food dyes as an alternative tracking dye for DNA gel electrophoresis
استعمال الصبغات الغذائية كبديل عن صبغات التعقب في الترحيل الكهربائي للحامض النووي

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Abstract

The chemical, physical and toxicological effects on health of synthetic dyes that used as tracking dye in the electrophoresis requires seriously search about alternative tracking dye. The present study is aimed to find an alternative dye from safe food dyes which commonly used in food coloring. Five dyes were selected depending on their chemical properties and the availability in local market: Brilliant Blue FCF, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Carmoisine, and green traditional, three dyes were chosen to be mixed as loading buffer: Brilliant Blue FCF, Sunset Yellow FCF as a basic because it give the whole range size of most traditional loading buffers that available in market, and adding the Carmoisine as a new indicator for the bands less than 50bp, then mixed with DNA ladder in same percentage used with traditional loading buffers to clarify the effects of dyes on DNA, migrated on 1% agarose with loading buffer promega, results showed more clarity and highly readable separation of dyes and give wide range of size in the food loading mix than promega loading dye, by viewing the gel on UV light the DNA ladder were moved smoothly, bands separated effeminately on gel and in same rate of the DNA ladder that load with promega loading buffer which indicate no interaction between the food dyes and the DNA.Our studies show that the food dye can be used as a tracking dye in place of used synthetic dye. The procedure is found to be easy, practical, safely and reliable.


Article
Detection of Anti-Helicopacter pylori IgG Antibody, Anti-GAD antibody, Anti-Beta islets cell in a sample of serum with type-2 Diabetes mellitus patients
التحري عن أضداد بكتيريا Helicobacter pylori للنوع IgG ، وأضداد حامض الكلوتاميك ، وأضداد خلايا جزر بيتا في عينة من مصول مرضى مصابين بداء السكري النمط الثاني

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We have investigated twenty five patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus aged (35-60) years and fifteen healthy persons as control group to detect Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody. All studied groups were carried out to measure fasting blood sugar, anti- Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), anti-β islets cells antibody by IFAT, Anti-H. pylori IgG antibody by ELISA technique. There was significant elevation in the concentration of fasting blood sugar than in control group (P < 0.05), the patients had negative results for anti-GAD antibody and anti- β islets cells antibody, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) of anti-H. pylori IgG antibody in 28 % of patients had type-2 diabetes than control group. This lead to suggestion that type -2 diabetes mellitus patients are more susceptible to H. pylori .


Article
Estimation of Testosterone, Estradiol and some Markers in Sera of Iraqi Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
تقدير التيستوستيرون والاسترادايول وبعض الدلائل في مصل المرضى العراقيين المصابين بتضخم البروستات الحميد

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common disease and major cause of morbidity in elderly men which may lead to bladder outflow obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Although sex steroid hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormones levels as markers of prostate disease. This study includes (40) patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy and (40) control group with age rang (41-79) and (42-71) years respectively. The following biochemical investigations have been studied: Testosterone, Estradiol (E2), and Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) levels using ELISA method which correlated with the disease. Also body mass index (BMI), the prostate size by digital rectal examination (DRE), flow rate, and American Urology Association Symptoms Index (AUASI), of the patients which correlate hormones levels with age. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with BPH than control group (p≤0.05), while the Estradiol and PSA concentrations were significantly higher in patients with BPH than control group (p≤0.05). The net result is a significant decrease in the T/E2 ratio allowing the imbalance between androgens and estrogen regulation of prostate growth to shift towards estrogen dominance. It has been proposed that increased estrogenic stimulation of the prostate in the aging male may lead to reactivation of growth and subsequent hyperplasia transformation


Article
Thermodynamic function of valineacid in n-n dimethyl formamide mixtures from conductance measurement
الدوال الحرارية لحامض الفاليين في مزيج الداي مثيل فورمامايد من قياسات التوصيلية

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Some physical properties enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (Δs), free energy (ΔG),capacities(Δcpₒ) and Pka values) for valine in dimethyl foramideover the temperature range 293.15-318.15K, were determined by direct conductance measurements. The acid dissociation at six temperature was examined at solvent composition x2) involving 0.141 of dimethyl foramide . As results, calculated values have been used to determine the dissociation constant and the associated thermodynamic function for the valine in the solvent mixture over temperatures in the range 293.15-318.15 k. The Pka1, and Pka2 were increased with increasing temperature.


Article
Effect of Pregnancy on Selenium, Cupper ,Zinc and Others Biochemical Feacture
تاثير الحمل على السلينيوم والنحاس والزنك وبقية العوامل الكيميائية الحياتية

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Pregnancy is a stressful condition in which many physiological and metabolic functions are altered to a considerable extent . Pregnancy is a physiological state accompanied by a high-energy demand and an increased oxygen requirement. The present study aim to study selenium ,zinc cupper in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised of Fourty five pregnant women and twenty six non pregnant women as control . The samples were taken from pregnant women who come to several heath center in Baghdad city to cheak up. Laboratory investigations including Cupper, Ceruloplasmin, Total Antioxidant (TAA), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), Zinc, Uric acid, and Selenium had been measured in pregnant women and control . There were significant difference in Cupper, Selenium, Ceruloplasmin, TAA, Zinc, GSH, and MDA, in the pregnant women whene compared to control group. In this study, a significantly positive association was observed between zinc [mg/dl] with ceruloplasmin [mg/dl] (R = 0.47 p< 0.01 ) and TAA [mmol/l] (R= 0.42 p< 0.05) , and negative association was observed between zinc [mg/dl]and cupper [mg/dl] (R = 0.602, p< 0.01) , a significantly negative association between ceruloplasmin [mg/dl] with cupper [mg/dl] (R = 0.754, p< 0.01) ,and positive with TAA [mmol/l]( R = 0.562 p<0.01). The present study observed that pregnant women in first trimester were more susceptible to oxidative damage than in non pregnant as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased other antioxidanta

Keywords

Pregnancy --- Cupper --- Zinc --- Ceruloplasmin --- MDA .


Article
Flow injection analysis for the photometric determination of promethazine-HCl in pure and pharmaceutical preparation via oxidation by persulphate using Ayah 3SX3-3D solar micro photometer
التحليل بالحقن الجرياني للتقدير الطيفي للبروميثازين-هيدروكلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية من خلال الاكسدة باستخدام بيرسلفات الصوديوم ومنظومة Ayah 3SX3-3D solar الطيفية

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Abstract

The first flow injection spectrophotometric method is characterized by its speed and sensitivity which have been developed for the determination of promethazine-HCl in pure and pharmaceutical preparation. It is based on the in situ detection of colored cationic radicals formed via oxidation of the drug with sodium persulphate to pinkish-red species and the same species was determined by using homemade Ayah 3SX3-3D solar flow injection photometer. Optimum conditions were obtained by using the high intensive green light emitted diode as a source. Linear dynamic range for the absorbance versus promethazine-HCl concentration was 0-7 mmol.L-1, with the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9904 while the percentage linearity (r2%) was 98.09%. the L.O.Q was 3.97 µg/sample, while L.O.D (S/N=3) = 0.2407µg/sample (5 µmol.L-1) from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph. The R.S.D% at 2 mmol.L-1 promethazine-HCl is less than 1% (eight replicates) using 150 µL sample volume. Throughput 30 sample.hr-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of promethazine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparation. By using paired t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and official method and on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyimide Contain Heterocyclic
تحضير وتشخيص بولي إيمايدات تحتوي على حلقة غير متجانسة جديدة

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Novel heterocyclic polyimide 5(a,b) have been synthesized based on polyacrylic backbone. The synthetic route start with nucleophilic substitution of 2-amino, or 4-amino, pyridine 1(a,b) to the polyacryloyl chloride afforded poly substituted amide 2(a,b). Another nucleophilic substitution were carried with adipoyl chloride to form polyimide chloride 3(a,b). Treatment of 3(a,b) with hydrazine hydrate afforded acid hydrazide polyimide 4(a,b), which upon cyclocondensation with carbon disulfide gave the target heterocyclic polyimide. The synthesized compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods: FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.


Article
Construction of New Ion Selective Electrodes for Determination Fe(III) and Their Application in Pharmaceutical samples
تصنيع اقطاب انتقائية جديدة لتقدير الحديد الثلاثي وتطبيقاتها في المستحضرات الصيدلانية

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Liquid membrane electrodes for the determination iron(III) were constructed based on chloramphenicol sodium succinate and iron(III) CPSS-Fe(III) as ion pair complex, with four plasticizers Di-butyl phosphate (DBP); Di-butyl phthalate (DBPH); Di-octyl phthalate (DOP); Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP); in PVC matrix . These electrodes give Nernstian and sub-Nernstian slopes (19.79, 24.60, 16.01 and 13.82mV/decade) and linear ranges from (1x10-5-1x10-2 M, 1x10-5-1x10-2 M, 1x10-6-1x10-2 M and 1x10-5-1x10-2 M) respectively. The best electrode was based on DBP plasticizer which gave a slope 19.79 mV/decade, correlation coefficient 0.9999, detection limit of 9×10-6 M, lifetime 37 day displayed good stability and reproducibility and used to determine iron(III) in pharmaceutical samples. The selectivity coefficient interferences of (K+, Na+, Cu+2, Mn+2, Zn2+, Al3+,Folic acid) were studied using separate and mixed methods for selectivity coefficient determination. The pH and life time of the electrodes were also studied.


Article
Linear Increasing in Radial Electronic Density Distribution for K and L Shells throughout Some Be-Like Ions
الزيادة الخطية في دالة التوزيع القطرية الالكترونية لجسم واحد لذرة البريليوم والذرات الشبيهة بها للقشرة K وL

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Abstract

Maximum values of one particle radial electronic density distribution has been calculated by using Hartree-Fock (HF)wave function with data published by[A. Sarsa et al. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 88 (2004) 163–202] for K and L shells for some Be-like ions. The Results confirm that there is a linear behavior restricted the increasing of maximum points of one particle radial electronic density distribution for K and L shells throughout some Be-like ions. This linear behavior can be described by using the nth term formula of arithmetic sequence, that can be used to calculate the maximum radial electronic density distribution for any ion within Be like ions for Z<20.


Article
Design and construction Optically Gas Laser
تصميم وبناء ليزر غازي يضخ ضوئياً

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Abstract

In this work the design and construction of a flash photolysis pulsed HCl laser was presented. The parameters of the pumping source and discharge current density was obtained, which sufficient to shift the flash lamp spectrum towards uv portion of spectrum. The maximum pulse laser energy parameters was measured. Total pressure and ratio of active gases to optimized the output pulse energy were measured , where at 125 mbar of total pressure and 1:7:14 Cl2:H2: He ratio, the laser energy was measured to be 200 mJ at pumping four flash lamps energy in the order of 6400J . The resonator consists of copper a near hemispherical mirror with the radius of curvature 3m coated by gold and reflectivity 98%,the output coupler sapphire mirror of 63% reflectivity . Total efficiency of the system was measured to be 0.0125% .

Keywords

Pulse gas laser --- Hcl laser


Article
Numerical Simulations of Imaging Extrasolar Planets using Circular and Square Apodize Apertures
محاكاة عددية لتصوير الكواكب الخارجية باستخدام الفتحات الدائرية والمربعة الابودايزية

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Abstract

Numerical simulations are carried out to assess the quality of the circular and square apodize apertures in observing extrasolar planets. The logarithmic scale of the normalized point spread function of these apertures showed sharp decline in the radial frequency components reaching to 10-36 and 10-34 respectively and demonstrating promising results. This decline is associated with an increase in the full width of the point spread function. A trade off must be done between this full width and the radial frequency components to overcome the problem of imaging extrasolar planets.


Article
Decomposition of the Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
اعادة تركيب مركبات منحني دوران المجرات الحلزونية

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Rotation curve of spiral galaxies manifests the distribution of surface mass density of spiral galaxies. In this paper the decomposition of the rotation curve of three spiral galaxies (NGC1365, NGC6946 and NGC5457) into a bulge, an exponential disk and Burkert dark halo respectively are presented. An addition contribution of local structure such as arms and bar can be included to suggest modified model. The results show that this modified model provides a good agreement with the observed rotation curve.


Article
Study the Effect of Solar Radiation Pressure at Several Satellite Orbits
دراسة تأثير ضغط الإشعاع الشمسي على الأقمار الاصطناعية لمختلف المدارات

Authors: Aref S. Baron عارف صالح بارون
Pages: 1253-1261
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The effects of solar radiation pressure at several satellite (near Earth orbit satellite, low Earth orbit satellite, medium Earth orbit satellite and high Earth orbit satellite ) have been investigated. Computer simulation of the equation of motion with perturbations using step-by-step integration (Cowell's method) designed by matlab a 7.4 where using Jacobian matrix method to increase the accuracy of result.


Article
Theoretical Study of Charge Transfer in Styryl Thiazilo Quinoxaline Dyes STQ-1, STQ-2,and STQ-3 in Organic Media System
دراسة نظرية للشحنة المنتقلة في صبغة الكواينوكسلاين STQ-1, STQ-2, STQ-3 في انظمة الاوساط العضوية

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Charge transfer in styryl dyes STQ-1, STQ-2,and STQ-3 with organic media system has been studied theoretically depending on the Franck- Condon rule and continuum dielectric model . The reorientation energies (eV) were evaluated theoretically depending on dipole momentum, dielectric constant , and refrective index n. The rate constant of charge transfer has been calculated depending on the reorientation energy (eV) ,effective free energy , potential height barrier , and coupling coefficient . A matlap program has been written to calculated the rate constant of charge transfer and other parameter. The results of calculations show that STQ-2 dye is more reaction for charge transfer compare with STQ-1 and STQ-3 dyes


Article
Notes on Approximately Pure Submodules
ملاحظات حول المقاسات الجزئية النقية تقريبا

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Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity 1 and M be a unitary left R-module. A submodule N of an R-module M is said to be approximately pure submodule of an R-module, if for each ideal I of R. The main purpose of this paper is to study the properties of the following concepts: approximately pure essentialsubmodules, approximately pure closedsubmodules and relative approximately pure complement submodules. We prove that: when an R-module M is an approximately purely extending modules and N be Ap-puresubmodulein M, if M has the Ap-pure intersection property then N is Ap purely extending.

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