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Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:20 issue:3

Article
Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System for Baghdad Urban Roadway Network
استنباط نظام ادارة صيانة الرصف لشبكة الطرق الحضرية في بغداد

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Abstract

The road transportation system is considered as major component of the infrastructure in any country, it affects the developments in economy and social activities. The Asphalt Concrete which is considered as the major pavement material for the road transportation system in Baghdad is subjected to continuous deterioration with time due to traffic loading and environmental conditions, it was felt that implementing a comprehensive pavement maintenance management system (PMMS), which should be capable for preserving the functional and structural conditions of pavement layers, is essential. This work presents the development of PMMS with Visual inspection technique for evaluating the Asphalt Concrete pavement surface condition; common types of Asphalt Concrete distress including (bleeding of Asphalt, patching, block cracking, edge cracking, longitudinal and transverse cracking, rutting, pot holes, longitudinal and transverse deformation) with their various severity and intensity conditions have been included in the system as data base. The surface of the pavement was divided into sections, and the pavement condition is visually evaluated by the raters using specially designed forms, each type of defect was measured, classified, and rated according to type, severity, and extent. Data will be fed to the system using the computer, various types of intensity and severity of distress were analyzed by the system, the present condition rating (PCR) of the pavement section is determined, and the system suggests the required maintenance action. The developed system which is assigned (PMMS-09) was verified in evaluating the pavement surface condition at AL-Jaderiah campus roadway network. The results indicated that the system is sound in evaluation of the pavement condition and in suggestion of the proper maintenance to reserve the pavement condition.


Article
The Impact of Varying of Structural & Formal Urban Types on the Coherence of Elements of Dense Urban Fabric
أثر تنوع الأنماط الهيكلية والشكلية للبيئة الحضرية في تحقيق التماسك الحضري لعناصر النسيج الحضري الكثيف

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Abstract

Planning for a city with human identity considers the needs of human being that exist in the traditional cities where it was so easy creating place there, on the other hand, modern cities refuse these values and reduce the human characters of urban fabric elements , and the searching for the concept of " Urban Coherence " considers the knowledge about urban theory, especially Morphological attitudes finding three sides of making the coherence of dense urban fabric which are " Functional Complementarily , Formal Complementarily , Contextual Complementarily " and the differentiation of these sides within the variety of spatial structural patterns between the organic type of traditional city and the gridiron type of modern city . To approve the hypothesis of the research, the theoretical frame was

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Article
Spatial Prediction of Monthly Precipitation in Sulaimani Governorate using Artificial Neural Network Models

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Abstract

ANN modeling is used here to predict missing monthly precipitation data in one station of the eight weather stations network in Sulaimani Governorate. Eight models were developed, one for each station as for prediction. The accuracy of prediction obtain is excellent with correlation coefficients between the predicted and the measured values of monthly precipitation ranged from (90% to 97.2%). The eight ANN models are found after many trials for each station and those with the highest correlation coefficient were selected. All the ANN models are found to have a hyperbolic tangent and identity activation functions for the hidden and output layers respectively, with learning rate of (0.4) and momentum term of (0.9), but with different data set sub-division into training, testing and holdout data sub-sets, and different number of hidden nodes in the hidden layer. It is found that it is not necessary that the nearest station to the station under prediction has the highest effect; this may be attributed to the high differences in elevation between the stations. It can also found that the variance is not necessary has effect on the correlation coefficient obtained.


Article
Competitive Stripping of Multi-Organic Pollutants from Contaminated Water in Bubble Column Semi-Batch
الانتزاع التنافسي لخليط مركبات عضوية من الماء الملوث باستخدام بــرج الفقاعات في التجارب شبه الساكنة

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Abstract

Air stripping for removal of Trichloroethylene (TCE), Chloroform (CF) and Dichloromethane (DCM) from water were studied in a bubble column (0.073 m inside dia. and 1.08 m height with several sampling ports). The contaminated water was prepared from deionized water and VOCs. The presence of VOCs in feed solution was single, binary or ternary components. They were diluted to the concentrations ranged between 50 mg/l to 250 mg/l. The experiments were carried out in batch experiments which regard the bubble column as stirred tank and only gas was bubbled through stationary liquid. In this case transient measurements of VOC concentration in the liquid phase and the measured concentration profiles were modeled by bubble aeration model (BAM) to fit the experimental data fairly well. The results from batch experiments show that the removal efficiency of VOCs increases with increasing gas flow rate or gas holdup. It is found a pH=10 give the best removal rate, but all experiments were adjusted at pH=8 which allow to study other operating conditions. TCE is being removed faster than the other two components for all systems and a single component was removed faster than binary or ternary system. The KLa values were evaluated by fitting the BAM to the experimental data. It is found that KLa increased with increasing gas flow rate and TCE exhibits the highest KLa values.


Article
Evaluating the Crop Coefficient for Cherries Plants in Michigan State
تقييم معامل نباتات الكرز في ولاية مشيكان

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Abstract

Crop coefficient for cherries was evaluated by measure the water consumption in Michigan State to find its variation with time as the plant growth. Crop coefficients value (Kc) for cherries were predicated by Michigan State University (MSU) and also by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) according to consume of water through the season. In this paper crop coefficients for cherries are modified accordingly to the actual measurements of soil moisture content. Actual evapotranspiration (consumptive use) were measured by the soil moisture readings using Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR), and compared with the actual potential evapotranspiration that calculated by using modified Penman-Monteith equation which depends on metrological station and by using pan evaporation method. Absolut error techniques show that the predicated crop coefficient by MSU should be modified and changed from 1.0 to 1.20 during June, and from 1.02 during July and August to 1.2 to reduce the crop water stress and give better water management and perfect schedule for irrigation process.


Article
Experimental and Modeling Study of Abrasive Wear of Tungsten Carbide Drilling Bit in Wet and Dry Conditions
دراسة عملية و نمذجة البلي بالاحتكاك لدقاق الحفر كاربيد التنجستن في الحالتين الرطبة و الجافة

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Abstract

The results of theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to study the effect of load and relative sliding speed on the abrasive wear behavior in drilling bit teeth surfaces of an insert tungsten carbide bit have been presented. Experimentally, an apparatus for abrasive wear tests conducted on the modified ASTM-G65 was modified and fabricated to facilitate loading and measurement of wear rate for the sand/ steel wheel abrasion test, which involves two cases of contact; first is at dry sand and second is under wet condition. These tests have been carried under varied operating parameters of normal load and sliding speed. A theoretical model based upon the Archard equation has been developed for predicting wear simulation by using ANSYS12.1 program for dry and wet abrasive wear rates. The general trend for all the results of wet tests is that an increase in the applied load as well as wheel rotational speed produces an increase in wear rate, while at the dry tests the behavior shows an increase and fluctuating in wear rate due to the transition in wear mechanism. As compared to the dry tests, the volume losses in wet tests have much higher values, that is because the presence of water which causes high adhesion between sand particles and specimen surface as well as wear-corrosion interaction which accelerate the wear rates. The percentage errors between theoretical and experimental results are more stable with the wet than dry tests due to the stability in wear rates.


Article
Improving Fatigue Life of Bolt Adapter of Prosthetic SACH Foot
تحسين عمر الكلل للولب القدم الصناعية نوع SACH

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Abstract

In this research an analysis for improving the fatigue behavior (safety factor of fatigue) of non-articular prosthetic foot (SACH) in the region (Bolt Adapter).The laser peening was carried to the fatigue specimens to improving the fatigue properties of bolt’s material. The tests of mechanical properties and fatigue behavior were carried for material that the bolt manufacture from it, a region where the failure occur and inserted of these properties to the program of engineering analysis (Ansys) to calculate the safety factor of fatigue. The results showed that the safety factor after hardening by laser is increased by 42.8%.


Article
Numerical Simulation of 3D- Flow Structure and Heat Transfer for Longitudinal Riblet Upstream of Leading Edge Endwall Junction of Nozzle Guide Vane
المحاكاة العددية لتركيب جريان ونتقال الحرارة ثلاثي البعد وباستخدام حزوز طولية في مقدمة اتصال الحافة الامامية لريش التوربين الثابتة

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Abstract

The simulation have been made for 3D flow structure and heat transfer with and without longitudinal riblet upstream of leading edge vane endwall junction of first stage nozzle guide vane .The research explores concept of weakening the secondary flows and reducing their harmful effects.Numerical investigation involved examination of the secondary flows ,velocity and heat transfer rates by solving the governing equations (continuity , Navier -stokes and energy equations ) using the known package FLUENT version (12.1).The governing equations were solved for three dimentional, turbulent flowe, incompressible with an appropriate turbulent model (k-ω,SST) .The numerical solution was carried out for 25 models of V-groove riblet with wide ranges of height (h) and space (s). The results indicated that, the riblet endwall junction was a powerful tool for controlling the flow structure , reducing secondary flow formation,and elimination the effect of heat transfer at leading edg and passage . The drag reduction produced by riblet was proportional with their height and space. V-groove riblet with dimension of (h=1.35mm and s=2.26mm) was found to be the most effective in reduction of drag (2.7%) and heat transfer (21%) so it was selected as an optimum dimension of riblet model. The results also showed that the drag reduction produced by riblet was proportional to their size. The riblet model had a great effect in elimination spanwise ,pitchwise velocities ,but strength the streamwise velocity .At leading edge ,the effect of secondary flow was extended up to 23% from span height and 35% upstream leading edge .The riblet model caused an increase in momentom at a region very close to leading edge and to move stagnation point very close to the leading edge.

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Article
Experimental Study for Materials Prosthetic above Knee Socket under Tensile or Fatigue Stress with Varying Temperatures Effect
دراسة عملية لمواد وقب طرف سفلي صناعي أعلى الركبة تحت تأثير أجهاد الشد أو الكلال عند مختلف درجات الحرارة

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Abstract

The residual limb within the prosthesis, is often subjected to tensile or fatigue stress with varying temperatures. The fatigue stress and temperatures difference which faced by amputee during his daily activities will produces an environmental media for growth of fungi and bacteria in addition to the damage that occurs in the prosthesis which minimizingthe life of the prosthetic limb and causing disconfirm feeling for the amputee. In this paper, a mechanical and thermal properties of composite materials prosthetic socket made of different lamination for perlon/fiber glass/perlon, are calculated by using tesile test device under varying temperatures ( from 20oC to 60oC), also in this paper a device for measuring rotational bending fatigue stress under varying temperatures was designed, manufactured, and calibrated ( this device is not available in Iraq), to achieve S – N curves for different lamination of perlon/fiber glass/perlon composite materials of prosthetic above knee socket. In this paper, the mechanical and thermal properties set ( E, σy, σult, K, and α ) results of the above composite materials are decreased when the temperatures are increased. The S–N curves results of rotational bending fatigue for these lamination of composite materials are decreased when the temperatures are increased,also the endurance limit stresses (σe) are decreased with the increasing of number of perlon, and increasing temperatures, generaly after about 107 cycles.


Article
An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Fluid on Surface Roughness in Turning Operation for Brass Alloy
دراسة عملية لثأثير سوائل التبريد على خشونة الاسطح في عملية الخراطة لسبيكة البراص

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Abstract

The effect of different cutting fluids on surface roughness of brass alloy workpiece during turning operation was carried out in this research. This was performed with different cutting speed,while other cutting parameters had been regarded as constants(feeding rate , and depth of cut). Surface roughness of machined parts that will be tested by electronic surface roughness tester .The results show that the standard coolant gives the best values of surface roughness for fixed cutting speed ,followed by sun flower oil that has approximately the same effect, while the air stream as a coolant gave unsatisfied results for the evaluation of surface roughness. In the other hand the best values of surface roughness were recorded for maximum cutting speed with all other types of cutting fluids.


Article
A Modified Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 based Environmental /Economic Power Dispatch
خوارزمية التطور باريتو 2 لحل ارسالية القدرة الاقتصادية والبيئية

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Abstract

A Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA 2) approach for solving the multi-objective Environmental / Economic Power Dispatch (EEPD) problem is presented in this paper. In the past fuel cost consumption minimization was the aim (a single objective function) of economic power dispatch problem. Since the clean air act amendments have been applied to reduce SO2 and NOX emissions from power plants, the utilities change their strategies in order to reduce pollution and atmospheric emission as well, adding emission minimization as other objective function made economic power dispatch (EPD) a multi-objective problem having conflicting objectives. SPEA2 is the improved version of SPEA with better fitness assignment, density estimation, and modified archive truncation. In addition fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise solution. Several optimization run of the proposed method are carried out on 3-units system and 6-units standard IEEE 30-bus test system. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method to generate well-distributed Pareto-optimal non-dominated feasible solutions in single run. The comparison with other multi-objective methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.


Article
Estimation of Some Mechanical Soil Properties from Static and Dynamic Plate Load Tests
تخمين بعض خصائص التربة الميكانيكية من فحصي تحميل الصفيحة الأستاتيكي والديناميكي

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Abstract

When the depth of stressed soil is rather small, Plate Load Test (PLT) becomes the most efficient test to estimate the soil properties for design purposes. Among these properties, modulus of subgrade reaction is the most important one that usually employed in roads and concrete pavement design. Two methods are available to perform PLT: static and dynamic methods. Static PLT is usually adopted due to its simplicity and time saving to be performs in comparison with cyclic (dynamic) method. The two methods are described in ASTM standard. In this paper the effect of the test method used in PLT in estimation of some mechanical soil properties was distinguished via a series of both test methods applied in a same site. The comparison of the test results between both methods showed that the dynamic (cyclic) method gives lower values of soil properties than the static one does.

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