Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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Table of content: 2010 volume:9 issue:3

Article
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Β-GLUCANASE FROM GERMINATED BARELY
تنقية وتوصيف أنزيم البيتاكلوكانيز من الشعير المنبت

Authors: أحمد صالح ساجت1
Pages: 299-309
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β-Glucanase was extracted and partially purified from Iraqi germinated barely(Samir) after sprouting period(3day at 25ºC). The activity was measured by two methods; one for enzyme activity(U/ml) by measuring reducing sugar and second method was relative viscosity for decreasing the viscosity of barely flour solution. The fold of purification and recovery were 6 and 57.14% respectively after the gel filtration by sephadex G-100, this value is about 6 times higher than that of the crud enzyme preparation. The highest activity for the glucanase was at pH 5-6. Whereas the maximum activity was achieved at 60ºC. Results showed that increasing in addition concentration of partially purified β-glucanase caused decreasing in viscosity of barely solution.


Article
THE BIOROLE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED Azotobacter
الدور الحيوي للازوتوبكتر المحورة وراثياً

Authors: أحمد محمد تركي1
Pages: 310-320
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The study was conducted as attempt to obtain genetically modified Azotobacter vinilandii isolate able to fix nitrogen and dissolve phosphate at the same time and used different biological activity parameters (Bacterial count, relatively growth rate, available phosphorus in soil and amount of fixed nitrogen ) to compare between genetically and non-genetically modified A. vinilandii isolates.The transferring of a plasmid coding for dissolving phosphate were made according to Sam brook etal (1) to transfer the plasmid from local isolate of P.aeruginosa to local isolate of A. vinilandii. Results showed the superiority of genetically modified A. vinilandii was the best in all the parameter used above in comparison with the original selected local isolates (P. aeruginosa and A. vinilandii).Inoculation of soil with genetically modified A. vinilandii increase significantly (P<0.05) the available phosphorus was 28.1 mg/kg soil after 45 days inoculation in compare with non-genetically modified A. vinilandii which gave 16.2 mgkg available phosphorus.The efficiency of nitrogen fixation increased with modified genetically A. vinilandii isolate and reach to 157 mg total nitrogen /kg soil after 45 days of it incubation in soil while 130 mg total nitrogen /kg soil was recorded with the original A. vinilandii isolate. Results showed that all parameters which were used in the present study decreased when culture of the original isolate of (P. aeruginosa and A. vinilandii) were mixed and used.


Article
STUDYING THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CRUD AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED LIPOPOLYSACCARID FROM Brucella abortus (BIO VAR6) ON LAB MICE
دراسة التأثيرات الامراضية والفسلجية لعديد السكرايد الشحمي الخام والمنقى جزئياً للعزلة Brucella abortus (bio var6) على الفئران المختبرية

Authors: أسماء عزت النعيمي1
Pages: 321-336
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Two hundred fifty blood samples from patients suspected with Brucellosis were collected depending on Rose- Bengal and 2-mercaptoethanol tests. Washing blood samples with distilled water and cultruring on Castaneda-bi phasic medium were used for primary isolation while different morphological, biochmemical beside serological and biotyping tests were performed for final diagnosis. The results showed that 15 isolates were obtained as 9 and 6 isolates for Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis respecitively. Crude lipopolysaccarid (cLPS) was extracted by hot phenol final concentration 90% from the isolate Brucella abortus (bio var6) then it was partially purified (ppLpS) using Sepharose 4B gel. The quantity of carbohydrate, protein and lipid were estimated for both them. Results showed that the concentrations reached 50, 40, 40µg/ml respectively for cLPS while they were 80, 20, 60 µg/ml respectively for ppLPS. Histopathological and physiological effect of cLPS and ppLPS were studied through detecting the toxic effect and anaphylactic shock on mice. Injection of 0.2ml of cLPS in mice peritoneum caused death within 24 hrs, while injection 0.5ml of ppLPS caused anaphylactic shock and mice death during 48 hrs, from other side injectin 0.25ml ppLPS caused increasing in spleen weight as compared with the control group (which were injected with distilled water). Histopathological section taken from (liver, spleen, kidney, lung) of mice injected with 0.2ml cLPS showed histopathological changes including sever congestion in liver, enlargement in whit pulp, congestion and hemorrhage in spleen, destruction of glomerulars, enlargement in alveolar migration of macrophages while injection of 0.5ml ppLPS caused sever congestion in liver and spleen sinuses and occulation in glomerulars, enlargement in alveolar and slight migration in macrophage in the lung.


Article
LECTIN EXTRACTION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION FROM BACTERIA KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENT WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND SOME APPLICATION
إستخلاص وتنقية جزئية للكتين من بكتريا Klebsiella pneumonia المعزولة من المرضى المصابين بإلتهاب المجاري البولية وبعض تطبيقاته

Authors: أسيل شاكر محمود
Pages: 337-347
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Abstract

The study involves identifying the strains of Klebsiella pneumonae which isolated from patients with urinary tract infections, depending on the morphology, culturing and biochemical characteristics of the colonies, and extraction of mannose specific Lectin from the bacterial pili by breaking them using a set of super sonic waves in different periods of time. The sonication results showed that the higher agglutination activity (512) of the bacterial extract was recored in 4 min sonication. The extract and purified mannos specific Lectin have shown a sensitive agglutination activity against human blood groups (A,B and O) and animals red blood cells ( Geniua pig, Sheep, Cow, Chiken, Rabbit, Rat, Goat and Mouse).Also lectin showed to have a highest agglutination activity against some bacteria E. coli, Aero. hydrophila, P. aeruginosa, but not against Staph. aereus and Proteouas spp. Bacteria.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON ENZYMATIC CHANGES IN LABORATORY ANIMALS
دراسة تأثير المستخلص الكحولي لبذور العنب والشاي الأخضر على التغيرات الانزيمية في الحيوانات المختبرية

Authors: أقبال فاضل علوان1
Pages: 348-358
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The alcoholic extracted compounds has been identified of green tea and grape seed-mediated by using Performance High Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) appeared to contain the major compounds has been Epicatechine and Catechine and Epgallocatchine and Epicatechingallate and Epgallocatechingallate for green tea extract, and extract the alcoholic grape seed has been Procyanidine B1 and Procyanidine B2 and Procyanidine C1. Also studied the effects of three different concentrations (1, 5, 25 mg / 0.1ml) of these extracts, consisting of 125mg of extract of the alcoholic grape seeds and 125mg of extract alcohol green tea with the addition of a number of vitamins (A,C,E). To the effectiveness of liver enzymes (GST,ALP,GPT,GOT) through the dosage by mouth to laboratory rats during the period of 4 weeks. The results indicated that there were no significant differences ( p <0.05) to concentrations of the alcoholic extracts of grape seed and green tea on the effectiveness of specific liver enzymes, nor did it mention the results on any toxicity of oral delivery employed, as compared to control animals.


Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF ALKALOID FROM Zephyranthes Candida
استخلاص والتنقية الجزئية لقلويدات نبات زنابق المطر البيض Zephyranthes candida

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This study aimed to extraction and partial purification of narciclasine alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida planting in Iraq. To have semi purified narciclasine alkaloid by using several techniques which includes chromatographic techniques, Colum chromatographic(CL), Gel filteration chromatographic by using Sephadex LH-20 and thin layer chromatographic (TLC). The percentage of alkaloid obtained from this method was 0.25℅.Detection of narciclasine were one as follows: measuring the absorbance by using spectrophotometer at 306 nm, and the retadartion factor (RF) was 0.16 and the melting point was 270-275oC. Results showed that the alkaloid detected might be narciclasine.


Article
FFECT OF DICLOFOP - METHYL ON CYTOGENETICS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL LYMPHOCYTES
تأثير المُبيد Diclofop – Methyl في الوراثة الخلوية للخلايا اللمفاوية للدم المحيطي للإنسان

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The effect of the herbicide Diclofop –Methyl on Cytogenetic of Peripheral Lymphocytes of Human was studied. Genotoxic effect was studied by recording the chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and induction of Micronuclei (MN), Cytotoxicity recorded by estimating the mitotic index (MI) of cultured cells. The pesticide used at concentrations ( 0.1, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 ) × 10 -5M. Results showed that the pesticide induced an increment in CAs in dose–response pattern. The differences was significant (P<0.01) compared to control treatment and there was significant differences among the concentrations (P<0.01). Among the CAs, broken chromosomes were recorded in control treatment (1±0.06) and a centric chromosomes(1±0.06), such abnormalities appeared upon using lowest concentration (0.1× 10 -5M) without significant difference from control treatment, but in addition ring chromosomes appeared at this concentration. The majority of CAs when using other concentrations were broken chromosomes and reached it's maximum value at concentration 50×10-5 M (10%), ring chromosomes appeared in all treatments. Other abnormalities which has been investigated such as chromosome deletion, translocations, and gene amplification were not recorded in this study. Using the pesticide induced Mn in dose – response pattern with positive correlation coefficient ( r = + 0.97 ). Different concentrations did not effect the MI strongly, although it caused some decreasing with significant difference (P<0.01); the highest concentration 50×10 -5 M raised the MI to 2.67 compared to control treatment ( 1.6) with significant difference (P<0.01) from control treatment and other concentrations.


Article
DETECTION OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN THE LOCAL Trigonella foenum – graecum SEED
الكشف الكمي والنوعي لبعض المركبات الفعالة لبذور الحلبة المحلية Trigonella foenum – graecum

Authors: رامي علي تقي
Pages: 385-396
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The detection and quantitative determination of the active compound of Methanolic extract(80%)of local Trigonella foenum–graecum seeds were investigated by using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). It was found that the Methanolic extract contain many of active compounds such as Trigonellin (0.018%), Camphor (0.20%), Comarin (0.18%), Tripcin (1.9%), Vitexen (3.6%), Quercetin(1.21%) and Naringenin (0.27% ). The determination of fatty acid for fixed oil using the same technique showed that the percentage of Palmitic acid (24%) was the highest than the other fatty acids while the percentage of Aarchidic acid was the lowest (1%), the percentage of Olic acid and Linolenic acid were(12%, 9%) respectively. The thin layer chromatography technique (TLC) used for detection of diosgenin, with Rf equal to (0.7). The water extract cause agglutination of human red blood cells of groups (A, B,O) and this result provide found of Lectin in this extract, the titration percentage of agglutination was (64, 16, 16) respectively.


Article
INHIBITORY ACTION OF CINNAMON CLOVETREE AND PROPOLIS EXTRACTS AGAINST Melisscoccus Pluton THAT CAUSE EFB IN HONEYBEE
الفعالية التثبيطية لمستخلصات القرفة والقرنفل والعُكبر ضد بكتريا Melissoccus Pluton المسبب الرئيسي لمرض تعفن الحضنة الأوربي في نحل العسل

Authors: رضا صكب الجوراني
Pages: 397-408
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Experimental isolation and purification of the bacteria Melissococcus pluton that cause European foulbrood disease (EFB), and antimicrobial activity of plant extracts were carried out in the laboratories of Biotechnology Center of Al-Nahrine University. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests showed that the bacterium M. pluton was found in one sample of sum of 12 samples that were tested, with an infection incidence 8.33%. Hexan extracts of the Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Clovetree Eugenia cavyophylata and alcohol extract of propolis were examined using the qualitative disc diffusion assay. Results were showed that the clovetree extract was more effective at concentrate 2500mg/disc on bacterial growth that caused zone of growth inhibition(19.75mm in diameter) compared with control treatment(6mm). Propolis and clovetree extracts (2500mg/disc) were much effective on growth of M.pluton compared with oxytetracycline, as it is considered the drug of choice for control EFB infection all over the world.


Article
SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN BLOOD DONORS IN BABYLON PROVINCE ٌ
دراسة وبائية مصلية لداء المقوسات في متبرعي الدم في محافظة بابل

Authors: رقية منذر عوض
Pages: 409-417
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Abstract

Blood transfusion represents one of the transmission routes to toxoplasmosis. This study was designed to study the seroprevalance of toxoplasmosis in blood donor in Babylon province, 91 blood samples were collected from blood donors in the central blood bank in Babylon province during the period June _ September 2009. The seroprevalance of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were detected using ELISA technique. In addition to that, the sociodemographic and behavior information were obtained from all blood donors that they included participated in this study. The results showed that of the 91 samples there were 26 (28.6%) positive sample for the anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, of these positive samples there were 21 (23%) samples positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, while there were only one (1%) sample positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies, in addition to 4 (4.3%) samples were positive to both anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG. Most of the positive samples were from Hilla, Qaseem and Mahaweel. The higher seroprevalance percentage (73.1%) was from urban area. The results showed a statistical correlation between the positive seroprevalance of toxoplasmosis and two factors; the occurrence of livestock and the consuming of vegetables from the local markets. According to this study the role of blood transfusion in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Babylon province was concluded, and the serological test for toxoplasmosis is recommended as one of the routine test of blood donors.


Article
POLYMORPHISM OF DUFFY BLOOD GROUP IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH BETA-THALASSEMIA
تعددالأشكال الوراثية لمجموعة الدم Duffyفي مرضى البيتا ثلاسيميا من العراقيين

Authors: زينب صباح حسب1
Pages: 418-427
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The Duffy blood group was typed in a sample consisted of 381 individuals, a one hundred of them present the control whereas the remaining 281 individuals were affected by β-thalassemia. The latter sample was divided into three types; 158 persons affected with major thalassemia, 67 persons affected with intermediate thalassemia and 56 persons affected with minor thalassemia (carriers). The present study aims to explore for any relation in frequency of the duffy blood group patterns and the ability to be affected by β-thalassemia and each of its three clinical sub-types by comparison with the control sample. The various comparisons lead to a significant difference (P<0.05) for the intermediate thalassemia, Since the Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b+) phenotypes were decreased, while the Fy(a-b-) phenotype was increased, but the other types of thalassemia did not show such a level of significance. The decrease of certain blood group phenotype in patients may indicate a probable rule for those types in the resistance of infection by this disease.


Article
EFFECT OF EXPLANTS AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON CALLUS INDUCTION OF THREE SOYBEAN GENOTYPES ( GLYCINE MAX L. ) IN VITRO
تأثير الأجزاء النباتية وأشعة كاما في إستحثاث الكالس من ثلاثة تراكيب وراثية من فول الصوياGlycine max L. خارج الجسم الحي

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An experiment was conducted in order to examine the sensitivity of callus culture for three soybean genotypes namely Taka 1, Taka 2 and Lee74 to gamma rays. Shoot apex, Cotyledonary leaves and Stems segments were taken from seedlings and cultured in MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators for callus induction incubated in growth room at 25±2°C and 16 hrs photoperiod with light intensity of 1000 Lux. After that callus exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0,5,10,15,20,30,40 Gray was incubated at the same conditions. Results showed Cotyledonary and stem segments significant superior in fresh, dry weight than shoot apex, Also Lee74 superior in these characters reached 1176.13 mg, 417.66 mg respectively, than Taka 1 and Taka2. Results revealed gradual reductions in fresh, dry weight of callus as with the increased of gamma doses. The reduction percent were 80.11, 94.57% at 40 Gray respectively as compared with control treatment,While the dose 5 Gy increased the fresh weight reached 3.08%. However, the genotype Lee 74 was commonly significant superior than others in fresh, dry weight reach 719.48mg and 319.62 mg respectively

Keywords

Soybean --- Callus --- Gamma ray


Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR GLUCOSE ISOMERASE ENZYME FROM ALKALOPHILIC Bacillus sp. BC4 LOCAL ISOLATE
إستخلاص وتنقية إنزيم الكلوكوزايزوميريز الخارج خلوي من العزلة المحلية Bacillus sp. BC4 المُحبة للقاعدية

Authors: سعد حسين خضير
Pages: 438-446
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Alkalophilic Bacillus sp.BC4 local isolate, that was isolated from soil, was used to produce extracellular glucose isomerase enzyme, using liquid medium at initial pH of 10 supported with(10ml/l)of xylose extract from straw (H2SO4 straw hydrolysate).The Glucose isomerase enzyme was extracted by centrifugation and purified by two purification steps including fractionation with different saturation of ammonium sulfate(50, 60, 70, 80, 90%) and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B ion exchange chromatography column. The results showed that 80% saturation of ammonium sulfate gave the best activity for enzyme, where the specific activity reached to 2.61unit/mg protein and overall purification folds to 8.7 with a 78.3% recovery, while the ion exchange chromatography step using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column was not observed any enzymatic activity through the wash step, which indicate that most of the enzyme activity is present in the eluted parts and that the enzyme carry a negative charge under the used conditions. The effective eluted parts was collect and calculate each of specific activity was 6.2 units/mg protein and the overall purification folds were 20.6 times with a 47.5% recovery.


Article
DETECTION OF ALPHA TOXIN PRODUCED BY LOCALLY ISOLATED CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS
التحري عن ذيفان الفا المنتج من بكتريا Clostridium perfringensالمعزولة محلياً

Authors: سوسن ساجد الجبوري1
Pages: 447-460
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Locally isolated and diagnosed C.perfringes (26 isolates) had been tested for alpha toxin producing using Trypticase Yeast extract Broth (TYB) .Crude protein concentration of supernatant of these isolates was estimated and the results showed were variability in concentration ranging between 1.162 µg /ml for isolate number (3) wich was high protein produer to 0.01 µg /ml for isolate number (23) with low protein production. The ability of alpha toxin production was first tested by two routin methods, diffusion in egg yolk media and measurement of fluoridation in liquefied egg yolk. The result showed that (24)(92.31%) isolates gave positive test. Mice lethality method was depended to show whether these isolates were toxic. It was appeared that 25 isolates (96.15%). Enzyme linked immune sorbant assay ELISA test was used to detect bacterial ability for alpha toxin production. Results showed that all isolates were positive for toxin production, and all isolates were toxin producer as compared with the routine methods. The product of amplification of cpa gene coded for alpha toxin was then used in detecting and diagnosis of C. perfingens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that all isolates gave positive results in both of bacterial and toxin detection specially when DNA template prepared by boiling was used instead of usual extraction method .


Article
PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF NEUTRAL PROTEASE FROM A LOCAL ISOLATE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER VAR. CARBONARIUS TFS1 AND ITS APPALICATION
تنقية جزئية للبروتييز المتعادل من العزلة المحلية للفطر Aspergi llus niger var carbonarius TFS1 وتطبيقاته

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Neutral protease was purified partially from local isolate of Aspergillus niger var. carbonarius TFS1 by two steps ,the first step was the precipitations for ammonium sulfate (25-50% saturated) gave the specific activity was 9471.84 unit/mg protein, purification folds were 2.765 and recovery was 81.3%. The second step by using DEAE–cellulose ion exchange chromatography, the specific activity was 4.298 with 68.70% recovery. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was7and rang of pH stability was 6.5–7.5 while the optimum temperature was 30C and temperature stability was 30-35C. The enzyme was immobilized by absorption on the sawdust and used in the removal hair and bating process alternative to chemicals and imported enzyme used in tanning plant in Zaafaraniya of the General Company for Leather Industries. The immobilize enzyme was tested by engineers specializing in laboratory tanning on the skin of goats. The most efficient in removing hair from the skins of goat leather gave by the enzyme concentration 4500 units/ml after 12 hours. Also The enzyme gave activity in bating process 2109.58 unit/gram (LVU) while the activity of Arabon enzyme was 1935.68 unit/gram (LVU) which used routinely in the tanning factory.


Article
IN VITRO ADVENTITIOUS BUD FORMATION FROM THE CALLUS INDUCED ON IMMATURE INFLORESCENCE OF DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
تكوين البراعم العرضية من كالس الشماريخ الزهرية غير الناضجة لنخيل التمر Phoenix dactylifera L.)) خارج الجسم الحي

Authors: صالح محسن بدر1
Pages: 474-489
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This research was conducted to study the possibility of using different parts of immature inflorescence of date palm cvs. Barhi and Maktom at different developmental stages as explants in order to induce callus formation, adventitious buds formation and elongation of these buds. Results showed that the best percentage of the in vitro response to callus formation reached 40 and 70% for Barhi and Maktom respectively from spike segments with 0.5cm excised from 8-10cm spath and cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 100µM 2,4-D with 10.0µM 2ip. The highest callus fresh weight (286.3mg) was achieved on the same above medium. Results also indicated that 80% of the cultures gave 11.2 and 24.8 buds for Barhi and Maktom respectively. This was achieved when callus was transferred to a liquid shaking medium supplemented with 10.0µM 2ip and 5.0µM NAA after 43 days for Maktom cv. Shoot elongation occurred after the addition of various concentrations of adenine sulfate. The highest shoot length (4.52)cm occurred in Maktom cv. with 100mg/L of adenine sulfate and 4.41cm in Barhi cv. with 80mg/L. Accordingly, it is possible to use immature inflorescences excised from adult date palm trees for the micropropagation of Barhi and Maktom cvs.


Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF CYTOSINE DEAMINASE PRODUCED FROM Escherichia coli
استخلاص وتنقية أنزيم سايتوسين دي أمينيزالمنتج من البكتريا Esherichia coli

Authors: صفاء عبد لطيف1
Pages: 490-501
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The study involved isolation and characterization of E. coli from patient’s infected with diarrhea, in order to study the ability of the bacteria to produce cytosine deaminase (CD). The CD was extracted by destruction of cells using ultrasonic waves, the value of specific activity of crude extract was 5.3 unit/mg protein. Then the enzyme was purified in few steps including treatment of extract by heating at 60 oC for 30 min. The value of specific activity was 6.2 unit/mg protein, fold of purification was 1.2 times, and the yield was53.8 %. Then the enzyme was precipitated by using ammonium sulfate at 30-55% saturation percentage, the precipitate was dissolved in 0.5M potassium phosphate buffer. The value of specific activity was 10.8 unit/mg proteins, fold of purification was 2.0 times, and the yield was 3.59%. Then the enzyme solution was passed through DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. The peaks of activity was collected and the value of specific activity was 189.9 unit/mg protein, fold of purification was 34.3 times, and the yield was 5.0%. The enzyme solution was concentrated and passed through Sepharose-6B gel-filteration and the value of specific activity was 302.0 unit/mg protein, fold purification 57.3 run, and yield was 2.1 %.


Article
EFFECT OF EXPLANTS AND THE GROWTH REGULATORS 2, 4-D AND KINETIN ON CALLUS INDUCTION OF THREE SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES IN VITRO
تأثير الجزء النباتي ومنظمي النمو 2, 4-D والكاينتين في إستحثاث كالس ثلاثة تراكيب وراثية من زهرة الشمس Helianthus annuus L. في خارج الجسم الحي

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Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants were taken from seedlings of three genotypes (hybrids) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultured on two MS media. The first medium contained 2, 4-D( 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0) mg / l and the second contained 2, 4-D with the same concentrations as above and kinetin (0.0, 0.5 or 1.0 ) mg / l. cultures were divided into two parts. The first part incubated at 25± 1ºC under light condition 1000 Lux for 16 hrs/day and the second incubated in total darkness at the same temperature. After six weeks observations were made on the response of explants for callus induction Results showed that the highest response for callus induction on explants incubated light in supplemented with 2, 4-D(1.5)mg/l produced 49.16% and significantly differed from the control treatment producing 0.0 %. The response of Alhaja genotype to callus induction was higher which produced 47.50% and was significantly higher than Kuds genotype which produced 4.0%.Hypocotyl responded significantly higher than cotyledons in its response which produced 40.67%. The results also showed significant differences among genotypes,2, 4-D concentrations and explants and significant differences among 2, 4-D and kinetin, genotypes and explants in their response to callus induction in light and dark condition.Additionally there was significant effect for kinetin concentrations in this parameter of which the concentration 1.0 mg /l was significantly higher in both light and dark which produced percentage response of 37.33 % and 15.83 % respectively.

Keywords

Helianthus annuus L. Callus --- Kinetin --- 2 --- 4-D.


Article
EVALUATION EFFICIENCY OF NEMACUR PESTICIDES DEGRADABLE LOCAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN GREEN HOUSES ENVIRONMENT
تقييم كفاءة عزلات محلية بكتيرية معزولة من بيئة البيوت المحمية في إستهلاك مبيد النيماكيور

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Thirty seven isolates of pesticide utilizing bacteria were obtained from green houses soil (previously treated with pesticide) in Baghdad governorate. Most isolates(17) were belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, whereas the others representing the following genera: Bacillus 10 isolates, Streptomyces 7 isolates and Staphylococcus 3 isolates. Streptomyces isolates were selected for the present study. Nemacur utilization was studied using HPLC technique. The results showed that Streptomyces AN1 and AN9 have the highest ability to utilize Nemacur pesticide, since the pesticide completely disappeared from the growing media. Strep. AN1 gave 7 metabolites, one of them was predominant with a peak area of 78.89% and retention time 4.8 and gave the highest dry weight of the biomass 6.1mg/L. Streptomyces AN9 gave 7 metabolites; two of them were predominant with peak area of 68.48% and 17%, and retention time 4.8 and 3.6 respectively. The dry weight of the biomass was 5.0 mg/L. The rest of Streptomyces isolates AN23, AN19, AN30, AN17 and AN8 showed different ability in utilizing Nemacure. The percentages of utilization were 11.4%,6.69%,41.67%,53.18 and 46.74% respectively. These isolates gave biomass of 3.2,4.4, 4.0,4.1 and 4.2 mg/L dry weight respectively.


Article
DETECTION OF MOLD CONTAMINATION AND AFLATOXIN IN ROSTED PEANUT USING ELISA TECHNIQUE
الكشف عن التلوث بالفطريات وسم افلاB1 في فستق الحقل المحمص بإستعمال تقنية الاليزا

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Abstract

Samples of roasted, salted and fermented peanut collected from local stores at Baghdad city. These samples were found contaminated with high number of fungi the most frequent species was Aspergillus flavus. The results also showed that samples of roasted and salted peanut were contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 at concentration 5.6 and 5.5µg/kg respectively. However the results showed no Aflatoxin B1 in the fermented peanut samples. Enzyme – linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies in suspension of A. flavus at concentration of 1.5µg/ml and it has detected mycelial protein extract of A. flavus at concentration of 0.025µg/ml. ELISA technique was used to detect A. flavus inoculated to peanut sample at 1µg/ml., while the plate culture method could not detect the fungus at concentration, below 5 µg /ml. The effects of storage on roasted peanut at laboratory with different treatments show no fungal contamination after eight months of storage at 19- 47°C. It has been noticed that the addition of citric and sorbic acids as antifungal agents prevent fungal growth and affect Aflatoxin B1 production.


Article
STUDY OF PLASMID AND PROTEIN DISCIPLINE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI THAT CONTAMINATION OF MAJOR RIVERS IN IRAQ
دراسة النسق البلازميدي والبروتيني لبكتريا Escherichia coil الملوثة لمياه الأنهر الرئيسة في العراق

Authors: عصام فاضل الجميلي
Pages: 548-563
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Abstract

Genetic study for ten isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained from highly contaminated water locations belong to the major rivers in Iraq (Mousl, Tikrit, Saad Sammara, Bab Al-Moadham, Diala bridge, Al-Azizia, Al-Kut, Al-Imara, Al-Nasiria and Shate Al-Arab). The isolation of plasmids DNA for the 10 isolates that had multiple antibiotic resistance showed the presence of large and small plasmids bands, also the curing process had done to evaluate the plasmids content for the isolated bacteria by using physical approach (heat) it was found entire losing for the small plasmids, while the large plasmids remain intact. The detection for the protein bands with molecular weight between 14400-94000 Dalton clearly appears in 10% of SDS-polyacrylamide gel that belong to β–lactamase, protease and DNAase, which were the virulene factors for the bacteria.


Article
EFFECT OF PURE LIGNAN FROM FLAXSEEDS (LINUM USITATISSIMUM) ON INDUCED AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ON BACTERIAL SYSTEM
دراسة تاثير مركب اللكنان المنقى من بذور نبات الكتان على احداث ومنع الطفرات الوراثية في النظام البكتيري

Authors: عصام فاضل الجميلي1
Pages: 564-577
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Abstract

The study aimed to compare pure lignan compound with methotraxete (MTX) drug on three bacterial isolates (Bacillus ssp-.(G3), Arthrobacter spp-(G12) and Brevibacterium spp. (G27)). In addition, mutagen (MTX) was compared a standard mutagen which called (NTG). The mutagen MTX has higher mutation effect than NTG on the bacterial isolates. The lignan compound showed no effect at 50 and 75 g/ml concentrations but at 100 g/ml of lignan was caused the mutagen resistance to streptomycin for treated isolates 383.3, 166.6 and 166.6 mutation/ml for G3 , G12 and G3 isolates respectively. This means the lignan concentrations have the inhibition effect on bacterial isolates which result in dead ratio ranged between 1.9– 54 % on the G3 isolates.


Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN –G FROM HUMAN BLOOD SERUM
إستخلاص وتنقية الكلوبيولين المناعي صنفG من مصل دم الانسان

Authors: عصام فاضل الجميلي1
Pages: 578-591
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Abstract

Immunoglobulin G has been extracted from human blood serum by using ammonium sulphate salt in saturation percentage ranged between 0-35%, then immunoglobulin were separated by using ion exchange chromatography with the use of DEAE-Cellulose exchange and to complete separation and purification, gel filtration chromatography technique has been used with Sephadex G-200 column for purification of IgG. The molecular weights of the extracted immunoglobulins was identified with the use of Sephacryl S-200 column, and it was found that the molecular weight of IgG which was extracted from human blood serum was found to be 152 KD. The extracted immunoglobulins concentration was also determined with Bradford method were the concentration was about 9.5% mg/ml. The radial immunodiffusion test was done during all the stages of extraction, separation and purification to insurance degree of purity of immunoglobulins after every stage.


Article
EFFECT OF KINETIN AND ALAR TREATMENT ON PLANT HORMONES CONCENTRATION DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF STOLONS TO TUBERS IN HIGH TUBER SEEDS OF POTATO
تأثير المعاملة بالكاينتين والألر على تراكيزالهورمونات النباتية في مراحل تكون الدرنه لتقاوي البطاطا عالية الرتبة

Authors: فلاح حسن عيسى1
Pages: 592-606
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Abstract

This study was setup to measure the concentration of Auxins, Gibberellins, Zeatin and Abscisic Acid hormones for two potato varieties Diamant and Desiree during the development of stolons to tubers. The study include effect of the soaking minitubers which were weighing 50–60g and stored for two months on 4oC ±1 in a mixture solution of kinetin (100mg/L + Alar 500mg/L) for one hr. in addition to the control (soaking in distilled water) on the development and growth of the stolons to tuber, the treatment were incubated on 18oC for 5 months. The concentration of plant hormones were measured during the development of stolons to tubers stages (P1, P2 and P3). The result revealed a reduction in ABA, IAA and Zeatin concentration at the early stage of stolons growth(P1)while the highest concentration was achieved in(P3)stage (The full tuberization to reach 0.88,6.40 and 12.32µg/kg fresh weight) respectively. Moreover the highest concentration of GA3 was achieved in P1 stage 6.03µg/kg fresh weight and its decreased gradually as the tuber increased in size in (P2) to reach the lowest concentration 1.61µg/kg fresh weight in P3 stage. Furthermore, the treatment (100mg Kinetin+500mg Alar/L) increased the concentration of ABA, IAA and Zeatin to reach (0.74,6.31,15.50µg/kg fresh weight) respectively as compared with the control treatment which gave( 0.43,5.4 and 7.18µg/kg fresh weight) respectively, while the concentration of GA3 decreased as compared with the control treatment to reach 3.41 and 4.42µg/kg fresh weight respectively. The concentration of growth promoter hormones GA3,IAA and Zeatin increased during the storage period to reach(6.76,5.29,3.31µg/kg fresh weight) respectively while the ABA concentration decreased as compared with its concentration before the storage to reach 0.50 and o.77µg/kg fresh weight respectively. Concerning to GA3 concentration, it was increased in Diamant tubers as compared with Desiree tubers to reach 6.10 and 1.82µg/kg fresh weight respectively,while the concentration of ABA was decreased to reach 0.48 and 0.79µg/kg fresh weight respectively.

Keywords

KINETIN --- TUBER SEEDS


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSAL AGENT OF STRIP LEAVES SYMPTOMS ON TOMATO IN PROTECTIVE HOUSES
تشخيص مسبب ظاهرة الأوراق الشريطية في الطماطة المزروعة في البيوت المحمية

Pages: 607-617
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Abstract

This study was carried out, at Abu-Graib area in 2007, to identify the causal agent of strip leaves symptoms on Tomato in protective houses. Symptoms on indicator plants, electrophoresis through 10%polyacrylamide gel containing 0.1% SDS, and Immunostrip techniques were adopted. The analysis of samples of total protein prepared from infected plants by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed 3 bands, one of 18KD Molecular weight represented the coat protein of purified Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), two other bands of 24KD and 26KD represented the coat protein of purified Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). However, no bands corresponding to these proteins in the profile of total proteins prepared from healthy plants were detected. The immunostrip test specific for TMV and CMV showed a positive reaction with extracts from infected plants. Whereas, no reaction was observed with extracts from healthy plants submitted to the same treatment.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME TOXIC ELEMENTS ON GERMINATION OF ERUCA SATIVA SEEDS
تأثير بعض العناصر السامة في إنبات بذور الجرجير Eruca sativa

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Abstract

The effect of some Toxic elements which included Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic and Tin on germination of rocket seeds (Eruca sativa) was studied at concentrations:1,10,100,500,1000 mg/L in sterilized distilled water to cover a wide range of concentrations including those found at natural environments and those found in contaminated environments on germination of Eruca sativa seeds. Germination process extended for 5 days and then germinated seeds were counted. Results showed that there is an inverse relationship between element concentrations and the number of germinated seeds, so the correlation coefficient had negative value. For Lead ( r = -0.912 ), Cadmium ( r= -0.945 ), Mercury (r = - 0.929 ), Arsenic ( r = -0.51 ) and Tin ( r= -0.983 ). The pHs of solutions influenced the germination but at low extent and their correlation coefficients were non significant (p≤0.05) except that of arsenic. According to the results obtained by this study the elements can be ranked for their negative affect as follows: Lead < Tin < Mercury < Cadmium < Arsenic.


Article
DIAGNOSIS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN HUMAN SERUM AND URINE SAMPLES USING PCR TECHNIQUE
تشخيص داء البريميات في عينات مصل وإدرار الإنسان بإستخدام تقنية التفاعل السلسلي للبوليميريز

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Abstract

This study was focused on the using of PCR technique for diagnosis Leptospirosis as the the diagnosis of Leptospirosis using traditional methods is difficult because Leptospira is considered as fastidious bacteria. Therefore, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was used to diagnose leptospirosis using serum and urine of human. Samples were collected from human suspected with Leptospirosis (50 urine and 50 serum. DNA was extracted using a special kit, DNA purity and integrity was conducted. PCR was performed using specific primers.The product was electrophorised on agarose gel and detected using ultraviolet transillumination with DNA marker in addition to standard DNA for leptospira. The result was revealed that through the examination of the 100 samples, 7 cases of human urine samples were positive while human serum samples were negative results. The results have also revealed some positive cases in PCR of those gave negative results in extraction of DNA. This study proved that the validity of PCR technique for diagnosis of Leptospirosis. This technique was sensitive, accurate and achieved in short time and the possibility of using urine and serum of human for the diagnosis of the infected cases.


Article
DETECTION OF ENTEROCIN PRODUCTION FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME VIRULENCE FACTORS AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS
التحري عن إنتاج الانتروسين من العزلات المحلية لبكتريا Enterococcus faecalis وعلاقتـه ببعض عوامـل الضراوة والمقاومة للمضادات الحيوية

Authors: نهى جوزيف قندلا1
Pages: 642-656
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Abstract

A total of 290 clinical specimens were collected from various hospitals in Baghdad from patient suffering from Urinary tract infection ,wound ,vaginal inflammation and (80) stool samples collected from healthy individuals. The results showed that 50 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecalis according to the cultural, microscopically, biochemical examination and monovalent test (agglutination test) of which, 23 isolates (46%) from stool samples,27 (54%) isolates from clinical cases distributed between 16(32%) urine samples, 6(12%) wound swabs and 5(10%) vaginal swabs. The cup agar method considered as most efficiency methods that use in this study to detection the ability of E.faecalis to produce enterocin. The results showed that 56% of the isolates produced enterocin while 44% of isolates did not show any inhibitory action. The isolates showed multi resistance to many antibiotics, but Augmentin and Nitrofurantion were found to be the most effective agents against the isolates, while others were variable in their sensitivity, and only 6 isolates (12%) from clinical sources showed ability to produce B- lactamase Detection of some virulence factors in local isolates of E. faecalis such as Hemolysin , Gelatinase, cytolysin (production hemolysin and enterocin), showed that E.faecalis isolates possessed 14% hemolysin, 8% from clinical sources, and 6% of this isolates showed ability to produce enterocin (cytolysin), 6% of normal flora isolates produced hemolycin was distributed between 4% isolates produce cytolycin( hemolycin and enterocin), and all isolates of E. faecalis did not show ability to produce Gelatinase

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