Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:20 issue:9

Article
Evaluation of Pedestrians Walking Speeds in Baghdad City
تقييم سرعة مسير المشاة في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

This research examines the factors which influence pedestrian's walking speed in Baghdad. the variations in walking speed of pedestrians are related to pedestrian characteristics such as gender, age group, and clothing traditions. Using the established methodology, the counts of pedestrians were performed using manual and video counting. The case study was performed in two streets located in a highly crowded commercial zone at the city center of Baghdad: Al-Karada Dakhel and Al- Sina’a Street. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics 19 software. It has been found that Iraqi pedestrians walk slower than other pedestrians in the developed countries or in the region with minimum walking speed of 29.85 m/min. Age, gender, and clothing traditions were found to significantly contribute to pedestrian speed. Pedestrians in the age range from 18-50 years old were the fastest group of pedestrians and pedestrians over 50 years old were the slowest. Male pedestrians had significantly faster walking speeds than female pedestrians did. Pedestrians wearing western style were found to be faster than those wearing Arabic style.


Article
Effect of Local Feldspar on the Properties of Self Compacting Concrete
تأثير الفلدسبار المحلي على خواص الخرسانة ذاتية الرص

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Abstract

This research of using Feldspar in the production self compacting concrete (SCC) ( 5,10,15 )% as partial replacement by weight of cement .In this research some of fresh properties of SCC ( slump flow used V-funnel test and filling ability used ( U-box test ) for concrete mixes and also some of the harden properties of SCC ( compressive and flexural tests ). The research results showed that negative effect of Feldspar on the fresh properties of self compacting concrete but the positive effect of Feldspar on the harden properties of self compacting concrete .


Article
Solving Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem with Resource Constraint Using Fuzzy Mathematical Model
حل توافق الزمن- الكلفة مع محددات المصادر باستخدام نموذج التعرج الرياضي

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Abstract

Scheduling considered being one of the most fundamental and essential bases of the project management. Several methods are used for project scheduling such as CPM, PERT and GERT. Since too many uncertainties are involved in methods for estimating the duration and cost of activities, these methods lack the capability of modeling practical projects. Although schedules can be developed for construction projects at early stage, there is always a possibility for unexpected material or technical shortages during construction stage. The objective of this research is to build a fuzzy mathematical model including time cost tradeoff and resource constraints analysis to be applied concurrently. The proposed model has been formulated using fuzzy theory combining CPM computations, time-cost trade off analysis and resource constraint. MATLAB software has been adopted to perform ranking process, for each case, that facilitates obtaining the optimum solution. This research infers that it is possible to perform time-cost trade off analysis with resource restriction simultaneously, which ensures achieving scheduling optimum solution reducing the effort and the time when performing these techniques in succession using traditional methods.


Article
Comparative Study for Risk Criteria of Al-Qudus Plant between the Present and Planning of MOE
دراسة مقارنة لمعامل الخطورة لمحطة القدس بين الحاضر ومخطط وزارة الكهرباء

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Abstract

The main function of a power system is to supply the customer load demands as economically as possible. Risk criterion is the probability of not meeting the load. This paper presents a methodology to assess probabilistic risk criteria of Al-Qudus plant before and after expansion; as this plant consists of ten generating units presently and the Ministry Of Electricity (MOE) is intending to compact four units to it in order to improve the performance of Iraqi power system especially at Baghdad region. The assessment is calculated by a program using Matlab programming language; version 7.6. Results show that the planned risk is (0.003095) that is (35 times) less than that in the present plant risk; (0.1091); which represents respectable improvement. This probabilistic method can also be used to find the planned risk level of every plant to be compact in the Iraqi electrical network on the future; or any other power systems; and compare it with the present criterion which is very useful to determine the necessary generation capacity expansion.


Article
Applying Cognitive Methodology in Designing On-Line Auto-Tuning Robust PID Controller for the Real Heating System
تطبيق المنهج الإدراكي في تصميم مسيطر تناسبي تكاملي تفاضلي متين بتنغيم تلقائي بشكل حي متصل لنظام حراري حقيقي

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Abstract

A novel design and implementation of a cognitive methodology for the on-line auto-tuning robust PID controller in a real heating system is presented in this paper. The aim of the proposed work is to construct a cognitive control methodology that gives optimal control signal to the heating system, which achieve the following objectives: fast and precise search efficiency in finding the on-line optimal PID controller parameters in order to find the optimal output temperature response for the heating system. The cognitive methodology (CM) consists of three engines: breeding engine based Routh-Hurwitz criterion stability, search engine based particle swarm optimization (PSO) and aggregation knowledge engine based cultural algorithm (CA). Matlab simulation package is used to carry out the proposed methodology that finds and tunes the optimal values of the robust PID parameters on-line. In real-time, the LabVIEW package is guided to design the on-line robust PID controller for the heating system. Numerical simulations and experimental results are compared with each other and showed the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology in terms of fast and smooth dynamic response for the heating system, especially when the control methodology considers the external disturbance attenuation problem.


Article
Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Copper Ions by Waste Foundry Sand Permeable Barrier
معالجة المياه الجوفية الملوثة بايونات النحاس بواسطة حاجز مخلفات رمل المسبك النفاذ

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Abstract

The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is one of the promising innovative in situ groundwater remediation technologies, in removing of copper from a contaminated shallow aquifer. The 1:1-mixture of waste foundry sand (WFS) and Kerbala’s sand (KS) was used for PRB. The WFS was represented the reactivity material while KS used to increase the permeability of PRB only. However, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis proved that the carboxylic and alkyl halides groups are responsible for the sorption of copper onto WFS. Batch tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium sorption properties of the (WFS+KS) mix in copper-containing aqueous solutions. The sorption data for Cu+2 ions, obtained by batch experiments, have been subjected to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir model was chosen to describe the sorption of solute on the solid phase of PRB. COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a based on finite element method was used for formulation the transport of copper ions in two-dimension physical model under equilibrium condition. Numerical and experimental results proved that the PRB plays a potential role in the restriction of the contaminant plume migration. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental results was recognized with mean error (ME) not exceeded 10 %.


Article
MR Brain Image Segmentation Using Spatial Fuzzy C- Means Clustering Algorithm
تجزئه صور الرنين المغناطيسي باستخدام المنطق المضبب المكاني (sFCM)

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Abstract

A conventional FCM algorithm does not fully utilize the spatial information in the image. In this re-search, we use a FCM algorithm that incorporates spatial information into the membership function for clustering. The spatial function is the summation of the membership functions in the neighborhood of each pixel under consideration. The advantages of the method are that it is less sensitive to noise than other techniques, and it yields regions more homogeneous than those of other methods. This technique is a powerful method for noisy image segmentation.


Article
Laminar Forced Convection of Dusty Air through Porous Media in a Vertical Annulus
الحمل القسري الطباقي لهواء مترب خلال وسط مسامي في محتوى حلقي عمودي

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Abstract

An experimental and numerical study has been carried out to investigate the forced convection heat transfer by clean or dusty air in a two dimensional annulus enclosure filled with porous media (glass beads) between two vertical concentric cylinders. The outer cylinder is of (82 mm) outside diameters and the inner cylinder of (27 mm) outside diameter. Under steady state condition; the inner cylinder surface is maintained at a high temperature by applying a uniform heat flux and the outer cylinder surface at an ambient temperature. The investigation covered values of input power of (6.3, 4.884, 4.04 and 3.26 W), Reynolds number values of (300, 700, 1000, 1500, and 2000) and dust ratio values (density number N) of (2, 4, 6 and 8). A computer program in MATLAB has been built to carry out the numerical solution by writing the governing equation in finite difference method. The local Nusselt number, the average Nusselt number, the contours of temperature field and velocity field were presented to show the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results show that when clean air flow, the wall temperature gradually increases along the cylinder length in the direction of flow and decrease as Reynolds number increase while it increases with input power. For dusty air flow results show that the wall temperature gradually increases along the axial direction and increase with Reynolds number and with input power, and the maximum reduction in heat transfer will be 30 % for N=8 at Re=2000. Comparison was made between the present experimental and numerical results and it gives good agreement. The experimental and numerical Nusselt number follows the same behavior with a mean deviation of 12%.


Article
An Investigation into Thermal Performance of Mist Water System and The Related Consumption Energy
دراسة الاداء الحراري لمنظومة رذاذ الماء و تاثيرها في استهلاك الطاقة

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Abstract

Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the thermal performance (cooling effect) of water mist system consisting of 5μm volume median diameter droplets in reducing the heat gain entering a room through the roof and the west wall by reducing the outside surface temperature due to the evaporative cooling effect during the hot dry summer of Baghdad/Iraq. The test period was Fifty one days during the months May, June, and July 2012. The single test day consists of 16 test hours starting from 8:00 am to 12:00 pm. The results showed a reduction range of 1.71 to 15.5℃ of the roof outside surface temperature and 21.3 to 76.6% reduction in the daily heat flux entering the room through the roof compared with the case of not using water mist system. Also the results show a reduction range of 1.3 to 18.8℃ in the wall outside surface temperature. Finally numerical simulation with ANSYS-FLUENT.14 was conducted to compare its results with the experimental results of the roof and wall tests.


Article
Effect of Ferric Oxide on Electricity Generation and Waste Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology
تأثير أوكسيد الحديديك (Fe2O3) في توليد الكهرباء ومعالجة المياه باستخدام تكنولوجيا خلايا الوقود الميكروبية.

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Abstract

The aim of research is to show the effect of Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) on the electricity production and wastewater treatment, since 2.5% of Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) (heated and non heated) nanoparticles has been used. Characterization of nanoparticles was done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM). The influence of acidity was also studied on both wastewater treatment on the Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and voltage output was studied. From the results, it was infused that the dosage of 0.025 g/l and an initial pH 7 were founded to be optimum for the effective degradation of effluents. The results concluded that the treatment of anaerobic sludge wastewater using Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) in combination with microbial fuel cell technology is an efficient method for the treatment of anaerobic sludge wastewater.

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