Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:11 issue:2 عدد خاص بالمؤتمر النسوي الثاني

Article
Survival estimation for singly type one censored sample based on generalized Rayleigh distribution
تقدير البقاء لعينة مراقبة من النوع الأول بالاعتماد على توزيع رالي العام

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Abstract

This paper interest to estimation the unknown parameters for generalized Rayleigh distribution model based on censored samples of singly type one . In this paper the probability density function for generalized Rayleigh is defined with its properties . The maximum likelihood estimator method is used to derive the point estimation for all unknown parameters based on iterative method , as Newton – Raphson method , then derive confidence interval estimation which based on Fisher information matrix . Finally , testing whether the current model ( GRD ) fits to a set of real data , then compute the survival function and hazard function for this real data.


Article
Using Bernoulli Equation to Solve Burger's Equation
استخدام معادلة برنو لي لحل معادلة بيركر

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Abstract

In this paper we find the exact solution of Burger's equation after reducing it to Bernoulli equation. We compare this solution with that given by Kaya where he used Adomian decomposition method, the solution given by chakrone where he used the Variation iteration method (VIM)and the solution given by Eq(5)in the paper of M. Javidi. We notice that our solution is better than their solutions.


Article
Solution of Second Kind Volterra Integral Equations Using Non-Polynomial Spline Functions
حل معادلات فولتيرا التكاملية من النوع الثاني باستخدام دوال الثلمة الغير متعددة الحدود

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Abstract

In this paper we use non-polynomial spline functions to develop numerical methods to approximate the solution of 2nd kind Volterra integral equations. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applications of these method, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.


Article
On Higher N-Derivation Of Prime Rings
حول اشتقاق N العالي للحلقات الاوليه

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Abstract

The main purpose of this work is to introduce the concept of higher N-derivation and study this concept into 2-torsion free prime ring we proved that: Let R be a prime ring of char. 2, U be a Jordan ideal of R and be a higher N-derivation of R, then , for all u U , r R , n N .


Article
Solution of Nonlinear High Order Multi-Point Boundary Value Problems By Semi-Analytic Technique
حل مسائل القيم الحدودية متعـددة النقاط من الرتب العالية غير خطية باستخدام التقنية شبه التحليلية

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Abstract

In this paper, we present new algorithm for the solution of the nonlinear high order multi-point boundary value problem with suitable multi boundary conditions. The algorithm is based on the semi-analytic technique and the solutions are calculated in the form of a rapid convergent series. It is observed that the method gives more realistic series solution that converges very rapidly in physical problems. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method in solving this type of multi- point boundary value problems.


Article
Solving Optimal Control Linear Systems by Using New Third kind Chebyshev Wavelets Operational Matrix of Derivative
حل منظومات خطية للسيطرة المثلى باستخدام مصفوفة العمليات للمشتقات الجديدة شبيشيف الموجية من النوع الثالث

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In this paper, a new third kind Chebyshev wavelets operational matrix of derivative is presented, then the operational matrix of derivative is applied for solving optimal control problems using, third kind Chebyshev wavelets expansions. The proposed method consists of reducing the linear system of optimal control problem into a system of algebraic equations, by expanding the state variables, as a series in terms of third kind Chebyshev wavelets with unknown coefficients. Example to illustrate the effectiveness of the method has been presented.


Article
On Min - Cs Modules and Some Related Concepts
حول المجموع المباشر لأصغر مقاسات التوسع مع بعض المفاهيم المرتبطة

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Our aim in this paper is to study the relationships between min-cs modules and some other known generalizations of cs-modules such as ECS-modules, P-extending modules and n-extending modules. Also we introduce and study the relationships between direct sum of mic-cs modules and mc-injectivity.


Article
The construction of Complete (kn,n)-arcs in The Projective Plane PG(2,5) by Geometric Method, with the Related Blocking Sets and Projective Codes
بناء الاقواس (kn,n) في المستوي إلاسقاطي PG(2,5) بطريقة هندسية مع المجموعات القالبية والشفرات الاسقاطية المرتبطة بها

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Abstract

A (k,n)-arc is a set of k points of PG(2,q) for some n, but not n + 1 of them, are collinear. A (k,n)-arc is complete if it is not contained in a (k + 1,n)-arc. In this paper we construct complete (kn,n)-arcs in PG(2,5), n = 2,3,4,5, by geometric method, with the related blocking sets and projective codes.


Article
Modified Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Lagrange method
تطوير خوارزميات التدرج المترافق المشروط بطريقة لاكرانج

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Abstract

This paper is cornered with the improvement of conjugate gradient type methods (CG methods) to solve non-linear constrained optimization problems by using Lagrange method. Most numerical algorithms are sensitive to error due to arithmetic operation , therefore we suggested the self scaling conjugate Gradient method to avoid this difficulty and to increase the ability for solving algorithms for ill- problems. Our new modified CG method shows that , it is too effect when compared with other established algorithms to solve standard constant optimization problems.


Article
Computer aided photographic memory enhancement and speed reading (case study)
تحسين الذاكرة الصورية وتسريع القراءة بمساعدة الكمبيوتر

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Abstract

This work aimed to design and testing of a computer program – based eyeQ improvement, photographic memory enhancement, and speed reading to match the reading speed 150 – 250 word per minute (WPM) with the mind ability of processing and eye snap shooting 5000WPM . The package designed based on Visual Basic 6. The efficiency of the designed program was tested on a 10 persons with different levels of education and ages and the results show an increase in their reading speed of approximately 25% in the first month of training with noticeable enhancement in the memory as well as an increase in the ability to read for longer time without feeling nerves or boring, a nonlinear continuously increase in reading speed is assured after the first month with a hope of reaching a target of 3000WPM within 3 – 5 years of training and that is what is called photographic memory where most of the read data processed in right side of the mind, the smaller age, and higher level of education is an effective factor on the results.


Article
Building a Reliable Steganography System Using Random Key in a spatial Domain of Image
بناء نظام اخفاء بيانات معتمد بأستخدام المفتاح العشوائي في الحيز المكاني للصورة

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Abstract

With time progress importance of hiding information become more and more and all steganography applications is like computer games between hiding and extracting data, or like thieves and police men always thieve hides from police men in different ways to keep him out of prison. The sender always hides information in new way in order not to be understood by the attackers and only the authorized receiver can open the hiding message. This paper explores our proposed random method in detail, how chooses locations of pixel in randomly , how to choose a random bit to hide information in the chosen pixel, how it different from other approaches, how applying information hiding criteria on the proposed project, and attempts to test out in code, and in practice, through example.


Article
Image Steganography by Using Multiwavelet Transform
إخفاء الصورة باستعمال تحويلة متعددة المويجات

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Abstract

Steganography is the art of secret communication. Its purpose is to hide the presence of information, using, for example, images as covers. The frequency domain is well suited for embedding in image, since hiding in this frequency domain coefficients is robust to many attacks. This paper proposed hiding a secret image of size equal to quarter of the cover one. Set Partitioning in Hierarchal Trees (SPIHT) codec is used to code the secret image to achieve security. The proposed method applies Discrete Multiwavelet Transform (DMWT) for cover image. The coded bit stream of the secret image is embedded in the high frequency subbands of the transformed cover one. A scaling factors α and β in frequency domain control the quality of the stego images. The proposed algorithm is compared with wavelet based algorithm which shows a favorable results in terms of PSNR reaches to 18 dB.


Article
A Proposed Agent System for Network Monitoring
نظام وكيل مقترح لأدراة الشبكة

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Abstract

The traditional centralized network management approach presents severe efficiency and scalability limitations in large scale networks. The process of data collection and analysis typically involves huge transfers of management data to the manager which cause considerable network throughput and bottlenecks at the manager side. All these problems processed using the Agent technology as a solution to distribute the management functionality over the network elements. The proposed system consists of the server agent that is working together with clients agents to monitor the logging (off, on) of the clients computers and which user is working on it. file system watcher mechanism is used to indicate any change in files. The results were presented in real time which is minimizing the cost that represents the important factor to successful management of networks that was achieved using agents.


Article
Parallel Computing for Sorting Algorithms
الحساب المتوازي لخوارزميات التصنيف

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The expanding use of multi-processor supercomputers has made a significant impact on the speed and size of many problems. The adaptation of standard Message Passing Interface protocol (MPI) has enabled programmers to write portable and efficient codes across a wide variety of parallel architectures. Sorting is one of the most common operations performed by a computer. Because sorted data are easier to manipulate than randomly ordered data, many algorithms require sorted data. Sorting is of additional importance to parallel computing because of its close relation to the task of routing data among processes, which is an essential part of many parallel algorithms. In this paper, sequential sorting algorithms, the parallel implementation of many sorting methods in a variety of ways using MPICH.NT.1.2.3 library under C++ programming language and comparisons between the parallel and sequential implementations are presented. Then, these methods are used in the image processing field. It have been built a median filter based on these submitted algorithms. As the parallel platform is unavailable, the time is computed in terms of a number of computations steps and communications steps


Article
Spectrophotometric Analytical method for Determination the Drug Compound Salbutamol by using Prussian blue Complex
طريقة تحليلية طيفية لتقديرالمركب الدوائي Salbutamol بإستخدام معقد الزرقة البروسية

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Abstract

This research aims to develop new spectrophotometric analytical method to determine drug compound Salbutamol by reaction it with ferric chloride in presence potassium ferricyanide in acid median to formation of Prussian blue complex to determine it by uv-vis spectrophotmetric at wavelengths rang(700-750)nm . Study the optimal experimental condition for determination drug and found the follows: 1- Volume of(10M) H2SO4 to determine of drug is 1.5 ml . 2- Volume and concentration of K3Fe(CN)6 is 1.5 ml ,0.2% . 3- Volume and concentration of FeCl3 is 2.5ml , 0.2%. 4- Temperature has been found 80 . 5- Reaction time is 15 minute . 6- Order of addition is (drug + K3Fe(CN)6+ FeCl3 + acid) . Concentration rang (0.025-5 ppm) , limit detection(0.02)ppm . The method was applied successfully to determine the drug in tablet pharmaceutical preparation by use direct calibration curve and standard addition curve the recovery was 98.5% .


Article
Preparation and diagnosis of new types of Schiff bases one-and two- claw and complexes to study the effectiveness of chemical
تحضير وتشخيص انواع جديدة من قواعد شيف Schiff baseأحادية وثنائية السن ومعقداتها لدراسة فعاليتها الكيميائية

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Abstract

In this research we prepared shiff bases unilateral claw( benzyl imine aniline ) and Bilateral claw ( benzayal-2-imine phenol ) in high purity reach to 98% , which it's prepared from aromatic amine with aldehydes, it's solid,thermosetting, not dissolved in water in general. Diagnosed prepared article by using infra red spectroscopy (IR) which shows azomethen grop at 1640cm-1 At this diagnosis we suggest tetra headral mechanism in this Circumstances For a reaction.


Article
Effect of Some Herbs on the Level of Some Biochemical Parameters in Blood of Diabetic Patients Type II
تأثيربعض الاعشاب على مستوى بعض المتغيرات الكيموحيوية في دم مرضى السكري النوع الثاني

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Abstract

This study included effect of polyherbs mixture treatment of diabetic patients type II for two months. The polyherbs mixture contains Nigella sativa seeds, Boswellia carterri gum, Citrus aurantifolia fruits, Elettaria cardamomum fruits. Also this study included estimation of some biochemical parameters in the serum Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.) patients-type II and knowing the relationship of these parameters with this disease. The parameters are glucose, cholesterol ,High density , Low density lipoproteins( HDL-C, LDL-C) respectively , Triglycerides TG, urea, total protein , albumin , Alkaline phosphatase ALP,Transaminase GOT, GPT enzymes . Take (77) samples of diabetic patients serum type II which included (47) samples for group one: herbs + chemical treatment (drugs), (30) samples for group two: herbs only which were compared with (30) samples from health person as control group. From this study, the results shows that is an increase in the value of the following parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, urea, and enzyme ALP, GOT and GPT in blood before the treatment of patients with herbs and decreasing of these values after treatment with herbs for both one & two months , but an increasing was noticed when the treatment of these patients was stopped. At the same time, the results shows a decrease in HDL-C, total protein, albumin values before treatment with herbs of these patients and an increasing after treatment but decreasing was noticed at stopping of the treatment. On the other hands, these results observed the level of cholesterol for second group of patients after treatment with polyherbs for first and second month return to normal level and LDL-C level of the two groups of patients and increasing of these levels after stopped the treatment for one month to a value approximately to the value before treatment of these patients. Also observed the levels of total protein, albumin reached to normal levels of these parameters for the second group of patients treatment at second month.


Article
Modification Of Rheological Properties Of Asphalt Effect Of Addition Of Asphaltenes And Oxidized Asphaltenes On The Compatibility Of Asphalt- Sulfur Blends
تحوير المواصفات الريولوجية للاسفلت تأثير المعالجة بالإسفلتين و الإسفلتين المؤكسد على مزائج اسفلت –كبريت

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Abstract

This study is a complementary one to an extended series of research work that aims to produce a thermodynamiclly stable asphalt –sulfur blend. Asphalt was physically modified wiht different percentages of asphaltenes , oxidized asphaltenes and then mixed with sulfur as an attempt to obtaine a stable compatible asphalt-sulfur blend. The homogeneneity of asphalt-asphaltenes[oxidized asphaltenes]-sulfur blends were studied microscopically and the results are prsented as photomicrographs. Generally more stable and compatible asphalt-sulfur blends were obtained by this treatment.


Article
Preparation and diagnostic medicinal substance for regulating the thyroid gland
تحضير و تشخيص مادة دوائية لتنظيم عمل الغدة الدرقية

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Research included the preparation of medicinal substances ( propyl thiouracil). Which is the rule thiourea and related compounds a fundamental rule in preparation fall within the range of drugs of anti-thyroid activity (Antithyroid Drug ) , this drug prevents the thyroid hormone production against excessive activity of the thyroid gland .That the formation of iodine is important for their impact on hormone secretion thyroid , the two types, thyroxin or T4 is the main hormone ,Triiodothyronine or T3, and these hormones released by hormone regulator called (TSH) . Article attend thiourea treatment with an alcohol- soluble sodium and added to the interaction rule b- oxo ester after adjusting the PH=4 output ( propylthiouracil ) the melting point (219-222oC). Determination material producet by (UV.Vis) Spectrometer at 272nm , as well as infrared spectrometer ( I.R.Spectra ) were determined purity of material by HPLC and their conformity with pharmacopoeia USP(24) given article the validity of the medicinal use the drug control and acquired with surgery or without surgery at a dose (100mg) three times a day and usually the dose should not exceed the limits (50-150mg)a day.


Article
Determination Oxidant - Antioxidant Enzyme and some Trace Elements in Breast Cancer in Baghdad City
قياس مستوى الأكسدة ومضادات الأكسدة الأنزيمية وبعض العناصر النزرة في مرضى سرطان الثدي في مدينة بغداد

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level of effectiveness of Glutathione - S - Transferees (GST), Glutathione peroxides (GPX),Malondialdehyde (MDA) the product of lipid peroxidation and some trace elements ( zinc,seleinum,iron ,copper ) had been measured in sera of (50) women with breast disease.which had been divided to : Control group (25),The first group (A) benign breast tumors (25),the second group (B) breast cancer (25). The results showed a clear moral high level of Glutathione - S - Transferees (GST), Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) , and Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in breast cancer group while a slight increase were observed in the levels of these enzymes and(MDA) in benign breast group. A significant reduction was evident in the levels of selenium and zinc when compared with the control group while there were an increase in levels of sera copper , iron in the breast cancer group. As in (tissue) group of breast cancer found a rise in the level of selenium, zinc, copper, iron, compared with (serum) of breast cancer.


Article
Preparation, Characterization & Biological activity for Some Iron(II) Complexes Containing Mixed Ligands (Benzilazine & Semicarbazone) & Study of Laser Effect on Them
تحضير وتشخيص والفعاليّة الحيويّة لبعض من مُعقّدات الحديد(II) الجديدة الحاوية على مزيج من الليكندات(بنزل أزاين والسميكاربازون) ودراسة تأثير الليزر عليها

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The research included preparation of new iron(II) complexes with mixed ligands including benzilazine(BA) and semicarbazone ligands {benzilsemicarbazone- BSCH or benzilbis(semicarba-zone)- BBSCH2 or salicylaldehydesemicarbazone- SSCH2 or benzoinsemicarbazone- B'SCH2}.by classical and microwave methods. The resulted complexes have been characterized using chemical and physical methods. The study suggested that the above ligands form ionic complexes having formulae [Fe(SCHi)(BA)(Cl)m](Cl)2-m {where SCH, BSCH, BBSCH2, SSCH¬2 or B'SCH2 ligands; m=1 or 2}. Hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes have been investigated by this study and having octahedral geometries. The effect of laser ray type visible region have been studied on solid ligands and complexes for 1-3 hours, all the semicarbazone ligands have been affected slightly which can be neglected through the results of decomposition or melting points, while azine ligand does not affected by this kind of ray, i.e. stable ligand. Whereas, a noticeable effect have been observed on the most complexes through the results of decomposition or melting points which suggest the change in their structures, meanwhile the other complexes affected slightly by this kind of radiation which suggests the breaking of the hydrogen bond only. The activity of all the salt, ligands and complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion techniques against human pathogenic bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Entero-bacter aerogenes. All the ligands and complexes were found to have antibacterial activity against all the bacteria in vivo. The activity of all the ligands and complexes have been evaluated on Tonsillitis from males and females. They show very good activity against this pathogen


Article
Study of Plasma Metanephrine Level As Biochemical Parameter in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia
دراسة مستوى بلازما ميتنافرين كدالة كيموحيوية عند النساء الحوامل المصابات بارتفاع ضغط الدم

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Abstract

Pregnancy- including hypertension(PIH), also known as preeclampsia, is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal death. This study was carried out on 30 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 30 healthy pregnant women as control ranging in age mean ±SD (28.84±3.55) years , BMI (76.80±9.78) Kg/m2 and gestation age(30.82±0.75)week. The aim of this research was studied the plasma Metanephrine level and other biochemical parameters such as Hemoglobin(Hb), serum Protein, S. Albumin, Globulin, Albumin/Globulin ratio (Alb/Glu. ratio), S.Glutamate Pyruvate aminotransferase (GPT), S.Glutamate Oxaloacetate aminotransferase(GOT). The obtained results have been compared with 30 healthy pregnant women as control group. The result showed that there was significant increase in mean value of Hb in group A(pregnant women with preeclampsia) when compared to group B(healthy pregnant women). The present study showed no significant changes was observed in the level of S. Protein, globulin, Alb./Glu. ratio, GPT and GOT as compared to control group. While Albumin showed a significant decrease in group A(pregnant women with preeclampsia) when compared with group B(healthy pregnant women) and significant increase in the levels of metanephrine, metanephrine/protein ratio, metanephrine/Alb ratio in group A (pregnant women with preeclampsia) to group B(healthy pregnant women).The present study conclude that the increase in the levels of metanephrine, metanephrine/protein ratio, metanephrine/Alb ratio in pregnant women with preeclampsia may be used as a marker to evaluate the development of disease. The current study recommend to take more case and measurement metanephrine in plasma and urine.

Keywords

Preeclampsia --- Hemoglobin --- Metanephrine --- S. Protein --- GPT --- GOT --- Albumin --- Globulin .


Article
Metabolic Disturbances of Phosphate in Metabolic Syndrome
الاضطرابات الأيضية للفوسفاتِ في المتلازمةِ الأيضيةِ

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Background: Metabolic syndrome MS a cluster of disorders comprising obesity (central and abdominal), dyslipidaemias, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance (or hyperinsulinaemia) and hypertension – is highly predictive of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. It should be emphasized that the metabolic syndrome is a syndrome and not a disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of serum phosphate in different levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome MS and Correlation between serum phosphate levels with metabolic syndrome components. The study was carried out at the National diabetes Center (NDC) /AL-Mustansiryia University ,the period from (Desmber.2011 – May 2012) One hundred forty (140) Iraqi individuals enrolled in the study (100 subject diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome and 40 as control group). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. The results of the serum phosphate concentrations in both groups showed that subjects with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower phosphate concentrations 1.52 mg/dl compared with that of control 2.29 mg/dl P˂0.0001. The clinical significance of these electrolyte disturbances, as one of the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. In addition this electrolyte imbalance may have a role in prevention and or treatment of the metabolic syndrome.


Article
The synergistic effect of Zeolites type (Α) with chlorinated rubber as flame retardants for unsaturated polyester resin
التأثير التأزري للزيولايت نوع (A) مع المطاط المكلور كمثبطات للهب البولي استر غير المشبع

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In this work, the synergistic effect of chlorinated rubber (additive I),with zeolite 3A (additive II), zeolite 4A (additive III), and zeolite 5A (additive IV) in (1:1) weight percentage, on the flammability for unsaturated polyester resin was studied in the weight ratios for (3,7,10,13&15%) by preparing films of (130×130×3) mm in diameters. Three standard test methods used to measure were the flame retardation which are; ASTM: D-2863, ASTM: D- 635& ASTM: D-3014. Results obtained from these tests indicated that all of the additives were effective additive IV has the highest efficiency as a flame retardant.


Article
Evaluation of the Organic-Pollution Based on the Determination of some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Tigris River Water in 2012 at Baghdad City , Iraq
تقويم التلوث العضوي المعتمد على تعيين المركبات الاروماتية المتعددة الحلقات(PAHs) في مياه نهر دجلة من عام 2012 م في مدينة بغداد - العراق

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This study aims to predict the organic pollution produced from the presence of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and determination it's concentrations (µg/L , ppb) in Tigris river water by a collection twenty-seven water samples from a selected three stations with nine sampling sites and three depths of water (5 cm , 2 m and 4 m) each site for 4.6 km distance of a geographic studied area which is located between the ( Al-Senak and AL-Sarrafiah bridges ) at Baghdad city – Iraq on May, 2012. The geographic location was determined with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) software program. The concentrations of fourteen components (PAHs) were performed using the reverse phase of high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique. Samples were chemically treated using liquid-liquid extraction method , filtered , extracted , dried , evaporated and pre-concentrated in order to be ready for analysis . The determined concentrations of (PAHs) for the studied area did exceed the criteria values proposed by the International Environmental Organizations like American Environment Protection Agency (U.S-EPA) and British Health Agency (BHA) . The results were showed that the maximum values of the total concentrations (PAHs) were found to be 228 µg/L (5 cm depth , site F, Medicine city station , Al-Resafa bank) , 192.1 µg/L (2 m depth , site D , Medicine city station , Al-Karkh bank) and 80.1 µg/L (4 m depth , site D , Medicine city station , Al-Karkh bank) , while the minimum values were found to be be 51.2 µg/L (5 cm depth , site I, Al-Sarrafia bridge station , Al-Resafa bank) , 33.4 µg/L (2 m depth , site G , Al-Sarrafia bridge station , Al-Karkh bank) and 4.8 µg/L (4 m depth , site G , Al-Sarrafia bridge station , Al-Karkh bank) .


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New heterocyclic Polyacrylamides from Derivatives 2-Aminobenzothiazole
تحضير وتشخيص بولي أكريل أميدات جديدة غير متجانسة من مشتقات2- أمينو بنزوثايازول

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The present work involved preparation of new hetro cyclic polyacrylamides (1-9) using reaction of polyacryloyl chloride with 2-aminobenzothiazole which prepeard by thiocyanogen method in the presence of a suitable solvent and amount tri ethyl amine (Et3N) with heating. The structure confirmation of polymers were proved using FT-IR,1H-NMR,C13NMR and UV spectroscopy.Other physical properties including softening and melting points, and solubility of the polymers were also measured.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Textural Analysis of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Using Sodium Silicate as Precursor and Silicone Surfactant as Template
تحضير وتشخيص وتحليل سطح سيليكا مسامية محورة بأستخدام سيليكات الصوديوم كمصدر سيليكوني ومادة فعالة سطحيا سيليكونية كقالب

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Three mesoporous silica with different functional group were prepared by one-step synthesis based on the simultaneous hydrolysis and condensation of sodium silicate with organo - silane in the presence of template surfactant polydimethylsiloxane - polyethyleneoxide (PDMS - PEO). The prepared materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. The results indicate that the preparation of methyl and phenyl functionalized silica were successful and the mass of methyl and phenyl groups bonded to the silica structure are 15, 38 mmol per gram silica. The average diameter of the silica particles are 103.51, 167.25 , and 86.41 nm while the average pore diameter are 6.7, 16.4, and 2.7 nm for unfunctionalized, methyl, and phenyl functionalized silica respectively.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and study biologicalactivity of several 1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxylimidyl Containing oxadiazole and Benzothiazole
تخليق وتشخيص مركبات ١-سايكلوبنتين-٢،١-ثنائي كاربوكسيل ايميديل حاوية على مجاميع الاوكسادايزول والبنزوثايازول ودراسة فعاليتها البايولوجية

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In this work involved prepared of several new 1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxylimide linked to oxadiazole and benzothiazole moiety were synthesized by two steps: The first step 2-amino-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles and substituted-2-aminobenzothiazole were reaction with 1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxyl anhydride producing N-( 5- substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)-1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxyl amic acids and N-(Substitutedbenzothiazole-2-yl)-1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxyl amic acids which in turn were dehydrated in the second step via fusion method to afford he desirable N-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)-1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxylimides and N-(Substituted benzothiazole-2-yl)1-cyclopentene-1,2-dicarboxylimides respectively. Structures of the prepared compounds were characterized by depending on FTIR, U.V spectral data which were in agreement with the proposed ones. Finally antibacterial activity of some of the prepared new cyclic imides were studied by two types of bacteria and the results showed that the most of the tested imides posses good biological activity against these bacteria.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Screening of New Schiff Bases Linked to Phthalimidyl Phenyl Sulfonate Moiety
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية المضادة للمايكروبات لقواعد شيف جديدة مرتبطة بمكونة فثال ايميديل فنيل سلفونات

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A series of Schiff bases linked to phthalimidyl phenyl sulfonate moiety have been synthesized via multistep synthesis. The first step involved reaction of phthalic anhydride with aniline producing N-phenyl phthalamic acid which was subsequently dehydrated to the corresponding N-phenyl phthalimide via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate. The synthesized imide was treated with chlorosulfonic acid in the third step producing 4-(N-phthalimidyl) phenyl sulfonyl chloride which was introduced in reaction with 4-hydroxy acetophenone in the fourth step producing 4-[4-(N-phthalimidyl) phenyl sulfonate] acetophenone and this in turn was introduced successfully in condensation reaction with various aromatic primary amines affording the desired new Schiff bases. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized through spectral data including FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Antimicrobial activity of the prepared Schiff bases was evaluated against two types of bacteria and one type of fungi and the new Schiff bases were found to exhibit good antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.


Article
Evaluation of protein level’s changes in saliva and sera of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma patients
تقييم التغيرات في مستوى بروتين اللعاب والأمصال في المرضى المصابين بسرطان الخلايا الحرشفية

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This study aimed to identify the changes in total protein in saliva and sera samples of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in comparison to those of healthy controls. These changes were followed using electrophoresis (PAGE). Meanwhile, determinations of albumin, globulin and albumin to globulin ratio were carried out on sera samples only. Two groups were the participants in the present study, 18 patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), and 20 ages and gender matched healthy controls.


Article
Recovery of pure Hesperidin from Iraqi Sweet Oranges Peel and study the effect in some bacteria
عزل مادة الهسبردين النفية من قشور البرتقال العراقي ودراسة التأثير القاتل على انواع من البكتريا المرضية

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Abstract

Citrus fruit contain variety of flavonoids such as Hesperidin (the principal flavonoid in oranges and grapefruit). Hesperidin is found in high concentration in fruit peel of oranges and in substantially lower concentration in juice of these fruits. Hesperidin was extracted from oranges peel by treating the peels with calcium hydroxide. HPLC technique was used to determine hesperidin. Hesperidin was saperated and purified in a purity of about 90.1-95.7% and yield about 1.5 %w/w from oranges peel dry powder. Both hesperidin and oranges peel extract showed significan antibacterial activity. Sensitivity to hesperidin and oranges peel extracts were not similar for the chosen bacteria Crude orange peel extract gave a various antimicrobial activity agents Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aurous, Streptococcus pyogenus sp. and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) bacteria strains`. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against these bacteria ranged from 45-175μg/disc.for crude orange peel extractand 175-450μg/disc for pure hesperidin In comparison to 30μg/disc reference standards ciproflaxacin and impinme.orange peel extract showed significant antimicrobial activity.

Keywords

Hesperidin --- orange peel --- bacteria


Article
Levels of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients with Nephropathy and Cardiovascular disease complication
مستويات إنزيم الكلوكوز 6 فوسفات ديهايدروجينيز في مرضى السكري من النوع الاول مع مضاعفات الكلى والامراض الوعائيه

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The aim of this study is to evaluate oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus (DM) Type1 by the measurement of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), an enzyme expressed in human RBCs, is important in the generation of reduced glutathione which is the key product in oxidative stress controls. The Study was carried on 80 samples of blood and serum of National Diabetes Center (NDC). The study groups under fasting conditions and they divided as: 20 samples of diabetes mellitus patients without complications and 20 samples of diabetes mellitus with cardiovascular (CV) complications and 20 samples of diabetes mellitus with Nephropathy (Neph) complications compared with 20 control group with average age (13-67) years.. The results showed an elevation in the lipid profile and urea levels in patients groups compared with control group and a decrease in glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase, HDL levels in all patients groups compared with control group.


Article
Synthesis and Environmental Application of BiOI/BiOCl Composites
المحضرة مختبريا BiOI/BiOCl الاستخدام البيئي لمركبات

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This work illustrates an enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye (M.O.) by employing BiOI / BiOCl composites prepared under room temperature and without any organic precursors. Various experimental parameters have been studied, namely; composition of the composite, irradiation time and cell material. Composition D which implied 75% BiOI and 25% BiOCl has shown the highest bleaching of M.O. dye. This confirms the optimum photo-sensitization phenomenon for this composition in comparison to others. In the optimum photo-sensitized composite the electron of the conduction band reveals better reducing power and the hole of the valence band exhibits more oxidative power than those of pure BiOI electron and hole. Accordingly, under appropriate experimental conditions, methyl orange was significantly bleached using composite D.


Article
Synthesis and characterization of new Oxazine , Thiazine and Pyrazol derived from chalcones
تحضير وتشخيص مشتقات جديدة للأوكسازاين والثايازاين والبايروزول من الجالكون

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Abstract

In this study, chalcones were synthesis by condensing 2-acetylpyridine with aromatic aldehyde derivatives in dilute ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature according to Claisen-Schmidt condensation. After that, new heterocyclic derivatives such as Oxazine, Thiazine and Pyrazol were synthesis by reaction between chalcones with urea, thiourea and hydrazine hydrate respectively scheme 1. All these compounds wrer characterization by FTIR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.


Article
Synthesis of Some new 2-(4-Aryliminophenoxy)N-Arylacetamide Via p-hydroxy benzaldehyde.
تحضير عدد من مركبات 2-(4- اريل ايمينوفينوكس)-N اريل استياميد من بارا- هيدروكسي بنزلديهايد

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Abstract

Chloroacetamide derivatives (2a-g) have been prepared through reaction of chloroacetyl chloride(1) (which prepared by the reaction of chloroacetic acid with thionyl chloride) with primary aromatic amines and sulfa compounds to afford compounds (2a-g) which then reacted with p-hydroxy benzaldehyde via Williamson reaction to obtaine the new compounds 2-(4-formyl phenoxy)-N-aryl acetamide (3a-g). Finally , compounds (3a-g) will be use as a good synthon to prepare the Schiff bases represented by compounds 2-(4-aryliminophenoxy)-N-arylacetamide (4a-g). through , reaction with some primary aromatic amine. All the prepared compounds were investigated by the available physical and spectroscopic methods.

Keywords

Schiff base --- amides --- ether.


Article
Liquid crystalline dendrimer: Sythesis and Chracterization
بلورات سائلة شجيرية : تحضير و تصنيف

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A new family of nematic liquid crystal dendrimers derived from 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were synthesized. The synthesis of the dendrimers compounds shows the influence of the dendritic core on the mesomorphic properties. The liquid crystalline properties were studied by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) equipped with a hot stage, the structures of the synthesized compounds characterized using FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopy.

Keywords

dendrimer --- crystalline


Article
Improvement of Gasoline Octane Number by Using Organic Compounds
تحسين العدد الاوكتاني للكازولين باستخدام مركبات عضوية مختلفة

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The toxic lead additives to gasoline are no longer used in many countries around the world. Many other countries are now phasing out the lead in gasoline. Although the lead fuel is still in use in Iraq, several plans are considered to phase out the lead. The use of organic compounds to replace the lead additives in gasoline is considered now as an option in Iraqi refineries. The main objective of this project was preparation of premium gasoline, by blending of gasoline with Alternative additives (alcohol, aromatic) to enhancing octane number of Al-Doura gasoline pool. Improved gasoline was tested by ASTM standard method which includes octane number measuring by CFR engine analyzer. Gasoline pool RON (80) was used and selective components were added to the gasoline pool (1-3%) to improving it octane, such as ethanol, methanol,isopropanol,isobutanol, benzene, nitrobenzene, Aniline, and nitro aniline. Octane number of blends was measured by CFR engine. Mixture of alternative additives was prepared and adding in 1-3%vol to the gasoline pool. It was found that the additives show significant improvement of octane number of gasoline but the important increasing of RON was shown on use mixture of alcohols and aniline.


Article
Complete Blood Count and Cinnamic acid activity against Cytoxan in albino mice.
تعداد الدم الكامل وفعالية حامض السيناميك تجاه السايتوكسان في الفئران المختبرية

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The aim of study to evaluated cinnamic acid and its activity on complete blood count(RBC,WBC,HG,HCV,MCH,MCHC and Plat.)and removed the cytoxan damage which caused bone marrow failure and leukemia and other that due to linked the cytoxan in 7- nitrogen of guanine based of DNA that lead to dead cells. Two concentration from pure cinnamic acid (5.6, 2.8 mg ⁄ mice weight) in first step to choice the perfect concentration in comparison with each negative control ,positive control of cytoxan and the comparison group represent vitamin C. The second step to understand cinnamic acid mechanism activity towards cytoxan by used pre- cytoxan and post – cytoxan in interaction with perfect concentration of cinnamic acid dose (2.8 mg ⁄ mice weight).The analysis showed that cinnamic acid removed each kinds of anemia ,leukemia, bone marrow failure, hypoxia, cancer chemotherapy, hemolytic anemia and hormone erythropoietin from kidney failure in post-cytoxan than pre-cytoxan perfectly ,therefore, cinnamic acid has cure ability and removed cytoxan damage and can give to patient whom used cytoxan in transplanting body part surgeries to a void refused the part for 6 days after transplanting surgeries.


Article
A Study of the Structural and Optical Properties of SnS:F prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique
دراسة الخواص التركيبية والبصرية لأغشية SnS:F المحضرة بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري

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Thin films of pure tin mono-sulfide SnS and tin mono-sulfide for (1,2,3,4)% fluorine SnS:F with Thicknesses of (0.85 ±0.05) μm and (0.45±0.05) μm respectively were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. the effect of doping of F on structural and optical properties has been studied. X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the prepared films were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. It was found that doping increased the intensity of diffraction peaks. Optical properties of all samples were studied by recording the absorption and transmission spectrum in range of wave lengths (300-900) nm. The optical energy gap for direct forbidden transition and indirect allowed transition were evaluated It is found that for doping less than 2% the optical energy gap increases as the percentage of doping increases in the samples while for doping more than 2% the values of the optical energy gap decreases as the percentage of doping increases.


Article
Study of the Inter-Particle Expectation Values for Inter and Outer Shell
دراسة القيمة المتوقعة للمسافة بين الكترونين للقشرة الداخلية والخارجية

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In this research the Inter-Particle Expectation Values have been studied for atomics Helium (He) and Beryllium (Be) also for He-like ions, Be-like ions (Li-1, B+1ǁ Li+1, Be+2, B+3) by using Hartree-Fock wave functions, We compared the results to some ions which have the same atomic number from each group with atomic number, We compared the results with published calculations to the last studied .


Article
Uranium concentrations in Soil of Salahdin Governorate Using CR-39 Nuclear Track Detector
تركيز اليورانيوم في تربة محافظة صلاح الدين بأستعمال كاشف الاثر النووي CR-39

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Uranium concentrations in soil were determined for ten locations in Salahdin governorate using CR-39 track detector, fission fragments track technique was used, the nuclear reaction of nuclear fission fragments obtained by the bombardment of 235U with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source with flux (5000n.cm-2.s-1), the concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples. The results of the measurements show that the uranium concentration in soil samples various from 0.42±0.018ppm in Beji province to 0.2±0.014 ppm in Tooz province with an average (0.31±0.08ppm), the values of uranium concentration in all samples are within the permissible limits universally.


Article
Emission Spectra for the Isotopic Molecule Lithium Hydride
دراسة نظرية لأطياف الانبعاث للنظير لجزيئة LiH

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A study of the emission spectra of isotopic for electronic states has been carried out. The energies of the vibration levels ( =0,1,..25) and the values of spectral lines R(J) and P(J) versus rotational quantum number (J=0,1..25). It was found that were an increase of the value of R(J) with the increase of the values of J was found while the value of P(J) decreases with decreasing of the values of J . It was found that corresponding to R(J) and P(J) the spectral line R(J) increases when the values of m increased.


Article
Study of Fatigue and Bending Properties For Epoxy / Kevlar - Glass Fibers and Hybrid Composite
دراسة خاصية الكلال لمتراكبات الايبوكسي المدعمة بألياف الكفلر والزجاج ومتراكبات هجينة

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In this research a study of the effect of quality, sequential and directional layers for three types of fibers are:(Kevlar fibers-49 woven roving and E- glass fiber woven roving and random) on the fatigue property using epoxy as matrix. The test specimens were prepared by hand lay-up method the epoxy resin used as a matrix type (Quick mast 105) in prepared material composit . Sinusoidal wave which is formed of variable stress amplitudes at 15 Hz cycles was employed in the fatigue test ( 10 mm )and (15mm) value 0f deflection arrival to numbers of cycle failure limit, by rotary bending method by ( S-N) curves this curves has been determined ( life , limit and fatigue strength) of composite . The results show us the reinforcement has important act to increased resistance to the fatigue compared with specimens have non reinforcement this side the specimens reinforcement of glass fiber have resistance to fatigue and fatigue life better than the specimens reinforcement of Kevlar fiber . According to hybrid composite sample fatigue test results showed that the sample which reinforced (Kevlar - regular glass – Kevlar) has a best results which showed stress carrying the most powerful and longer fatigue life with more than (1.3 ×10 6) cycle from other hybrids , while the sample with the sample with three Kevlar reinforced layers have less resistant to fatigue


Article
Fracture Toughness and Hardness studying for Polymer-Ceramic Composite
دراسة متانة الكسر والصلادة لمتراكب بوليمر- سيراميك

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A particulate composite material was prepared by adding the Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with a particle size of (75-150) µm to Epoxy resin at weight percentage of (10%,20%,30%,40%,50%).The following some mechanical properties were studied,fracture toughness, hardness.casting preparation methods were used in this study includes preparing plate of matrix and composites. specimens were prepared according to ASTM for the Mechanical properties tests. After that Another samples were heat treated for three and six hour at 65Cο. Fracture toughness (Kic) represent for stress intensity factor results were showed that the curve of three hours aging increases in fracture toughness (Kic) for composites but for six hours aging increases fracture toughness (Kic) for polymer matrix. Hardness tests was showed that hardness results increased with the increase in weight fraction while a samples that not treated thermally have higher hardness than the samples for treated thermally. Finally, fracture surfaces were showed morphology failure surfaces by using an optical Microscope.


Article
Effect of thickness on optical properties of pure Epoxy Resin plates
تأثير السمك على الخصائص البصرية لالواح راتنج الايبوكسي النقي

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In this study, Epoxy Resin plates was prepared by mixing epoxy(A) and hardner(B)with ratio(A:B) (3:1) with different thickness (0.3-0.96)cm. The effect of thickness on optical properties have been studied (absorption ,transmission ,reflectance) also the optical constant were found like (absorption coefficient, extenuation coefficient and refraction index) for all of the prepared plates. The results have shown that by increasing the thickness of plates., the absorption intensity increase in which at plates thickness (0.3-0.96)cm the absorption intensity were(1.54-1.43) respectively, and since absorption peak for epoxy occur in ultraviolet region and exactly at wavelength(368)nm and energy gap(Eg=3.05 eV) thus their good transmittance in the visible light region The plates have transmittance of about (60-83.4)% in visible region ,the refraction index for Elda epoxy is (n= 1.53 ) and its reflectance is (R=4 )% at wavelength (368 nm).


Article
(μm 10.6) Design study for Reserve of laser CO2
دراسة تصميمية لمستقبل ليزر CO2 (μm 10.6)

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Abstract

In this paper , the CO2 laser receiver system is designed and studied, with wavelength laser 10.6 μm in room temperature , and to evaluate the performance and discussion it via the package of optical design (ZEMAX), from its output the Spot Diagram is measured through RMS ,and from the Ray fan plot , the aberrations is found which is the normal error for the best focus named (under corrected ) , the other output was the Geometric Encircled Energy in the spot diagram . and found that the radius of spot diagram at 80% (R80%) from the total energy ,and focal shift .The designed system have high efficiency and low cost .


Article
Needle Technique as Optimal Method for Optimal Design antireflection in IR (3.5 μm) region
تقانة الابرة كطريقة مثلى لتصميم طلاء مضاد للانعكاس امثل ضمن منطقة الاطوال الموجية تحت الحمراء (3-5 ) ما يكرو متر

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In this paper have been overcome the difficulties regarding designing multi- layers anti-reflection coatings (ARCs ) and achievement optimal designing for IR (3-5um) region by adopting needle technique as optimal method . Here intend to investigate solutions for many practical problems. This work appears designed (ARC) that have good performance with reduction the number of layers, which can enable one to controlling the errors effect of the thickness layers on the final product. Results shows that choosing optimal Merit Function Besides, most of results referred to the suggested designs which are very effective, in building the anti- reflection coating filters and gives big potential to reach complex optical coating match the optimization characteristics of the optical performance with less number of materials with less thickness. Results shows that the construction of multilayer antireflection coating using in this approach can be designed with most complicated performance, and it is difficult designing in other approach .Also this work appears needle method able to control of problem material coating selection


Article
Space-Charge Effect on the Theoretical Design of Electron Gun Operated under Zero Magnification Condition
تأثير شحنة الفراغ في التصميم النظري لقاذف الكتروني يعمل تحت ظرف التكبير الصفري

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A computational investigation is carried out in the field of charged –particle optics with the aid of numerical analysis method using the personal computer. The work is concerned with the design of electron gun with space-charge effect. The Finite element method (FEM) used in the solution of Poison's equation for determine the axial potential distribution of the two-electrode immersion lens operated under zero magnification condition , and from the solution of the paraxial ray equation the optical properties such as the focal length , spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients are determined, also a calculation of the brightness and perveance for the lens. The electrodes geometry was determined in two and three dimension with the aid of new drawing software called SIMION 7 and the electron beam trajectory under zero magnification conditions has been determine for these electrodes.


Article
Ingots Defects under the influence of Solidification and Freezing Conditions.
عيوب المسبوكات تحت تأثير ظروف الصب والتجمد

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The results of research to reach the conditions that prevents the emergence of primary or secondary voids and achieve worker benefit from molded by almost 100%, which was the situation that cast poured in a mold heated and insulated from all sides to achieve freezing directional full starting from the region remote from the casting and ending then. Has also been compared to the microscopic structure of the resulting castings of various molding conditions, as these conditions have achieved the best sound microscopic structures.


Article
Preparation of superposed thin film (CdTe)1-xSex / ZnS and Studying the Effect of Concentration on Some its Electrical Properties.
تحضير غشاء المتراكب (CdTe)1-xSex / ZnS ودراسة تأثير التركيز على بعض خواصه الكهربائية

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Preparation of superposed thin film (CdTe)1-xSex / ZnS) with concentration of (x= 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) at a temperature of substrate (Ts= 80 0C) by using Thermal Vacuum Evaporation System. The measurement of X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds CdTe, ZnS, (CdTe)1-xSex and (CdTe)1-xSex / ZnS have a polycrystalline structure, the C-V characteristic shows that the capacitance degrease by increasing the concentration (x) in reverse bias, while the I-V characteristic shows the current dark (Id) increase in forward and reverse bias by increasing (x) and the photocurrent (Iph) increase in reverse bias by increasing the concentration (x), the values of photocurrent are greater than from the values of the dark current for all concentrations.


Article
Determination of solar window for Baghdad city using pv system program
تحديد النافذة الشمسية لمدينة بغداد باستخدام برنامج PV.SYSTEM

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Been using a pv system program to determine the solar window for Baghdad city . the solar window for any location can be determine by deviating left and right from the geographical south as well as deviation according to the amount of tilt angle with the horizon for fixed panel so that will not change the average of solar radiation incident over the whole year and this lead to help in the process of installation of fixed solar panel without any effect on annual output .the range of solar window for Baghdad city between two angles ( -8 - +8 ) degrees left to right of the geographical south and tilt angle that allowed for the horizon range between angles (21- 30) degrees so that the amount of solar radiation that falling on the solar panel in this range of fixed angles about5.6 kw.h/m2 yearl.


Article
Preparation of polymer thin film using as NH3 gas Sensor
تحضير غشاء بوليمري يستخدم كمتحسس لغاز الأمونيا

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Polyaniline organic Semiconductor polymer thin films have been prepared by oxidative polymerization at room temperature, this polymer was deposited on glass substrate with thickness 900nm, FTIR spectra was tested , the structural,optical and electrical properties were studied through XRD ,UV-Vis ,IR measurements ,the results was appeared that polymer thin film sensing to NH3 gas.


Article
The effect of using magnetized water on the percentage of cement in the Concrete mixture
تأثير استخدام الماء الممغنط على نسب الاسمنت في الخلطة الخرسانية

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This research studied the effect of magnetized water in concrete preparation and its effect on the presenting of cement in concrete mixtures also to find the ability of reducing the amount of cement in preparing one cubic meter, this is not exceed than 10% in one mixture , The experiments showed the preparation of standard cubes from the concrete which was used two kind of water magnetized water which was prepared by passing the tap water through the systems of different magnetic strength in terms of (6000,9000) Gauss and the ordinary water . The velocity of water through the magnetic field, which gives us the highest value for the compressive strength, was up to 1m/sec. to determine the best magnetic intensity, we examined The compressive strength and workability of the concrete which is not effect on the efficiency of the structure because of reducing cement percentage. The tests for compressive strength on concrete mixture with magnetized water appeared an increase (24%) compared to the results of the control cubes with fixed amount of cement; also the cubes with less amount of cement showed an increase (22%) and both cases give us higher compressive strength and workability.


Article
Fabrication of multi-junction solar cells
تصنيع خلية سليكونية متعددة الطبقات

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Fabrication of solar cell prepared by thermal spray and vacuum thermal evaporation method on silicon wafer(n-type) and studying its efficiency. The film have been deposited on three layers(ZnO then CdS and CdTe) on Si and glass respectively.Direct energy gap was calculated and equal to (4.3,3.4,3)eV and indirect energy gap equal to (3.5,2.5,1.5)eV respectively . Efficiency was calculated for the cell of area 2cm2 it was equal to 0.14%.


Article
'I-V Characteristic and Crystal Structural Of a-As/c-Si Heterojunctions
الخصائص الكهروبصرية والتركيبيه للمفرق المتباين a-As/c-Si

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In this research the a-As flims have been prepared by thermal evaporation with thickness 250 nm and rata of deposition r_d(1.04nm/sec) as function to annealing temperature (373 and 473K), from XRD analysis we can see that the degree of crystalline increase with T_a, and I-V characteristic for dark and illumination shows that forward bias current varieties approximately exponentially with voltage bias. Also we found that the quality factor and saturation current dependence on annealing temperatures.


Article
Use of Infrared Light to Improve Breast Sonographic images
استعمال الأشعة تحت الحمراء لتحسين صورة السونار في فحص الثدي

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It is well known that sonography is not the first choice in detecting early breast tumors. Improving the resolution of breast sonographic image is the goal of many workers to make sonography a first choice examination as it is safe and easy procedure as well as cost effective. In this study, infrared light exposure of breast prior to ultrasound examination was implemented to see its effect on resolution of sonographic image. Results showed that significant improvement was obtained in 60% of cases.


Article
Study the Spectral Properties of Coumarine -47 Dissolved in Chloroform
دراسة الخصائص الطيفية لصبغة الكومرين -47 المذابة في مذيب الكلوروفورم

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The spectral propetties (absorption and fluorescence) of Coumarine-47 laser dye have been studied. This type of laser dye belong the Coumarine family and it has dissolved in chloroform at different concentrations (1x10-5, 5x10-5, and 1x10-4 M) at room temperature. The achieved results have been pointed out to increase in the absorption and fluorescence as the concentration increased which are agreements with Beer – Lambert law. These have been also showed an expansion in the spectral range of absorption and fluorescence with a noticed shift in the direction of longer wavelength (Red-shift) with increasing concentration. The quantum efficiency of the dissolved C47 in chloroform has been computed by using the brevious concentrations and their results are as follows (69%, 63%, and 45%) respectively. The radiative and fluorescence lifetime have been also computed as given (6.47ns, 4.67ns, and 2.06ns) and (4,07ns, 3.22ns, and 1.47ns) respectively.


Article
The Effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of (Cu2S)100-x( SnS2 )x thin films
تأثير التلدين على الخصائص البصرية لأغشية (Cu2S)100-x( SnS2 )x

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Thin films of (Cu2S)100-x( SnS2 )x at X=[ 30,40, &50)]% with thickness (0.9±0.03)µm , had been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates at 573 K. These films were then annealed under low pressure of(10-2) mbar ,373)423&473)K for one hour . This research includes , studying the the optical properties of (Cu2S)100-x-(SnS2)x at X=[ 30,40, &50)]% .Moreover studying the effect of annealing on their optical properties , in order to fabricate films with high stability and transmittance that can be used in solar cells. The transmittance and absorbance spectra had been recorded in the wavelength range (310 - 1100) nm in order to study the optical properties . It was found that these films had direct optical band gap which decreases with the increasing SnS2 ratio , while it increasing with the increase in the annealing temperature at all ratio


Article
Clouds Height Classification Using Texture Analysis of Meteosat Images
تصنيف ارتفاع الغيوم باستخدام التحليل النسيجي لصور القمر الصناعي الميتيوسات

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In the present work, pattern recognition is carried out by the contrast and relative variance of clouds. The K-mean clustering process is then applied to classify the cloud type; also, texture analysis being adopted to extract the textural features and using them in cloud classification process. The test image used in the classification process is the Meteosat-7 image for the D3 region.The K-mean method is adopted as an unsupervised classification. This method depends on the initial chosen seeds of cluster. Since, the initial seeds are chosen randomly, the user supply a set of means, or cluster centers in the n-dimensional space.The K-mean cluster has been applied on two bands (IR2 band) and (water vapour band).The textural analysis is used where six parameters are calculated from the Co-occurrence matrix. These parameter were inserted in the K-mean. The best classifier feature is the angular second moment. When we use the angular second moment is used with any textural feature a good result were obtained for cloud classification, since the angular second moment gives indications on cloud homogeneity.


Article
Multifocus Images Fusion Based On Homogenity and Edges Measures
دمج الصور ذات التركيز المتعدد بالاعتماد على مقياسي التجانس والحافات

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Image fusion is one of the most important techniques in digital image processing, includes the development of software to make the integration of multiple sets of data for the same location; It is one of the new fields adopted in solve the problems of the digital image, and produce high-quality images contains on more information for the purposes of interpretation, classification, segmentation and compression, etc. In this research, there is a solution of problems faced by different digital images such as multi focus images through a simulation process using the camera to the work of the fuse of various digital images based on previously adopted fusion techniques such as arithmetic techniques (BT, CNT and MLT), statistical techniques (LMM, RVS and WT) and spatial techniques (HPFA, HFA and HFM). As these techniques have been developed and build programs using the language MATLAB (b 2010). In this work homogeneity criteria have been suggested for evaluation fused digital image's quality, especially fine details. This criterion is correlation criteria to guess homogeneity in different regions within the image by taking a number of blocks of different regions in the image and different sizes and work shifted blocks per pixel. As dependence was on traditional statistical criteria such as (mean, standard deviation, and signal to noise ratio, mutual information and spatial frequency) and compared with the suggested criteria to the work. The results showed that the evaluation process was effective and well because it took into measure the quality of the homogenous regions.


Article
Comparison Study of the standards of different levels of power density of radio broadcasts issued by mobile base stations
دراسة مقارنة للمستويات القياسية لكثافة القدرة المختلفة الصادرة من بث محطات الهاتف النقال

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Because of the wide spread applications, wireless is the most important application of mobile communication and the wireless internet broad has emerged the need to determine the emission levels wireless transmission towers for these systems in order to determine their impact health users. In Iraq, the Ministry of Environment which is responsible for Establishment radio stations to issue instructions based on the instructions of the international commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation protection (ICNIRP)and we studied the comparison between the acceptable levels among several countries with approved level in the country was noted that the approved level High dramatically even higher than neighboring countries such as Kuwait and has noted that New Zealand has the least density capacity between countries world. The study recommended reducing the emission level to maintain the health of citizens and workers.


Article
Classification of fetal abnormalities based on CTG signal
تصنيف الحالات غير السوية للجنين باستخدام اشارات تخطيط معدل ضربات القلب CTG

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The fetal heart rate (FHR) signal processing based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN),Fuzzy Logic (FL) and frequency domain Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT) were analysis in order to perform automatic analysis using personal computers. Cardiotocography (CTG) is a primary biophysical method of fetal monitoring. The assessment of the printed CTG traces was based on the visual analysis of patterns that describing the variability of fetal heart rate signal. Fetal heart rate data of pregnant women with pregnancy between 38 and 40 weeks of gestation were studied. The first stage in the system was to convert the cardiotocograghy (CTG) tracing in to digital series so that the system can be analyzed ,while the second stage ,the FHR time series was transformed using transform domains Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT) in order to obtain the system features .At the last stage the approximation coefficients result from the Discrete Wavelet Transform were fed to the Artificial Neural Networks and to the Fuzzy Logic, then compared between two results to obtain the best for classifying fetal heart rate.


Article
Effect of Silver Oxide Film Thickness on Some Optical Parameter
تأثير السمك لغشاء اوكسيد الفضة على بعض المعلمات البصرية

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Films of silver oxide of different thickness have been prepared by the chemical spray paralysis. Transmission and absorption spectra have recorded in order to study the effect of increasing thickness on some optical parameter such as reflectance, refractive index , and dielectric constant in its two parts . This study reveals that all these paramters affect by increasing the thickness .


Article
Study of the Effect of Berry Paper Mulberry on Optical Properties of Poly Methyl Methacrylate
دراسة تاثير ورق الكرز على الخواص البصرية للبولي مثيل ميثاكريلايت

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In this work, study the optical properties of composites consisting of poly Methyl Methacrylate and Berry Paper Mulberry. The samples of composites were prepared using casting method .The Berry Paper Mulberry (BPM) was added by different concentrations are (0, 2, 4 and 6)wt.%. The optical properties of composites have been studied in the wavelength range (200-800)nm. The absorption coefficient ,energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants have been determined. The results show that the optical constants change with increase of BPM concentrations .


Article
Study the effect of acid immersion on the hardness of (Epoxy – Granite) composite
دراسة تأثير الغمر بالمحاليل الكيميائية على صلادة متراكبات (الايبوكسي-كرانيت)

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This work has been done with using of epoxy resin mixed with Granite powder were weighted by percent volume (5,10,15, and 20)%and then mixed with epoxy polymer to compose polymer composite. Hand lay-up technique is used in fabrication of the composite samples. Hardness test was carried out for the proper samples in both normal condition and after immersion in HCL (1 M and 2 M) solutions for periods ranging up to 10 weeks. After comparing the results between the polymer and their composite, the hardness increased with increasing Granite weight percent, it was found that Hardness were greater for the composites before immersion compared with their values after immersion.


Article
Study affects Pulse Parameters versus cavity length for both Dispersion Regimes in FM mode locked.
دراسة تأثير طول الحاوية على معلمات النبضة لكلا مناطق التشتت لقفل النمط الترددي

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To demonstrate the effect of changing cavity length for FM mode locked on pulse parameters and make comparison for both dispersion regime , a plot for each pulse parameter as Lr function are presented for normal and anomalous dispersion regimes . The analysis is based on the theoretical study and the results of numerical simulation using MATLAB. The effect of both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes on output pulses is investigate Fiber length effects on pulse parameters are investigated by driving the modulator into different values. A numerical solution for model equations using fourth-fifth order, Runge-Kutta method is performed through MATLAB 7.0 program. Fiber length effect on pulse parameters is investigated by driving the modulator into different values of lengths. Result shows that, the output pulse width equals to τ= 501ns anomalous regime and τ=518ns in normal regime.


Article
Effect of sintering time on Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr1.8Ba0.2Ca2Cu3O10+ compound quenched in air and liquid nitrogen
تاثير زمن التلبيد على المركب Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr1.8Ba0.2Ca2Cu3O10+ المبرد فجائيا بالهواء والنتروجين السائل

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High temperature superconductor with nominal composition Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr1.8Ba0.2Ca2 Cu3O10+ was prepared by solid state reaction method. Two sets of samples have been prepared .The first one was quenched in air; the second set was quenched in liquid nitrogen. X-ray diffraction analyses showed an orthorhombic structure with two phases, high –Tc phase (2223) and low-Tc phase (2212) in addition to that impure phase was found. It has been observed that quenched in air samples display a sharp superconducting transition and a higher-Tc phase than that of the quenched in liquid nitrogen samples.


Article
The Effect of Annealing on The Structural and Optical Properties of Copper Oxide Thin Films Prepared by SILAR Method
تأثير التلدين على الخواص التركيبية والبصرية لأغشية اوكسيد النحاس المحضر بطريقة الترسيب بالطبقة الايونية المتعاقبة SILAR

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Copper oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature. The thickness of the thin films was around 0.43μm.Copper oxide thin films were annealed in air at (200, 300 and 400°C for 45min.The film structure properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD patterns indicated the presence of polycrystalline CuO. The average grain size is calculated from the X-rays pattern, it is found that the grain size increased with increasing annealing temperature. Optical transmitter microscope (OTM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used. Direct band gap values of 2.2 eV for an annealed sample and (2, 1.5, 1.4) eV at 200, 300,400oC respectively.


Article
Producing Ceramic Water Purifiers Made Of Iraqi Bentonite Type (Bpl1)
انتاج منقيات مياه خزفية مصنعة من البنتونايت العراقي نوع BPL1

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In this study, ceramic purifier (CP) was produced from a mixture of Iraqi raw materials. This ceramic mixture was prepared using Bentonite as a Clay, Porcelanite as a Silica, and Limestone as a flux. The produced ceramic filter was formed by semi-dry compressing method and was fired at 1200 C˚. Physical properties of the produced CP were measured. A hydraulic test rig was constructed to study the hydraulic conductivity of the produced CP. The average hydraulic conductivity of the produced CP was 55 times that of commercial types of ceramic filters. The mineral composition of the produced ceramics was found by X-Ray tests. Tests results showed that all of the produced ceramics filters composed mainly of low Cristobalte and Tridoymite in addition to some of other minerals. Both of the raw and the water purified by produced ceramic were tested for a number of water quality parameters. that the ceramic disc purifier could remove, as an average percentages of removal, 99.98% of turbidity, 78.86% of the electrical conductivity , 81.61% of the total dissolved solids, 73.45% of Ca++, 49.69% of Na+, 55.63% of NO3-, 37.54% of HCO3- . The results showed that CP has excellent adsorption ability for solutes of seven heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu and Zn, at concentrations of 1 mg/leach and 10 mg/l each. The adsorption capacities of each filter to adsorb seven heavy metals were computed according to Langmuir model and Freundlich models. The results showed variety in adsorption capacities for each heavy metal.


Article
Simulation Study on Optically Designed Refractive Beam Expander for Nd: YAG Laser Harmonics for 7 Km Detection Range
دراسة محاكاه لتصميم موسع الحزمة الكاسر لتوافقيات ليزر النميديوم ياك لمدى كشف سبعة كيلومتر

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The simulation study has been conducted for the harmonics of Nd: YAG laser, namely the second harmonic generation SHG, the third harmonic generation THG, and the fourth harmonic generation FHG. Determination of beam expander's expansion ratio for specific wavelength and given detection range is the key in beam expander design for determining minimum laser spot size at the target. Knowing optimum expansion ratio decreases receiving unit dimensions and increases its performance efficiency. Simulation of the above mentioned parameters is conducted for the two types of refractive beam expander, Keplerian and Galilean. Ideal refractive indices for the lenses are chosen adequately for Nd: YAG laser harmonics wavelengths, so that increasing transmission of laser beam, consequently the received power to the detector for practical convenience.


Article
Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of Raphanus sativus and Cyperus rotundus against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans
الفعالية التثبيطية للمستخلص الأيثانولي لنبات الفجل Raphanus sativus ونبات السُعد Cyperus rotundus تجاه بعض انواع البكتريا الممرضة والخميرة Candida albicans

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The research was conducted to study the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts with four concentration of each one (100,150,200,250 ) mg/ml of Raphanus sativus leaves and Cyperus rotundus roots were estimated against four types of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli),also against Candida albicans ,by using agar well diffusion assay .The two extracts exhibited observing antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria ,and this activity was increased with the increasing of concentrations belong to them .The highest effect of Raphanus sativus extract was against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with mean zones of inhibition ranged between 9 mm (in 100 mg/ml concentration) to 26 mm (in 250 mg/ml concentration ),while the highest effect of Cyperus rotundus extract observed against gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa with mean zones of inhibition ranged between 17 mm (in 100 mg/ml concentration ) to 29 mm (in 250 mg/ml concentration ) , and the lowest effect of the two extracts observed against Escherichia coli . Furthermore , Cyperus rotundus extract did not showed any effective inhibition against Candida albicans in all concentrations , while Raphanus sativus extract showed highly effective inhibition against Candida albicans with mean inhibition zones ranged between 18 mm (in 100 mg/ml concentration) to 28 mm (in 250 mg/ml concentration ) .


Article
A study for Bacterial Infection in Acute Diarrhea Patients
دراسة المسببات البكتيرية لمرضى الاسهال الحاد

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500 samples of diarrhea stool were collected from different ages(less than 1year –upto30years) and for both genders from some patients in (Alwiya hospital for children, Al-kendi, central health public laboratory and some gavernarated labs) period(1/11/2009—1/10/2010). Kinds of bacteria and parasites agents were isolated and identified from patients with diarrhea. Nine species of gram negative bacteria from enterobacteriaceae were isolated, E. coli isolated are the higher ratio 4.8% of all, then Salmonella typhi4.6% while the lowest ratios is Citrobacterfreundii 0.4%, while the other identified species were be among the previous rotios. also Plesomonasshigelloides was isolated which concedride one of the bacterial local studies.many methods were depend on in order to identifiy; growth on media like (Enrichment ,differentials and differetials) media. Biochemical test represents with API20E, also. Some confirmed tests represent with a modern and important identical tools was used for first time to identify the entericbacteria, by (Rapid ID 32) usually used with mini API system where the results record automatically.


Article
Study of growth curve and morphological change for Trichomonas vaginalis parasite in the tow culture media
دراسة منحنى النمو والتغايرات الشكلية لطفيلي المشعرات المهبلية في وسطيين زرعين مختلفيين

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The objective of this study was shed light for cultivation and maintenance of Trichomonas vaginalis parasite growth after isolated it by vaginal swaps from females suffering vaginitis and abnormal vaginal discharges in these media CPLM and TAB media to detect growth curve, morphological changes and viability of parasite in the two culture media, together with effect of sheep and bovine serum on the growth of it. The results of this studies were showed there was abtaine differences between the two types of media , The maximum growth of parasite was in TAB medium after 72 hours incubation with use of bovine serum, while such growth was maximized after 144 hours incubation with the use of sheep serum. In CPLM medium, a maximum growth was reached after 120 hours incubation in the case of sheep serum, and 168 hours incubation in the case of bovine serum. After less than 24 hours incubation, the parasite grew exponentially in TAB medium, but such growth was associated with an increased rate of death in contrast, the reverse picture was observed in CPLM medium. Through the stages of growth, the parasite manifested different morphological changes, which were ranged from a non-motile spherical shape, nucleated and flagellated pear shape, binucleated and flagellated spherical shape, slow-moving large spherical shape and finally the a flagellated spherical shape (pseudocyst).


Article
Effect Study the of Acute toxoplasmosis on Some Blood and Serum Parameters in Pregnant Women in Baghdad City
دراسة تأثيرألاصابة ألحادة لداء المقوسات الكوندية Toxoplasmosis في بعض متغيرات محتوى الدم والمصل في النساء الحوامل في مدينة بغداد

Authors: Hanaa K. Hamad هناء كامل حمد
Pages: 768-772
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In this study the rate of infection in acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii parasite that causes toxoplasmosis was determined. This study was Included 120 blood samples that collected from pregnant women revisions to some clinics and laboratories in Baghdad civil as well as 10 blood samples from non-infected women as a control group. All blood samples were collected in the first three months of the pregnancy period for detection toxoplasmosis by using serological tests of test kit ( Toxo , IgG.,Toxo , IgM ). To detect antibodies specialized type of IgG &IgM in acute and the chronic infection by Electro Clia manner using a Roche Cobas e411. The results showed that the total infection rate was (55.83)%, the rate of infection in acute (17.5)% While the rate of chronic infection was (38.33)%. As the results of the study showed that rate of acute infection of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was significant decrease occurs when the level of probability of < 0.05 in glucose sugar levels, and a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and red blood cells, platelets and the high number of white blood cells when compared with the control group .


Article
Effect of Citrus aurantifolia Seed Extracts In Some Bacteria Isolated From Burns Infections
تأثير مستخلصات بذور نبات الليمون الاسود (Citrus aurantifolia)في بعض انواع البكتريا المعزولة من اخماج الحروق

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The present study was carried to evaluate antibacterial activity of Acetone, Alcholic (cold and hot) and Aqueaus(water) extracts of Citrus aurantifoliaseeds,against growth of some bacteria isolated from burns infections(Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonia,Staphylococcusaureus)fromKindy HospitalIn Baghdad from March to June 2012.Antibiotic Sensitivity was done for all isolated bacteria used in this study.Results showed variation in antibacterial activity of different extracts against all tested bacteria by well diffusion technique in agar and measuring the diameter of inhibition zone, at concentration 250Mg-ml. Acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect followed by hot alcoholci extract, and then cold alcoholic extract,while the aqueous extract slightly inhibited bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)were determined for all extracts against studying bacteria and found(12.5-50)mg-ml for acetone and alcoholic extracts, MIC for aqueous extract was 50mg-ml forPseudomonasaeruginosa and Escherichia coli,while was no effect onKlebsiellapneumonia and Staphylococcusaureus. Minimum Bacterial Concentration(MBC)were determined and was found25-50mg-ml for acetone extract,hot water was25mg-ml, cold alcoholic extract was 50mg-ml forPseudomonasaeruginosa,Escherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumonia but showed no effect on Staphylococcus aureus, aqueous extract showed negative effect on alltested bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of hot alcoholic extract of seeds was investigated practically (in vivo) by treating burns mices infected with tested bacteria(Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Escherichia coli and Klebsiellapneumonia),the results revealed good recovery at short time comparing with antibiotic(Flamazine) used at the same time.


Article
Biological activity and protease inhibitor from watery extract of lentil (Lens culinaris) against some bacterial species
الفعالية البايولوجية وفعالية مثبط البروتييز للمستخلص المائي للعدس ( Lens culinaris ) ضد بعض الانواع البكتيرية

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Biological activity substances was investigated in watery extract of lentil which found to contain phenols, tannin, saponins and resins while, flavons, terpens and steroids were not exist in the extract details explained that 5%, 10% of lentil extract largly inhibited the growth of Psedumonas aeruginosa then Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The growth of both Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were slightly affected by all extract concentration. Extracellular protease were screened in all bacterial species under study. Complete inhibition was achieved for extracellular protease while different percentage of protease inhibition were seen for intracellular proteases.


Article
Dispersal and Development of Powdery Mildew Disease Caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli on Ornamental Plants (Nasturtium) Tropaeolum majus L. in Baghdad
انتشار وتطور مرض البياض الدقيقي المتسبب عن الفطر. Oidiopsis haplophylli L على نبات الزينة اللاتيني (ابو خنجر) Tropaeolum majus في بغداد

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This study wass carried out to investigate the incedence of powdery mildew disease on ornamental plants (Nasturtium) Tropaeolum majus L. caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli in some nurseries of Baghdad area and in fields at college of Agriculture /University of Baghdad. This study was conducted in tow succesive seasons of 2011-2012 (April and May). The survey indicated that the Mildew disease existe in the following nurseries (Al-Adhamiya 97.5% ,Palestine street 93.8%, Zayouna 86.0%, and 100% in two fields at college of Agriculture. It has been found that the disease severity was developed in Agriculture college fields successively from 12-4-2011 to 20-5-2011 and from 12-4-2012 to 20-5-2012 (18.0–98.0 % and 22.7–96.0% )for the two seasons respectively. The records were followed for six times at interval of 7 days.


Article
Study the Inhibitory effect of Rose and blossom bitter orange flowers extracts against different types of bacteria isolated from the oral cavity
دراسة التاثيرالتثبيطي لمستخلصات زهورالروز وقداح نبات النارنج على انواع مختلفة من البكتريا المعزولة من بطانة الفم

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The study in duded isolation and identification of microbial isolates from oral cavity to 10 volunteers, diagnosed within the three groups: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp. and Candida albicans . The sensitivity test of all isolates bacteria Streptococcus spp. , S. aureus and S. epidermidis showed high resistance to Ampicillin(100)%,followed Methicillin (88.88)% and Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid(77.77)%, while the resistance for each of Vancomycin and Amoxicillin were (66.66)%, and the resistance to Erythromycin and Pencillin (55.55)% to each of them. The results showed less resistance to Trimethoprim (22.22)% and Cefalotine (11.11)% of all bacteria isolate. Investigation of the presence of active compounds in each of the hot and cold (water and alcoholic) extracts flowers Rose and flowers blossom bitter orange ( new preparatory 2012) (Alkaloids, Quartet alkaloids, sugars, Saponine, Flavones and comarins ) was carried out includes. While it was all kinds of extracts does not contain resins. The results showed the presence of active compounds (Sugars, Flavones and comarins) in old extracts that preparation after a year (2011). PH values of the plant extracts hot and cold (water and alcoholic) for each of orange flowers blossom and Rose flowers (Old and new preparatory) with a wide range ranging between (3.6 -6.4). All extracts hot and cold (alcoholic) (new preparatory 2012) showed most effective towards Streptococcus spp., S. epidermidis and Candida albicans, while the extracts show weak effective against S. aureus. Hot alcohol extracts of Rose (old preparatory 2011) showed most effective towards S. aureus and S. epidermidis only, while the other extracts of old perpetration show weak effective against Streptococcus spp. and C. albicans.


Article
Virulence surveillance of wheat black stem rust fungus
مسح الفعالية الممرضة لمرض صدأ الساق الأسود للحنطة

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General survey for wheat rust diseases in Iraqi fields was done during the seasons of 2010, 2011 and 2012. The survey covered different fields in southern, middle and northern regions. Results of the first season indicated that most of Iraqi cultivars such as Tmmoze2, IPA 99 and Mexipak showed different types of susceptibility to both yellow and leaf rust infection. Disease severity increased when the conditions were favorable for infections with using susceptible cultivars. The severity of leaf rust was less in the north region comparing with the middle and south regions. Most of the introduced cultivars such as Sham6 and Cimmyto showed susceptible reaction to yellow and leaf rust. Yellow rust was in epiphytotic form at the Iraqi-Syrian-Turkish triangle where the disease severity was 100%. Low disease severity of stem rust was observed on some cultivars (1-5%), except for the cultivar Mexipak which showed 40%S in Najaf. Rusts at season of 2011 were restricted mostly in Baghdad and the yellow rust was dominant. The AUDPC of 15 wheat cultivars showed that Sawa and Sali were highly susceptible to the three types of rusts while Babil113 and Tamoze2 were resistant. No rusts were detected at season 2012.


Article
Effect of Proline and Aspirin on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Lycopersicon esculentum and Surface Growth of Fusarium oxysporum
تأثير البرولين والاسبرين في انبات بذور ونمو بادرات الطماطة Lycopersicon esculentum والنمو السطحي للفطر Fusarium oxysporum

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Research was conducted to study the effect of proline and aspirin with 10 and 20 ppm on seed germination and seedling growth of Lycopersicon esculentum and the effect of surface growth of Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that the proline and aspirin effected significantly to decreased percentage of seed germination, acceleration of germination, promoter indicator, elongation speed of radical and plumule and also the infection percentage of seed decay and surface growth of Fusarium oxysporum was reduced significantly.


Article
Study of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Staphylolysin Enzyme purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
دراسة بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لأنزيم الستافيلولايسين Staphylolysin المنقى من بكترياالـ Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Some of the characters of the Staphylolysin A and D enzymes purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa P16 and P5 respectively were studied, the molecular weights of Staphylolysin A and D were 20.417 kilo dalton and 23.988 kilo Dalton respectively by SDS- polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH for staphylolysin A activity was found to be 8 which gives higher activity reaches 150 unit/ml, and for enzyme stability was 7.5-8.5 in which the enzyme nearly retained its full activity, while it was 9.5 for staphylolysin D that gives higher activity of 16 unit/ml,and 8.5-9.5 for enzyme stability in which the enzyme nearly retained its full activity, Maximum activity of two enzymes was obtained at 40C in which the specific activity for staphylolysin A and D were 140 and 16.4 unit/ml, and the two enzymes remained approximately without change at 25-40C for one hour. When the effects of some materials on Staphylolysin A&D activity were studied, the results showed that both sodium chloride & potassium chloride at 1 & 5 mM had the activator effect on enzymatic activity compared with its control where the staphylolysin A and D retained 105% ,108% and 102%, 104% of their activity respectively when treated with sodium chloride, while they retained 110%, 114% and 133%, 118% of their activity respectively when treated with potassium chloride. The enzymatic activity for both enzymes were inhibited when treated with ferric , mercury and zinc chloride at variable ratios, Staphylolysin A kept 73% and 7% of its initial activity respectively when treated with 5mM of ferric chloride and mercury chloride respectively and it kept only 9% of its initial activity when treated with 0.1mM Zinc chloride . Staphylolysin D kept 45% and 13% of it is initial activity respectively when treated with 5mM of ferric chloride and mercury chloride respectively and it kept only 23% of its initial activity when treated with 0.1mM Zinc chloride while enzymatic activity for both enzymes were not affected when treated with EDTA at l0mM and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) at 0.4mM.These results referred to that Staphylolysin A and D are Zn -metallo endopeptidase .


Article
Ecological and Geographical distribution of species and genera of Primulaceae in Iraq
البيئة والتوزيع الجغرافي لأنواع واجناس العائلة الربيعية Primulaceae في العــراق

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The present research deal with ecological and geographical distribution of species and genera of Primulaceae in Iraq. The results were revealed that species distributed in the north , north-east and west of Iraq. Anagallis arvensis L. is the most prevalent species tolerant to different environmental conditions, while the species of Primula L. characterized as less widespread and limited in one District. In addition, the districts Rawanduz (MRO) and Sulaymaniyah (MSU) have ranked first in distribution of the species on geographical districts with (75%), while the districts southern desert (DSD) and Basra (LBA) in last place with (16.7%). Maps for geographical distribution for all species were illustrated.


Article
Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevesiae on promoting growth in tomato
فاعلية الخميرة Saccharomyces cerevisiae في تحفيز نمو نباتات الطماطة

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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevesiae as a growth promoting agent in tomato. Soaking the seeds in yeast suspension at 5 g/L for 12h increased germination percentage, root length, root fresh and dry weight, plant height, foliage fresh and dry weight, attained 88.5% ; 8.1 cm ; 84.3 mg ; 7.03 mg ; 10.75 cm ; 839 mg and 37.75 mg compared with 80% ; 5.33 cm ; 39 mg ; 4.8 mg ; 7.35 cm ; 608 mg and 25.5 mg in seedlings grown from non treated seeds respectively. Similar results were obtained with seedling from seeds soaked in S. cerevesiae filtrate for 12 hrs. with values of 77.5% ; 6.875 cm ; 91.5 mg ; 7.5 mg ; 9.5 cm ; 777 mg and 40.35 mg compared to 66% ; 5.8 cm ; 57.7 mg ; 5.03 mg ; 5.9 cm ; 493 mg and 27.28 mg in control (non treated seeds) for the same above criteria respectively. Watering the soil together with spraying the foliar parts with S. cerevesiae suspension at 5 and 8 g/L were found to be more effective than watering and spraying the plants separately in plant growth stimulation under plastic house conditions. The leaf contents of chlorophyll attained to 60.4 and 61.17 SPAD unit compared with 50.37 SPAD units in control respectively and leaf area reached to 3124 and 3119 cm2 / plant compared with 1904 cm2 / plant in control for the two concentrations respectively. The treatment induced also an increasing in plant high ; fresh and dry weights which attained 222 cm ; 223.3 cm ; 1485.7 g ; 1489 g ; 340.7 g ; 341.7 compared to 186 cm ; 1169.3 g ; 286 g in control for the two concentrations respectively. Similar increasing in root length , root fresh and dry weight and yields which attained 30.33 cm ; 30.7 cm ; 61 g ; 61.33 g ; 14.33 g ; 14.33 g ; 6.9 kg / plant and 6.95 kg / plant compared to 24.13 cm ; 46 g ; 10 g and 4.22 kg / plant in control , were found. The stimulations of plant growth criteria was found in concomitance with increase of N ; P and K in treated plant leaves which reached 2.293 ; 2.3 ; 0.4007 ; 0.402 ; 0.5506 and 0.5723% compared to 1.458 ; 0.2283 and 0.1226% in control for the two concentrations respectively . In addition increasing in total solid soluble material (TSS), 5.2 and 5.2023% compared to 3.867% in control treatment were observed.


Article
Are obese women potential for inflammatory process? A pilot study
هل النساء البدينات تتأثر بالعمليات الالتهابية ؟ دراسة تجريبية

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This study was designed to look for certain biochemical markers(serum uric acid and serum peroxynitrite) in women presented with obesity and to compare the level of these markers with non-obese women. A total number of 63 women were recruited from outpatients and private clinics to admit in this study. The patients were grouped into non obese women (Group I) and obese women (Group II). The anthropometric and blood pressure were determined and venous blood was obtained from each patient for determination of C-reactive protein, uric acid and peroxynitrite. The results showed that there were no significant differences in age or in concomitant or associated diseases in both groups except rheumatoid arthritis which account 80% of group I and 25% of group II. The body mass index of Group I patients was 25.27±4.19 kg/h2 compared with 40.03±16.64 kg/h2 of Group II (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in waist to hip ratio between two groups. The means systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in Group II compare with Group I. Positive C-reactive protein was observed in 53.3% and 52.1% of patients in Groups I and II respectively. Serum uric acid and peroxynitrite were non-significantly higher in Group II compared with Group I. It was concluded that obesity in women is associated with increased level of metabolic and nitrosative markers as well as alteration in inflammatory marker.


Article
The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma “a study in Iraqi patients”
دورعامل نخر الورم الفا (TNF-α) في إمراضية الورم النخاعي المتعدد " دراسة لمرضى عراقيين "

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During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the investigation of the cytokines roles in pathogenesis of cancer, thus the study aimed at evaluating the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in sera of Iraqi multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Beta 2-microglobulion (β2-m) was assessed to determine if there was any association between this cytokine and the level of β2- m, as the latter is related to the stage of the disease. In addition, the age and gender were also taken into consideration. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between IgG and TNF-α in sera of patients. 49 Iraqi patients (27 males and 22 females).The patients were also divided into two groups: the first group included (17) patients who were recently diagnosed and not received any treatment at the time of collecting samples while the second group included (32) patients who received treatment. A further group was also investigated which included (12) apparently healthy individuals (9 males and 3 females), who were regarded as a control group. Serum TNF-α and β2- m were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).while the concentration of IgG was measured by radial immune diffusion plates The study reached to the following results: TNF-α levels were not significantly elevated in the patients with MM compared to control group (5.98 ± 8.47 SD vs. 4.85 ± 12.1 SD) and no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the mean (6.02 ±8.1SD vs 5.9 ±9.4SD) concentration of TNF-α in patients with MM who received treatment, when compared with those who did not take the treatment .In addition, there are positive significant correlations between TNF-α and β 2 Microglobulin (r = 0.316, P = 0 .027), and no relationship between IgG and TNF-α (r = - 0.032, P = 0.829).Furthermore, the study observed that, there was no correlation between TNF-α on the one hand and factors of age and gender on the other hand.


Article
The common bacterial pathogenes isolated from blood culture in paediatric patients
الجراثيم المرضية الشائعة المعزولة من زرع دم للاطفال المرضى

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Fever is a common illness in the pediatric age group ,the causes could be viral ,bacterial and fungal , this study was focused on bacterial pathogens as gram positive like Staphylococci, coagulase positive or negative ,Streptococci and gram negative like E-coli , Klebsialla ,Proteus, Pseudomonas, Burkhoderia , Acinetobacter and others like Pusturella ,E-alkalescendiaper, Haemophillus influenza and yeast like candida . Four thousand and seventy eight blood samples (4078)were collected in a period between January 2011 and the end of May 2012 at the child welfare hospital ,all the samples were cultured on suitable culture media and then biochemical tests were done using API-E 20 and sugar fermentation tests ,sensitivity test were done with number of antibiotics [1]. 4078 cases examined only ,1107 showed positive growth ,264cases were contaminated and no bacterial growth seen in 2707. The bacterial isolates during one year in pediatric age groups were mostly gram positive cocci ,followed by gram negative bacilli,and yeasts .


Article
Effect of Some Medicinal Plants on the Activity of Some Immunological Factors in Saliva and Serum of Type –ıı Diabetics
تأثير بعض النباتات الطبية على فعالية بعض العوامل المناعية في لعاب ومصل مرضى السكر النوع الثاني

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The study involved 45 male and 45 females of diabetic patients type- ıı aged from 40-69years , and with the same numbers of males and females for control , all the patients and controls were without any periodontal diseases and without any systemic disease. Diabetic patients were divided in to three groups according to the degree of periodontitis , and the inflamed gingiva of all groups of diabetic patients were treated with the dried fruits powder (crude) of medicinal plants Quercus robur , Thuja occidenalis , Terminalia chebula, Anethum graveolens , respectively and mixture. Some immunological and antimicrobial factors (IgA, Lactoferrin , Lysozyme ) , were detected in serum and saliva of diabetic patients and the controls , the results revealed that the level of IgA , Lysozyme in saliva were more than in serum of the control , and this will insure that these factors are considered to be generally protected against bacteria in the oral cavity . Also there was a significant increase at (p˂0.001) especially after treatment with the mixture of medicinal plants , so that the mixture of these plants can be considered the best type in the treatment of inflamed gingiva of type –ıı diabetic patients.


Article
Recording callitetrarhynchus gracilis (rudolphi, 1819) and callitetrarhynchus sp. (cestoda: trypanorhyncha) parasitic in tow carangid fishes in north west arab gulf, Iraq
تسجيل للديدان الشريطية (Rudolphi, 1819) Callitetrarhynchus gracilis وCallitetrarhynchus sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha)متطفلة في نوعين من أسماك عائلة الحمام، شمال غرب الخلیج العربي، العراق

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Recording two species of larval cestodes Callitetrarhynchus gracilis and Callitetrarhynchus sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) parasitic in body cavity of two carangid fishes (Carangoides malabaricus and Megalaspis cordyla) from north west Arab Gulf, Iraq, is described. The species Callitetrarhynchus sp. was recorded for the first time in Iraq in carangid fishes. Also, two fish species (C. malabaricus and M. cordyla) are considered as new hosts for C. gracilis and Callitetrarhynchus sp. in the Arab Gulf. The cestodes were sent to Prof. Dr. Harry W. Palm, Department of Fisheries Biology, Institute Zoo Morphology, Germany for confirmation of the identification.


Article
Anti –phytopathogenic Activities of Cladophora glomerata extract against plant fungi
الفعالية التضادية لمستخلص طحلب Cladophora glomerataضد الفطريات الممرضة للنبات

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The antiphytopathogenic effects of the crude methanol extract of Cladophora glomerata (Lin.) Kützing (Cladophoraceae) which isolated from Al Rashidiya region at north of Baghdad was investigated against two type of plant fungi (Pythium altimum and Rhizoctonia solani) which causes damping off disease where isolated from covered cucumber field in Al-Alyosifia region. Hot methanol extract showed antifungal activity against the two species of fungi in different concentrations(10,25,50 mg/ml) of extract to Cladophora glomerata as percentage inhibition (51.63 ,72.8 ,83.71) and (56.18 ,77.41 ,100)comparing with Pythium altimum and Rhizoctonia solani respectively .primary detection of active compounds showed that macroalgae (Cladophora glomerata) containing flavonoids,alkaloids, phenols and tannins. Our findings suggest the possibility of using the Cladophora glomerata as a novel source of natural antimicrobial agents for pharmaceutical industries.


Article
The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus in High Risk Groups in Nineveh Governorate / Iraq
أنتشار التهاب الكبد الفيروسي نمط B لدى المجاميع عالية الخطورة في محافظة نينوى/العراق

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Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver that caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is DNA virus that infects the human and some kinds of animals such as chimpanzees and birds. This disease considered as the major disease of mankind and a serious global public health problem. HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAb, HBeAb and HBsAb are markers used to detect the presence and the stage of infection. The current study included (181) individuals from both sexes, (137) males and (44) females. By ratio 3.11: 1.The mean age of patients 2.4033 ± 0.83519 (range 18-73) years as follows < 20 (11.6%), 21–40 (47.5%), 41–60 (29.8%) and > 60 (11.0%) . These patients are 73 (40.4%) Blood donors from Central Blood Bank, 88 (48.6%) Chronic kidney failure at Ibn – Sina Teaching Hospital and 20 (11.0%) Thalassemic patients at Ibn – Alatheer Teaching Hospital, Nineveh Governorate / Iraq. For the period from July 2011 till May 2012.The results indicated that the number of serum patients infected with HBV was 90 (49.7%) using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique. These patients had many markers named HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAb, HBeAb and HBsAb with percentages 90 (49.7%), 47 (26.0%), 89 (49.2%), 53 (29.3%) and5 (2.8%) respectively. Ninety three patients infected with HBV ninety of them gave positive results using ELISA and rt-PCR technique, and three gave positive results using rt-PCR only inspite of their negative results in ELISA. We concluded that HBV infection remains a serious issue because it's prevalence is still significant among patients, all viral markers are very important for the diagnosis of infection, rt-PCR is a very sensitive scientific technique gave the exactly number of copies/ml in a closed system.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Cryptosporidium sp. by Reverse Osmosis System of Tap water in Baghdad
عزل وتشخيص طفيلي الكربتوسبوريديوم بالترشيح الازموزي لماء الشرب في بغداد

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A total of 60 samples of drinking water filtrated by Reverser 0smosis Filtration System from April to October 2012, from different houses in Baghdad – Al Resafa, so as to identify the eggs and cysts of protozoa. Two methods applied direct smear and staining technique with zeal nelson stain, which appeared Tape warm eggs, Ascaris lumbrecoides eggs and oocyst of Cryptospordium sp. This study revealed that total contamination rate with intestinal parasites in tap water were 96.6% this high rate, refers to filtrate tap water by reverse osmosis system was useful to prevent or reduce the contamination of drinking water, in order to reduce risks to public health; So recommended to apply this method at water purification stations. Distribution of Cryptosporidium sp. as study months of year appeared that Spring (April& May ) were recorded the highest rate of contamination in filtrate tap water samples, that due to potential temperatures degrees for this protozoa as(20-30cº).When the drinking water was better as environmental maintained decreased the infection with these parasites.


Article
Oogenesis in Shabout Barbus grypus Heckel , 1843
تكوين البيوض في سمكة الشبوط Heckel,1843 Barbus grypus

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The female Shabout were collected as samples from Dijla river in Baghdad. The oocyte developmental stages were divided in to nine stages, based on nucleus structure , cellular inclusions and ovarian follicle structure ,they are:-( Oogonia stage , Early Perinucleolar Stage , Advanced Perinucleolar Stage , Cortical Alveoli Stage , Primary Yolk Stage , Secondary Yolk Stage , Tertiary Yolk Stage , Migratory Nucleus Stage , Hydration Stage(


Article
Effect of the fungus Metarhizumanisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin and actelic insecticide in the protection of bean seeds packaged in bag from infection by cowpea beetle
تأثير فطر Metarhizium anisopliae(Metchnikoff)Sorokinومبيد الاكتلك بحماية بذور اللوبياء المعبأ بالأكياس من الاصابه بخنفساء اللوبياء الجنوبية

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this study was perform to defined the effect of fungus Metarhiziumanisopliae Sorokin with concentrations 5x101, 5x103 and 5x105 spore/ ml and Actelic insecticide with concentration 0.001% in in rate of germinate treated string bean seeds also study effect of packed bags in two different type: jute and polypropylene bags which treated with fungal suspension pervious mention and insecticide in rate infested the string bean seeds packed in it.Results of the study showed the following: Lower rate of weight loss of cowpea seeds appear in poly propylene bags 4.41, 5.95% after six months of treatment with 5x 105 spore/ ml and Actelic insecticide respectively compared with 15.08% to control treatment. The fungal concentrations and insecticide not effect Significantly in the rates of string bean germinate.


Article
The effect of Nitrofurantoin on liver on Albino mice
تأثير عقار Nitrofurantoin على الكبد في الفئران البيض

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the current study Included, evaluation the impact of Nitrofurantoin drug on liver in albino mice, 128 male albino mice have been used . Animals treared with (150,200 Mg/Kg) for 8 weeks . NFI caused histological changes in liver represented by , swelling of hepatocytes, disappearance of radial arrangement , vaculation of liver cells , increasing of kupffer cells and appearance of giant cells. NFT caused Congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver in all used concentrations.


Article
Antiamoebic activity of extracted alkaloids of Capparis spinosa in Laboratory mice
دراسة الفعالية العلاجية للمستخلص القلواني لنبات الشفلح في الفئران المختبرية المصابة بداء الزحار الاميبي

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The current study was concerned with the effect of alkaloid extract of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa against Entamoeba histolytica and compared with drug Metronidazole in the laboratory mice .Stool samples were collected from people infected with maebiasis to infect laboratory mice . The alkaloid compounds were separated by thin chromatography technique (TLC) and identified by spectral methods represented by spectral infrared (IR) and altraviolate (UV) . the stady include determining mid-term lethal dose LD50 of the extract as the concentration was 21.65 g / kg . The effect dose of the extract was tested on the infected experimental mice with Entamoeba histolytica after 10 days of the infection compared with the mice infected and treated with the drug Metronidazole and with the control mice in which the therapeutic dose used was 2.89 g / kg for seven days.


Article
Comparative study of hydatid cysts isolated from livers of different hosts
دراسة مقارنة للأكياس العذرية المعزولة من أكباد مضائف مختلفة

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Fifty three hydatid cysts were collected from different hosts, sheep, goats and cattle , from many slaughterhouse in Salahadin and Baghdad , while human's hydatid cysts samples were collected from Tikrit educational hospital and Tofiqe civilian hospital patients . The study included a biochemical comparison of some hydatid cyst fluid criteria such as, glucose, total protein, pH, glutamate pyrovate transaminase enzyme (GPT) , glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enzyme (GOT) , acid phosphatase (ACP) , Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) , and also studied protoscolices viability,the current study showed the differences in chemical composition of hydatid cyst fluids back to host type and parasite strain .


Article
The interference between effects of Adhatoda vasica (Nees) extracts and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) for controlling population of fig moth, Ephestia cautella Walker
التداخل بين تأثير المستخلص المائي (الحار والبارد) لنبات حلق السبع الشجيريAdhatoda vasica (Nees) وبكترياBerliner) ) thuringiensis Bacillus في السيطرة على حشرة عثة التينEphestia cautella Walker

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The activity of Adhatoda vasica crude plants extracts against B.thuringiensis bacteria was determined by MIC test and sensitivity test which showed no response of this type of bacteria against extracts .The interference between the effect of hot and cold aqueous extracts and Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria for controlling the population of fig moth when males and females released before treatment under control condithion was gave a highly percentage of larval mortality which reached to 100% in (B.t. + hot aqueous extract ) and 97.3% in (B.t + coldaqueous extract ) after two weeks of treatment when concentration of 50% of aqueous extracts and 5×10־1of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria but when the insect (males & females) released after the dates treated with B.t & hot aqueous extract , the mortality was 100% in all first instar larvae. The results also showed that when treatment of the dates before the insects released more influence than that treated the date after the insects released so the percentage of mortality of larvae reached to 100% in first method and to 86.0% in second methods .


Article
Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) isolates on fig moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) Larvae
اختبار فاعلية عزلات بكتريا Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) على الأطوار اليرقية لحشرة عثة التين Ephestia cautella (Walker)

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The following dilution 5×10-1, 10-1, 10־2 , 10-3 gm/L for the indigenous isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria and the commercially isalate were used for experiments against the different stages of fig moth of E.cautella which exposed by filter paper method. The results showed that mortality of larval stages was increased with the increasing concentration of the biocide, in addition to increase in the mortality of the larval stages reached to the highest percentage in the third days of treatment of the larval stage in comparison with the first and second days of exposure. The results also showed that the sensitivity of larval stages was increased in first and second instars while reduced in the last instars .The high percentage of first instar mortality for the indigenous isolate in the concentration of 5×10-1 was 72.8% , while the low percentage of mortality showed in the concentration of 5×10-1 for the fifth instar larvae which was 13.3% in third days of treatment while a high percentage of mortality was showed for the first instar larvae for the commercially isulate in the concentration of 5×10-1 was 59.4% Furthermore, low percentage of mortality was shown in the concentration of 5×10-1 in fifth instar larval which was 8.3% in the third days of treatment. The results also showed that the indigenous isolated was more effective than the commercially produced bacteria for killing larval instars of fig moth E.cautella .The total percentage of larval instar mortality reached to 44.5 % after the third days of treatment in concentration 5×10-1 in the indigenous isolate , and it was 33.8 % in the commercially produced bacteria .


Article
Using the molecular methods in detection of antibiotics resistance genes in bacteria of Typhoi (Salmonella typhi)
استخدام الطرق الجزيئية في الكشف عن جينات المقاومة للمضادات في بكتريا التايفوئيد (Salmonella typhi)

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This study was carried out for direct detection of typhi and some of its multidrug resistance genes(tem,capt,gyrA&sul2)which encode for resistance to (Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol,Ciprofioxacin,Co-trimoxazole)by using Polymerase Chain Reaction technique .(71)blood samples for people suffering from typhoid fever symptoms depending on the clinical examination and (25)for control were collected. The results investigation for flic gene which encode for flagellin protein indicated that only (19)with percentage of (26,76%)gave appositive results while all control had a negative ones. Investigation for antibiotic resistance drug in samples which show positive results for flic gene showed that there is a multidrug for all antibiotics with (94.73%) in patients


Article
The Effect of Magnetic Water for Chemical Fertilizer in Tomato Plant
تأثير الماء الممغنط على كفاءة الاسمدة الكيمياوية في نبات الطماطة

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The research aims to find ways to minimize the use of quantities of chemical fertilizers in agriculture in order to get to an environment that is free of contaminants. Magnetized water technology used in the experience of planting seeds of tomatoes Thomson type to obtain a higher efficiency to absorb fertilizer NRK in the protected environment of the period from February to June. Magnetized water system used locally made levels Gaues (4800,2500,1500) concentrations of 50 to 100% for each level and the rate of (4) replicates, and results indicated that the severity of the magnet (4800 Gaues) and a concentration of 50% gave the highest percentage of tomato fruit size and intensity ( 1500 Gaues) and a concentration of 100% did not give any increase in the proportion of tomatoes or fruit size, but did not give three levels increase in the amount of tomato crop.


Article
The inhibition effect of crude juice of olive Olea europeae on cancer cell line Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD)
تأثير عصير ثمرة الزيتون االخامOlea europeae في تثبيط خط خلايا العضلة البشرية Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD)

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The inhibition effect of crude juice of green and black olive on cancer cell line (RD) in vitro has been studied by depending on micro titration system . Eleven different concentration starting from (916-960) mg/ml of crude juice respectively ,for three periods of exposure(24-48-72)hours. The resulted showed that the inhibition effect dependent on type of olive fruit juice ,concentration of dose ,time of exposure and the high concentration of both type of olive juice increased the growth of cell line while other concentration caused decrease in different rates ,moreover the black juice was more effective than green and 48 hours' time exposure was the best for inhibition.


Article
Biodiversity Index value of benthic invertebrates' community in relation with variation of some environmental properties in Rivers Tigris and Diyala within Baghdad city.
قيم دليل التنوع الأحيائي لمجتمع اللافقريات القاعية وعلاقته مع تغاير بعض العوامل البيئية في نهري دجلة وديالى ضمن مدينة بغداد

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This study was carried out to determine the effects of some environmental variables on biodiversity index value of benthic invertebrates' community in samples that collected monthly from two adjacent sites nearby the confluence of Tigris and Diyala rivers within Baghdad city that’s from November 2007 - October 2008. Results showed differences in chemical and physical characteristics for each river. Where the annual averages of these characteristics in Rivers Tigris and Diyala respectively for: water temperature (20, 19) Cº, pH (8, 8), Dissolved oxygen DO(8,4 ) mg/l , EC(1152,2979)µc/cm , Turbidity (28,74) NTU, Total Hardness of CaCO3 (485,823)mg/l, and finally NO3 (4,6)mg/l. Concerning the biological groups, included types of Insects, Mollusks, Oligochaeta and finally Crustacea. The results revealed that the highest population density of insects in Rive Tigris was (31493.28) individual / m2, mollusks were (23177.64) individual / m2, Oligochaeta (10774.95) individual / m2, Crustacea (176.92) individual / m2. In River Diyala, the highest population density (18046.71),(382649.733) and (9908.00) individual / m2 respectively for mollusks, insects and Oligochaeta. The results also showed that the highest biodiversity values according to Shannon-weaver Index, where appeared in Diyala river was higher from this that recorded in Tigris river , where H value (18.6) and J value(8.29), Tiger river distinguished The lower values (3.31,1.56) each of H,J respectively . Positive and Negative relationships shows between almost invertebrates groups with physical and chemical characteristic of water. Positive significant relationship distinguished with almost all groups with Nitrate NO3 except Crustacea, whereas Negative relations with DO with each of Insects and Mollusks, where pH values Negative relationships with each of Insects and Oligochaeta. Also the relations were Negative to turbidity NTU values with each of Mollusks, Oligochaeta and Crustacea. These Connections may explain the effects of these characteristics on the survival and adaptation of these organisms to the study area.


Article
Effect of Magnetized Water Treatment on some Biological Aspects for Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea lagotis (Schrank,1803)
تأثير المياه المعاملة مغناطيسياً في بعض الجوانب الحياتية لقوقع المياه العذبة النوع Lymnaea lagotis(Schrank,1803)

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Exposure assays to magnetized water have so far revealed striking results. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of magnetized water treatment with in different intensities 500 , 1000 and 1500 Gauss on some biological aspects for species of freshwater Gastropod Lymnaea lagotis (Schrank, 1803) which important species in faun of aquatic habitats of Iraq. This species are considered a component of the food chain. The obtained results compared with these species which lived in the river(control). Result of these experiments showed increased significance the shell size (shell high, shell aperture length, shell aperture width and shell width) for L. lagotis with increased intensity magnetized water such as treated water with 1000 Gauss intensity compared with untreated water. Although increase significant was observed to fecundity for snails such as (egg mass dimensions, number and diameter of eggs and survival juveniles) with increased intensity of magnetized water comparative with untreated water.


Article
Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in Tigris River middle of Iraq
توزيع بعض العناصر الثقيلة في نهر دجلة وسط العراق

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This study was conducted from February 2010 to December 2010. Water Samples were collected every two months in three stations in Baghdad city. The study involved the assessment of concentrations of some heavy metals such as: Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Nickel and Zinc. the values of chromium were undetected for the entire of the study, while the rest of the heavy metal were ranged between 0.001 -0.438 mg / l, ND -0.077 mg / L, ND -0.778 mg / l, 0.36 - 0.011 mg / l, 0.011-0 .08mg/ l, ND - 0.1985 mg / l, ND -0.0416 mg / l, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals were fluctuated during the study period, except Lead which have high concentrations and exceeded the permit limits in all stations. Result reveled that station 3 was more polluted than other stations. Also, for more confirm results the SPSS program was used to test the significant difference between the stations.


Article
A study of the physical and chemical characteristics of the waters of the central marshes in southern Iraq after restoration
دراسة الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لمياه الأهوار المركزية جنوب العراق بعد التأهيل

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some ecological (physical and chemical varible) of water samples were studies monthly from December 2008 to May 2009 at two stations( St.1) Al - Chibayesh marsh and (St.2) Abu – Zirik marsh which are located in the south of Iraq . These variables included : Temperature, pH, EC, Dissolved oxygen , Total alkalinity, Nitrate, Sulphate, and phosphate, Si-SiO2 and Ca ,Mg, Cl, The marsh Considered as fresh water and alkaline. Abu-Zirik less than Al-Chibayesh.


Article
Biosorption of Lead, Cadmium and Nickle from Industrial Wast water by Using Dried Macroalgae
الامتزاز الحيوي لعناصر الرصاص والكادميوم والنيكل من مياه الصرف الصناعي باستخدام الطحالب الكبيرة الجافة

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Biosorpion of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Nickl(Ni) by dried biomass of Chara sp. for sample of BMP was used as alternative approach of conventional method. The range of removal percentages was between 92-97%, 70-98.7% and 46.6-96.6% for Pb, Cd and Ni respectively at 3h.Treatment time, with 300-500 mg dried weight from Chara sp. powder at pH 4, with 60 rpm at shaker. FTIR analysis showed the active groups which are responsible for sequestration of heavy metals represented by carboxyl, hydroxyl alkyl, amine and amide. The Biosorption equilibrium experiment for elements showed that the highest sorption percentage for three elements was, Pb 96.6% after 30 minute, for Cd was 100% after 15 minute and 40% to Ni after 75 minute, while the biosorption equilibrium by using Chara sp. was at 90 minute for Pb and Ni.


Article
New records of Naidid worms (Oligochaeta: Naididae) in Euphrates River
تسجيل جديد لأنواع ديدان النايدد في نهر الفرات عند مدينة المسيب جنوب غرب بغداد

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Abstract

Naidid worms were sorted from 27 samples of aquatic macrophyta including ceratophyllum demersum , Potamogeton crispus and, Hydrilla verticellat with associated filamentous algae were collected from Euphrates River at Al-Mussayab city, 60 Km southwest Baghdad. The result of sorted worms revealed the presence of eight species of subfamily Naidinae, which are consider as new records for Iraq, including Stephensoniana trivandrana; Paranais frici, Ophidonais serpentine, Specaria josinae, Dero (Dero) evelinae , Dero (Aulophorus) indicus , Nais pseudobtusa and finally N. stolci. This investigation includes morphological descriptions for each species illustrated by identification criteria photos.


Article
Pristina species (oligochaeta: naididae) in tigris river within baghdad city / Iraq
تسجيل جديد لانواع الجنس Pristina في نهر دجلة عند مدينة بغداد /العراق

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Abstract

A total of 72 individuals of genus Pristina were sorted from aquatic plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., and filamentous algae collected from three sites on Tigris River at Baghdad including: Al-Sarafiya area (S1), Al- Jadiriyah area (S2), and Al- Za´afaraniya area (S3). Four species were identified including P. longiseta, P. aequiseta, P. proboscidea and P. foreli, with percentags of 51.7 , 36.4, 1.1, and 10.5 % respectively. The first two species found in all sites , while , P. proboscidea found only in S1 and P. foreli only in S2.


Article
The effect of Glycated Haemogloin A1c and Fasting Blood Glucose in Type1 Diabetes
تأثير كلوكوز الدم التراكمي وكلوكوز دم الصائم في النوع الاول لمرضى السكري

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Abstract

The glycated haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) and Fasting blood glucose(FBG) effect on type1 diabetic pateints as a screening tests and as a gold standard for assessing glycemic control in subjects with diabetes were studied . Ninety one blood samples were collected in a peroid between June and the end of November 2012 at AL- Kindy Diabetic Center and Central Child Hospital,48 Females and 43 Males , aging between (11 month- 18 year), are divided into three groups, newly diagnosed , ongoing and healthy control group, with duration of disease between(1 day-3months) and (from birth-8 years) for newly diagnosed and ongoing groups respectevily . The results showed that FBG and HbA1c for newly diagnosed were high (291 mmol/l and 10.6%) respectevily with short duration mean (3.32 week) while ongoing group (207mmol/L and 7.4%) with duration mean(154.5 week) compared with control group values (92.6mmol/L and 4.9%).There was a significant differences between FBG in patients and control at P value < 0.005, and p < 0.05 between HbA1c for patients and control .The correlation of FBG in patients and duration of disease were ( r= - ve 0.19) and for the control group ( r= -ve 0.49 ).When we compared FBG and HbA1c in patient the correlation was (+ve 0.64) .This study concluds that the combined use of FBG and HbA1c are very important for assessing glycemic control and enhanced the detection of diabetes individuals at high risk for diabetes.

Keywords

Type1 diabetes --- HbA1c --- FBG


Article
Identification Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16s rRNA gene for Differentiation from Other Pseudomonas Species that isolated from Patients and environment
تشخيص بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa بـجين 16s rRNAلتفريقها عن بقية انواع جنسها المعزولة من المرضى والبيئة

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and major opportunistic human pathogen, its causes many and dangersinfectious diseases due to death in some timesex: cystic fibrosis , wounds inflammation , burns inflammation , urinary tract infection , other many infections otitis external , Endocarditis , nosocomial infection and also causes other blood infections (Bacteremia). thereforebecomes founding fast and exact identification of P. aeruginosafrom samples culture very important.However, identification of this species may be problematic due to the marked phenotypic variabilitydemonstrated by samples isolates and the presence of other closely related species. To facilitate species identification, we used 16S ribosomal DNA(rRNA) sequence data toidentify genus- and species-specific 16S rRNA signature sequences,its account a stable part of the geneticcode. Based on these sequences we designed simple, rapid, and accurate PCR assays that allow the differentiation of P. aeruginosa from Pseudomonas species and other pathogen genus ,also this test considered as the most specific than the other diagnostic tests like API (20) which give 70% while the 16SrRNA test give more than 90 %.


Article
Gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood groups in Sabians (Mandaeans), Iraq
دراسة توزيع مجاميع الدم ABO ومعامل الـRh لعينة عشوائية من طائفة الصابئة المندائيين

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Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the frequency of ABO and Rh blood group antigens among Sabians (Mandaeans) population. This paper document the frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups among the Sabians (Mandaeans) population of Iraq.There is no data available on the ABO/Rh (D) frequencies in the Sabians (Mandaeans) population. Total 341 samples analyzed; phenotype O blood type has the highest frequency 49.9%, followed by A 28.7%, and B 13.8% whereas the lowest prevalent blood group was AB 7.6%. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were O>A>B>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A, and B alleles were 0.687, 0.2 and 0.1122 respectively. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 96.2% Rh (D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh (d) negative is present only in 3.8% of the total population. The Sabians (Mandaeans) ethnic group showed the same distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups with others ethnic groups in Iraqi population.


Article
Purification, characterization of thermostable Amylopullulanase from Bacillus licheniformis (BS18) by using solid state fermentation (SSF)
تنقية وخصائص انزيم الاميلوبليونيز الثابت حرارياً من بكترياBacillus licheniformis Bs 18 باستخدام تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

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Abstract

An amylopullulanase enzyme has a wide range of applications in the food processing and distillery industries, including the conversion of starch to sugers and the production of conversion syrups (maltose and fructose syrups). Amylopullulanase was purified by three stepsincluded precipitation with 40% saturation ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography by DEAE- cellulose column, and gel filtration by Sephacryl S-200 column. The characteristics of purified amylopullulanase were studied. The optimum pH of enzyme activity was 7.0. It was more stable at pH 7, andthe maximum enzyme activity was observed at 70°C. The optimum thermal stability for the enzyme was at (37-50°C). The effect of some metal ions on amylopullulanase activity was determined. It was observed that 10 mM of Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced enzymes activity. Different levels of inhibition revealed when enzyme was treated with Fe++, Cu++, Zn++, and Hg++ at 5 and 10 mM. An effect of some chemical agents on purified enzyme activity was investigated. Results obtained that a slight effect the amylopullulanase activity occurred after incubation with 5, 10 of EDTA and 10mM of PMSF on amylase activity. Hence, amylopullulanase activity have increased effect after incubation with 5, 10mM of 2-mercaptoethanol, while amylopullulanase lost most of its activity after incubation with 5M of urea.


Article
Partial purification and characterization of xylanase from Bacillus cereus X3
التنقية الجزئية لانزيم الزايلينيز المستخلص من بكترياBacillus cereus X3

Authors: Miass E. Ahmed ميس عماد احمد
Pages: 1056-1061
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Abstract

Three strain of Bacillus cereus were obtained from soil sours Laboratories of Biology Department/ College of Science/ University of Baghdad. The bacteria secreted extracellular xylanase in liquid cultur the test ability of xylanase production from these isolates was studied semi quantitative and quantitative screening appeared that Bacillus cereus X3 was the highest xylanase producer. The enzyme was partial purification 191 fold from cultur by reached step by 4 U/mg proteins by ammonium sulfat precipitation 80%, Ion exchang DEAE-cellulos chromatography Characterization study of the partial purifation enzyme revealed that the enzyme had a optimum activity pH8 and activity was stable in the pH rang (8-10) for 30min. maximal activity was attained at 50C


Article
Determination of total phenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Avena sativa and Ocimum basilicum
تحديد مجموع الفينولات ومضادات اللأكسدة ومضاد بكتيري لنبات الشوفان والريحان

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The present study investigated the total content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water extracts oat (Avena sativa) and basil (Ocimum basilicum), medicinal plants. The Folin-ciocalteu reagent assay was used to estimate the total phenolic content of plants extract. The antioxidant capacity of the plants extract was tested by ferric reducing/antioxidant power Assay (FRAP) and ferric reducing scavenging activity using DPPH method, and the antimicrobial activity was measured against [Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus spp.; Klebsiella spp.; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans] as tester strains. The total phenolic content of Avena sativa and Ocimum basilicum extracts revealed that the mixture of plants showed higher content. The mixture of Avena sativa and Ocimum basilicum extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Avena sativa extract and Ocimum basilicum extract with FRAP and DPPH assay. However, mixture of Avena sativa and Ocimum basilicum extracts exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity when compared to the other extracts. Thus the study revealed that the consumption of mixture herbs may enhance the immune power of our body against diseases due to free radicals.


Article
The Use of Tea leaves Wastes to reduce Hexavalent Chromium Concentration in industrial Waste Water by Adsorption
استخدام مخلفات اوراق الشاي لتخفيض تركيز الكروم السداسي من المياه ا لعادمة الصناعية بالامتزاز

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Abstract

Abstract : A research was conducted to study the process parameters affecting hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (carcinogenic compound) the removal percentage from the electrical industries company waste water that contain 88 mg/l of Cr (VI) concentration by adsorption onto tea wastes. Synthetic water with 88 mg/l Cr (VI) concentration was used. Several operation parameters affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency were investigated, such as pH, initial Cr (VI) concentration, stirring time and tea wastes dose. The experimental results reveal that maximum Cr (VI) removal reached up to 94.26% at pH of 2, stirring time of 180 minute, tea wastes dose of 8gm/100 ml and the equilibrium was attained at 180 minute. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were analyzed and the experimental results fit very well with Freundlich model.

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