Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:20 issue:7

Article
Assessing Durability of Roller Compacted Concrete
تقييم ديمومة الخرسانة المرصوصة بالحدل

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Abstract

Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a technology characterized mainly by the use of rollers for compaction; this technology achieves significant time and cost savings in the construction of dams and roads. The primary scope of this research is to study the durability and performance of roller compacted concrete that was constructed in the laboratory using roller compactor manufactured in local market. A total of (60) slab specimen of (38×38×10) cm was constructed using the roller device, cured for 28 days, then 180 sawed cubes and 180 beams are obtained from RCC slab. Then, the specimens are subjected to 60 cycles of freezing and thawing, sulfate attack test and wetting and drying. The degree of effect of the type of coarse aggregate (crushed and rounded), cement type (OPC and SRPC) and cement content on the durability of RCC were investigated. The results indicated that RCC that contain SRPC has beneficial effects on properties of RCC as compared to RCC that contain OPC after durability testing. Based on the testing results, it was concluded that the resistance of RCC specimens to freezing and thawing, wetting and drying and sulfate attack test increase as cement content increase. The results also indicate that using RCC that contain crushed aggregate has a positive effect on the overall properties of RCC, as compared with RCC that contain rounded aggregate after durability testing.


Article
Baji Refinery Water Treatment to Reuse for Agricultural Purposes
معالجة المياه المطروحة من مصافي بيجي لأعادة تدويرها للأغراض الزراعية

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to treat Baiji refinery waste water by adding tertiary treatment which consist of two units:-Lamella precipitators & adsorption by activated carbon,and reuse it for agricultural purposes.The treatment covers 2000 m3/hr of water which contains organic and heavy metals impurities not recommended to drain to river according to Environmental rules. Good results were gained in this research and the removal was 90% by adsorption & Lamella precipitation .This result is not according to environmental rules so we treat the waste water by using poly ferric chlorides to remove all the remaining phenol and be written the environmental limits for reuse the water for agriculteral purposes.


Article
A Proposed Management System for Construction Practices during Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle
نظام إداري مقترح للتطبيقات الانشائية خلال دورة حياة المباني المستدامة

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Abstract

For many years, the construction industry damages have been overlooked such as unreasonable consumption of resources in addition to producing a lot of construction waste but with global awareness growth towards the sustainable development issues, the sustainable construction practices have been adopted, taking into account the environment and human safety. The research aims to propose a management system for construction practices which could be adopted during constructing different types of sustainable buildings besides formulating flowcharts which clarify the required whole phases of sustainable buildings life cycle. The research includes two parts: theoretical part which generally ,handles the sustainability concepts at construction industry and specially buildings .But the practical part comprises investigating the professional opinions in construction industry about applications possibility of sustainable requirements and global criteria to construction of sustainable buildings in Iraq where the weakness and strength points in the essential requirements for achieving the sustainable construction practices have been diagnosed and the development need has been specified. The utilized statistical analysis of questionnaire results show readiness of buildings sectors to implement the sustainable practices. The different strategies and techniques in the proposed management have been employed for getting the sustainable procedures of sequences practices within project life cycle.


Article
Design and Implementation of ICT-Based Recycle-Rewarding System for Green Environment
تصميم وتنفيذ نظام لاعادة التدوير والمكافأة للبيئة الخضراء المستند على تكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات

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Abstract

This paper proposes a collaborative system called Recycle Rewarding System (RRS), and focuses on the aspect of using information communication technology (ICT) as a tool to promote greening. The idea behind RRS is to encourage recycling collectors by paying them for earning points. In doing so, both the industries and individuals reap the economical benefits of such system. Finally, and more importantly, the system intends to achieve a green environment for the Earth. This paper discusses the design and implementation of the RRS, involves: the architectural design, selection of components, and implementation issues. Five modules are used to construct the system, namely: database, data entry, points collecting and recording, points rewarding, and web modules. The RRS has been deployed at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to encourage the collectors to support the green environment.


Article
Experimental Studies and Finite Element Modeling of Piles and Pile Groups in Dry Sand under Harmonic Excitation
دراسات عملية ونمذجة العنصر المحدود للركائز ومجموعات الركيزة في الرمل الجاف تحت تأثير الأستثارة المتناسقة

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Abstract

Foundations supporting reciprocating engines, radar towers, turbines, large electric motors, and generators, etc. are subject to vibrations caused by unbalanced machine forces as well as the static weight of the machine. If these vibrations are excessive, they may damage the machine or cause it not to function properly. In the case of block foundation, if changes in size and mass of the foundation do not lead to a satisfactory design, a pile foundation may be used. In this study, the dynamic response of piles and pile Groups in dry sand is investigated experimentally. The analysis involves the displacement response under harmonic excitation. In addition, a numerical modeling by using finite element method with a three-dimensional formulation is adopted to simulate the experimental model. The results of the numerical model showed that a good agreement is achieved between the predicted dynamic response and that measured from the experimental model.


Article
An Experimental Analysis of Embankment on Stone Columns
تحليل عملي لسدة ترابيه مستندة على أعمدة حجرية

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Abstract

When embankment is constructed on very soft soil, special construction methods are adopted. One of the techniques is a piled embankment. Piled (stone columns) embankments provide an economic and effective solution to the problem of constructing embankments over soft soils. This method can reduce settlements, construction time and cost. Stone columns provide an effective improvement method for soft soils under light structures such as rail or road embankments. The present work investigates the behavior of the embankment models resting on soft soil reinforced with stone columns. Model tests were performed with different spacing distances between stone columns and two lengths to diameter ratios of the stone columns, in addition to different embankment heights. A total number of 21 model tests were carried out on a soil with undrianed shear strength ≈ 10 kPa. The models consist of stone columns embankment at spacing to diameter ratio equal to 2.5, 3 and 4. Three embankment heights; 200 mm, 250 mm and 300 mm were conducted. Three earth pressure cells were used to measure directly the vertical effective stress on column at the top of the middle stone column under the center line of embankment and on the edge stone column for all models while the third cell was placed at the base of embankment between two columns to measure the vertical effective stress in reinforced soft soil directly. The embankment models constructed on soft clay treated with ordinary stone columns at spacing ratio equal 2.5 revealed maximum bearing improvement ratio equals (1.21, 1.44 and 1.7) for 200 mm, 250 mm and 300 embankment heights, respectively and maximum settlement improvement ratio equals (0.78, 0.67 and 0.56) for 200 mm, 250 mm and 300 embankment heights, respectively.


Article
A Multi-variables Multi -sites Model for Forecasting Hydrological Data Series

Authors: Rafa H. Al-Suhili
Pages: 85-102
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Abstract

A multivariate multisite hydrological data forecasting model was derived and checked using a case study. The philosophy is to use simultaneously the cross-variable correlations, cross-site correlations and the time lag correlations. The case study is of two variables, three sites, the variables are the monthly rainfall and evaporation; the sites are Sulaimania, Dokan, and Darbandikhan.. The model form is similar to the first order auto regressive model, but in matrices form. A matrix for the different relative correlations mentioned above and another for their relative residuals were derived and used as the model parameters. A mathematical filter was used for both matrices to obtain the elements. The application of this model indicates it's capability of preserving the statistical characteristics of the observed series. The preservation was checked by using (t-test) and (F-test) for the monthly means and variances which gives 98.6% success for means and 81% success for variances. Moreover for the same data two well-known models were used for the sake of comparison with the developed model. The single-site single-variable auto regressive first order and the multi-variable single-site models. The results of the three models were compared using (Akike test) which indicates that the developed model is more successful ,since it gave minimum (AIC) value for Sulaimania rainfall, Darbandikhan rainfall, and Darbandikhan evaporation, while Matalas model gave minimum (AIC) value for Sulaimania evaporation and Dokan rainfall, and Markov AR (1) model gave minimum (AIC) value for only Dokan evaporation).However, for these last cases the (AIC) given by the developed model is slightly greater than the minimum corresponding value.


Article
Removal of Water Turbidity by using Aluminum Filings as a Filter Media
ازالة عكورة المياه باستعمال برادة الالمنيوم كوسط ترشيح

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The ability of using aluminum filings which is locally solid waste was tested as a mono media in gravity rapid filter. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variation of influent water turbidity (10, 20and 30 NTU); flow rate(30, 40, and 60 l/hr) and bed height (30and60)cm on the performance of aluminum filings filter media for 5 hours run time and compare it with the conventional sand filter. The results indicated that aluminum filings filter showed better performance than sand filter in the removal of turbidity and in the reduction of head loss. Results showed that the statistical model developed by the multiple linear regression was proved to be valid, and it could be used to predict head loss in aluminum filings filter and sand filter with R2equal to 0.94 and 0.968 respectively.


Article
The Effect of Dynamic Loading on Stresses Induced in Charnley Hip Prosthesis
تأثير الحمل الديناميكي على الاجهادات المتولدة في مفصل الورك الصناعي من نوع جارلي

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This study produces an image of theoretical and experimental case of high loading stumbling condition for hip prosthesis. Model had been studied namely Charnley. This model was modeled with finite element method by using ANSYS software, the effect of changing the design parameters (head diameter, neck length, neck ratio, stem length) on Charnley design, for stumbling case as impact load where the load reach to (8.7* body weight) for impact duration of 0.005sec.An experimental rig had been constructed to test the hip model, this rig consist of a wood box with a smooth sliding shaft where a load of 1 pound is dropped from three heights. The strain produced by this impact is measured by using rosette strain gauge connected to Wheatstone bridge for the model .The signal is amplified and sent forward to a data acquisition and then saved in the connected laptop. From this study it is found that the changing in stem length had large effect on effective stress where the change in effective stress while stem length increased from (110mm to 140mm) was not more than (209MPa).


Article
Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Hollow Beams under Partial Uniformly Distributed Load
السلوك الإنشائي للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة المجوفة تحت حمل موزع بانتظام جزئيا"

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A Longitudinal opening is used to construct hollow core beam is a cast in site or precast or pre stressed concrete member with continuous voids provided to reduce weight, cost and, as a side benefit, to use for concealed electrical or mechanical runs. Primarily is used as floor beams or roof deck systems. This study investigate the behavior of six beams (solid or with opening) of dimension (length 1000 x height 180 x width120mm) simply support under partial uniformly distributed load, four of these beam contain long opening of varied section (40x40mm) or (80x40mm). The effect of vertical steel reinforcing, opening size and orientations are investigated to evaluate the response of beams. The experimental behavior based on load-deflection measured at central and quarter of tension zones. The experimental test result shows the presence of Hollow decrease the load carrying capacity by about (37.14% to 58.33%) and increased the deflections by about (71.6% for (Hollow ratio 7.4%) to 75.5% for (Hollow ratio 14.8%)) for same applied load compared with solid beams with the same properties. The increase shear steel reinforcing will decrease all the deformations at all stages of loading, but particularly after initial cracking and give enhancement in ultimate load capacity of beams by about 31.5% with increasing the amount of shear steel reinforcing by about 50%. Finally, ductility is increased in all cases under partial uniformly distributed load when hollow ratio decreased by about 50% or increased in shear steel reinforcing by about 50%.


Article
An Analysis of Stress Distribution in a Spline Shaft Subjected to Cycilc Impulsive Load

Authors: Fathi A. AL- Shammaa --- Hawaa F. Kadhim
Pages: 146-157
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In this paper the effect of engagement length, number of teeth, amount of applied load, wave propagation time, number of cycles, and initial crack length on the principal stress distribution, velocity of crack propagation, and cyclic crack growth rate in a spline coupling subjected to cyclic torsional impact have been investigated analytically and experimentally. It was found that the stresses induced due to cyclic impact loading are higher than the stresses induced due to impact loading with high percentage depends on the number of cycles and total loading time. Also increasing the engagement length and the number of teeth reduces the principal stresses (40%) and (25%) respectively for increasing the engagement length from (0.15 to 0.23) and the number of teeth from (8 to 10). while increasing the other parameters (amount of applied load, wave propagation time, number of cycles, and initial crack length) increase the principal stresses at the root of the tooth (37% when the applied load rises from (8 KN to 11KN) and (62% when the wave propagation time rises from (0.5 to 1).


Article
Study of Dynamic Sorption in Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle
دراسة ديناميكية الامتزاز في دورة التبريد الآمتزازية

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This paper shows the characteristics of temperature and adsorbed (water vapor) mass rate distribution in the adsorber unit which is the key part to any adsorption refrigeration system. The temperature profiles of adsorption/desorption phases (Dynamic Sorption) are measured experimentally under the operating conditions of 90oC hot water temperature, 30oC cooling water temperature, 35oC adsorption temperature and cycle time of 40 min. Based on the temperature profiles, The mass transfer equations for the annulus adsorbent bed are solved to obtain the distribution of adsorption velocity and adsorbate concentration using non-equilibrium model. The relation between the adsorption velocity with time is investigated during the process of adsorption. The practical cycles of adsorption and desorption were stated dependent on the variables obtained from the experiment and equations calculations. The results show that the adsorption velocity is diminished after a period of 20 min. The maximum value of the adsorbed water vapor concentration on silica gel is 0.12 kg water/kg adsorbent (adsorption phase) and the minimum value of the water content into silica gel is 0.04 kg water/kg adsorbent (desorption phase) producing a dynamic sorption of ∆x=0.08 kg water/kg adsorbent.


Article
The Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on the Performance of Hydraulic System
تأثير مجمع الضغط الهيدروليكي على أداء منظومه هيدروليكيه

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The purpose of this paper is to depict the effect of adding a hydraulic accumulator to a hydraulic system. The experimental work includes using measuring devices with interface to measure the pressure and the vibration of the system directly by computer so as to show the effect of accumulator graphically for real conditions, also the effects of hydraulic accumulator for different applications have been tested. A simulation analysis of the hydraulic control system using MATLAB.R2010b to study was made to study the stability of the system depending on the transfer function, to estimate the effect of adding the accumulator on stability of the system. A physical simulation test was made for the hydraulic system using MATLAB to show the effect of the accumulator when it's connected to the system for different parameters and compare it with a PID controller. The hydraulic system has been simulated and tested using Automation Studio (AS) to measure different data such as the linear speed of hydraulic cylinder and the effect of connecting the accumulator to the system. All the results showed that the hydraulic accumulator has a great benefits and a large enhancement to the hydraulic system.


Article
Forward-Reverse Osmosis Processes for Oily Wastewater Treatment
عمليات التنافذ الامامي-العكسي لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

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In this study, the feasibility of Forward–Reverse osmosis processes was investigated for treating the oily wastewater. The first stage was applied forward osmosis process to recover pure water from oily wastewater. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) salts were used as draw solutions and the membrane that was used in forward osmosis (FO) process was cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. The operating parameters studied were: draw solution concentrations (0.25 – 0.75 M), oil concentration in feed solution (FS) (100-1000 ppm), the temperature of FS and draw solution (DS) (30 - 45 °C), pH of FS (4-10) and the flow rate of both DS and FS (20 - 60 l/h). It was found that the water flux and oil concentration in FS increase by increasing the concentration of draw solutions, the flow rate of FS and the temperature for a limit (40oC), then, the water flux and oil concentration decrease with increasing the temperature because of happening the internal concentration polarization phenomenon. By increasing the oil concentration in FS and the flow rate of the DS, the water flux and oil concentration in FS decreased, while it had a fluctuated behavior with increasing pH of oily wastewater. It was found also that MgCl2 gives water flux higher than NaCl. So the values of resistance to solute diffusion within the membrane porous support layer were 55.93 h/m and 26.21 h/m for NaCl and MgCl2 respectively. The second stage was applied reverse osmosis process using polyamide (thin film composite (TFC)) membrane for separating the fresh water from a diluted (NaCl) solution using different parameters such as draw solution concentration (0.08–0.16 M), feed flow rate (20–40 l/h).

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