Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:20 issue:11

Article
Study on Safety Construction Management Plan
دراسة في خطة ادارة الانشاء والسلامة

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Abstract

After studying the reality of application to occupational safety in new Iraqi building projects and sampling the situation wilt that in developed and neighboring countries, researcher found that there is a big gap in the level of safety application conditions, this indicates the need fora quick and clear reference for local engineers to use it on site for safety conditions in their projects . As a case study the monitors work the researcher studied a huge project in the United Arab Emirates.This project considered for safety requirements to highest grades. This case study may be far away from the projects in Iraq, but we hope to rise the Iraqi work level in the near future. After seeing the way of administration work and how they were rated the severity of each phase of the work, an idea was builtabout the most dangerous situations in projects with multiple floorsbuildings. To find multiple solutions to the risk, researchers identified 46 cases with their ratings, type of perceived risk in each case, and displayed a format survey to the most important specialized institutions and companies operating in Iraq and the United Arab Emirates. Finally theresearcher takes the results,and format a software that any user can use in his personal computer to studythe expected risk,how to avoid it and how to deal with it if it happens.


Article
The sustainable urban development in Al_Kharkh historic center
التنمية العمرانية المستدامة في مركز الكرخ التاريخي

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Abstract

The problems of urban historic centers are considered some of the subjects which are widely dealt with in urban studies since the middle of the 20th century. literature of urban development have raised it , beside the fact that large number of urban development projects of the historical centers in many cities of the world ,and emerged from the application of these new problems projects added their original urban problems , because these projects have dealt with the physical structures with the neglect of the social and economic sides, which are the base in sustainable development Research problem was elaborated as : The unclearly of knowledge of the potentials of the sustainable development in solving the urban problems of historic centers in general, and In Baghdad historic center of Karkh in particular. So the objective of the research becomes: clarifying how to elaborate the outputs of sustainable urban development with all its aspects.


Article
Saponification of Diethyl Adipate with Sodium Hydroxide Using Reactive Distillation
صوبنة ثنائي اثيل اديبيت مع هيدروكسيد الصوديوم باستخدام التقطير التفاعلي

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Abstract

This research presents a new study in reactive distillation by adopting a consecutive reaction . The adopted consecutive reaction was the saponification reaction of diethyl adipate with NaOH solution. The saponification reaction occurs in two steps. The distillation process had the role of withdrawing the intermediate product i.e. monoethyl adipate from the reacting mixture before the second conversion to disodium adipate occurred. It was found that monoethyl adipate appeared successfully in the distillate liquid. The percentage conversion from di-ester to monoester was greatly enhanced (reaching 86%) relative to only 15.3% for the case of reaction without distillation .This means 5 times enhancement . The presence of two layers in both the distillate and residual liquids was noticed ,the upper (water) layer and the lower (ester) layer. However, water layer was dominant in the distillate .The percentage excess of NaOH solution was calculated with respect to the concentration of monoester (9%-79%) and it was found that increasing the concentration of NaOH solution( until 40%) led to increase in the percentage conversion to monoester. It also led to get a pure monoester in the distillate and made the residual liquid appear as one layer. Maximum conversion had been occurred in the rang (40%-60%). After 60% the percentage conversion lowered noticeably.


Article
Increasing of Naphthenes Content in Naphtha by Using Y and  Zeolite Prepared from Iraqi Kaolin
زيادة محتوى النفثينات في مقطع النفثا بإستخدام زيولايت من نوعY و  محضر من طين الكاؤولين العراقي

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Abstract

This work dealt with separation of naphthenic hydrocarbons from non-naphthenic hydrocarbons and in particular concerns an improved process for increasing the naphthenes concentration in naphtha, The separation was examined using adsorption by Y and  zeolite in a fixed bed process. The concentration of naphthenes in the influent and effluent streams was determined using PONA classification. The effect of different operating variables such as feed flow rate (2- 4 L/hr); bed length (50 - 80 cm) on the adsorption capacity of Y and  zeolite was studied. Increasing the bed length lead to increase the naphthenes concentration, and increasing the flow rate lead to decrease in the concentration of naphthenes, It was found that the decrease in flow rate to 2 L/hr and increase the bed length to 80 cm lead to increase the naphthenes concentration from 6.2 to 24.8 Wt. %.


Article
Improving IoT Applications Using a Proposed Routing Protocol
تحسين تطبيقات انترنيت الأشياء باستخدام بروتوكول توجيه مقترح

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Abstract

The main objective of this work is to propose a new routing protocol for wireless sensor network employed to serve IoT systems. The routing protocol has to adapt with different requirements in order to enhance the performance of IoT applications. The link quality, node depth and energy are used as metrics to make routing decisions. Comparison with other protocols is essential to show the improvements achieved by this work, thus protocols designed to serve the same purpose such as AODV, REL and LABILE are chosen to compare the proposed routing protocol with. To add integrative and holistic, some of important features are added and tested such as actuating and mobility. These features are greatly required by some of IoT applications and improving the routing protocol to support them makes it more suitable for IoT systems. The proposed routing protocol is simulated using Castalia-3.2 and all the cases are examined to show the enhancement that achieved by each case. The proposed routing protocol shows better performance than other protocols do regarding Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and latency. It preserves network reliability since it does not generate routing or data packets needlessly. Routing protocol with added features (actuating and mobility) shows good performance. But that performance is affected by increasing the speed of mobile nodes.


Article
Phenol Removal Using Granular Dead Anaerobic Sludge Permeable Reactive Barrier in a Simulated Groundwater Pilot Plant
حماية المياه الجوفية من التلوث بالفينول باستخدام الكتلة البايولوجية المازة كجدار تفاعلي نفاذ

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Abstract

This study investigates the performance of granular dead anaerobic sludge (GDAS) bio-sorbent as permeable reactive barrier in removing phenol from a simulated contaminated shallow groundwater. Batch tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium sorption properties of the GDAS and sandy soil in phenol-containing aqueous solutions. The results of GDAS tests proved that the best values of operating parameters, which achieve the maximum removal efficiency of phenol (=85%), at equilibrium contact time (=3 hr), initial pH of the solution (=5), initial phenol concentration (=50 mg/l), GDAS dosage (=0.5 g/100 ml), and agitation speed (=250 rpm). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis proved that the carboxylic acid, aromatic, alkane, alcohol, and alkyl halides groups are responsible for the bio-sorption of phenol onto GDAS. A 2D advection-dispersion, solved numerically by computer solutions (COMSOL) Multiphysics 3.5a software which is based on the finite element method, has been used to simulate the equilibrium transport of phenol within groundwater. This model is taking into account the pollutant sorption onto the GDAS and sandy soil which is represented by Langmuir equation. Numerical and experimental results proved that the barrier plays a potential role in the restriction of the contaminant plume migration. Also, the barrier starts to saturate with contaminant as a function of the travel time. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental results was recognized with root mean squared error not exceeded the 0.055.


Article
Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Diuron in Aqueous Solution by TiO2
تحلل الدوران في محلول مائي بالتحفيز الضوئي بواسطة ثنائي أوكسيد التيتانيوم باستخدام الطاقة الشمسية

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Abstract

The solar photocatalytic degradation of diuron, which is one of the herbicides, has been studied by a solar pilot plant in heterogeneous solar photocatalysis with titanium dioxide. The pilot plant was made up of compound parabolic collectors specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications. The influence of different variables such as, H2O2 initial concentration, TiO2 initial concentration, and diuron initial concentration with their relationship to the degradation efficiency were studied. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) found to increase the rate of diuron degradation. The best removal efficiency of heterogeneous solar photocatalytic TiO2 system was found to be 46.65 % and for heterogeneous solar photocatalytic TiO2/ H2O2 system was found to be 80.65 %. Based on these results, the solar photocatalytic degradation by TiO2/ H2O2 system could be a useful technology for the treatment of effluents containing diuron.


Article
Study the Application of Ultrasonic Technology for Phenol Removal in Petroleum Industry
دراسة تطبيق تقنية الموجات فوق الصوتية لإزالة الفينول في الصناعة النفطية

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Abstract

In this study, the sonochemical degradation of phenol in water was investigated using two types of ultrasonic wave generators; 20 kHz ultrasonic processor and 40 kHz ultrasonic cleaner bath. Mineralization rates were determined as a function of phenol concentration, contact time, pH, power density, and type of ultrasonic generator. Results revealed that sonochemical degradation of the phenol conversion was enhanced at increased applied power densities and acidic conditions. At 10 mg/L initial concentration of phenol, pH 7, and applied power density of 3000 W/L, the maximum removal efficiency of phenol was 93% using ultrasonic processor at 2h contact time. Whereby, it was 87% using and ultrasonic cleaner bath at 16h contact time and 150 W/L power density. Kinetic models applied to the sonolysis of phenol was evaluated for the first-order, pseudo-first-order, second- order, and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The experimental data fitted very well the first-order kinetic model.


Article
Testing and Commissioning of a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) Test Section
معايرة مقطع اختبار لنفق هوائي واطيء السرعة

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Abstract

The calibration of a low-speed wind tunnel (LSWT) test section had been made in the present work. The tunnel was designed and constructed at the Aerodynamics Lab. in the Mechanical Engineering Department/University of Baghdad. The test section design speed is 70 m/s. Frictional loses and uniformity of the flow inside the test section had been tested and calibrated based on the British standards for flow inside ducts and conduits. Pitot-static tube, boundary layer Pitot tube were the main instruments which were used in the present work to measure the flow characteristics with emphasize on the velocity uniformity and boundary layer growth along the walls of the test section. It is found that the maximum calibrated velocity for empty test section is 55 m/s. Three speeds are tested for uniformity and walls boundary layer at inlet and mid-section of test section. The results show that the flows are uniform at inlet and mid-section with turbulent flow from inlet to outlet.


Article
Removal of Nickel and Cadmium Ions from Wastewater by Sorptive Flotation: Single and Binary systems
أزالة ايونات النيكل والكادميوم من المياه الملوثه بطريقه الامتزاز والتعويم:النظام الاحادي والثنائي

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Abstract

The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by sorptive flotation using Amberlite IR120 as a resin, and flotation column, was investigated. A combined two-stage process is proposed as an alternative of the heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions. The first stage is the sorption of heavy metals onto Amberlite IR120 followed by dispersed-air flotation. The sorption of metal ions on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, resin dosage, and initial metal concentration was studied in batch method .Various parameters such as pH, air flow rate, and surfactant concentration were investigated in the flotation stage. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) were used as anionic and cationic surfactant respectively. The sorption process, which is PH dependent, shows maximum removal of metal ions at pH 7. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm expressions were found to give both a good fit to the experimental data. Kinetic data correlated well with Lagergren second order kinetic model, and flotation step enhanced the removal efficiency of nickel and cadmium from wastewater from about 75% to 94% and reduce turbidity so it can dispense with the filtering process, which is expensive technology. It is believed that flotation separation has great potential as a clean water and wastewater treatment technology.

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